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•old   toy   P»k4 

•  New  (Indian)  Porfum*  (Registered.) 
He   Scent    par  excellence   of   the 


J.     GR088MITH 

PorfUmers   throughout   tho    World. 

A  Bouquet  of  Indian  Ploworo. 
Patronised  by  H.M.  Queen  Alexandra 

Perfume,  Soap,  Sachet. 




I  '^  m  I  vm  a  M I  v:a 

»  j^  ft- I 


S  o  - 

i  ^ 


»  o 

APRIL,  1903.      F;\IMl  I  ll{^  liW  I i!       PMCt  9. 



[Registered  at  the  General  Post  Office,    Melboiirne,    for   transmission    by   post   as   a  newspaper.] 



Review  of  Revinrx,  .?fl/.j/M. 

"  Accurate=to=the=5econd." 


. .  WATCHES  . . 

For  Discriminating  People  who  want  **The  Best." 

"  All  advertise  watches,  but  no 
one  makes  Avatches  in  Anieric.i 
but  the  •  Dueber-Hampden  Com 
pany.'  Some  make  Watch 
Movements,  some  make  Watch 
Cases;  no  one  can  guarantee  a 
watch  who  makes  one-half  ot 
it  only." 

"  Lever  Set"  and  Cinnot  "Set"  in  the  Pocket.  Made  m  the  only  factory 
in  the  world  where  a  complete  watch  (both  case  and  movement)  is  made. 
Every  Watch  Guaranteed  (Case  as  well  as  Movement). 

••The  400,"   The   Ladies'   Watch. 

••John  Hancock"   21   Jewels,  The   Oenttemen's   Watch. 

••Special  Railway,"  21   and  23  Jewels,  for  Railway  Men,  etc. 

Look   for  the  name    '  Dueber  "    in   the   case. 
Write  for  our  "  Guide   to  Watch    Buyers." 




F«r  mutual  advantass  whan  you  writa  to  an  aavartit»er  piuasa  mantiun  i.i«i  neview  oi      aviawa. 

April  20, 190S' 


1.  "A  bite  to  eat,  mum;  jest  a  bit" 

(Continued  on  page  iii.) 


Lifht,  Strong:,  and  Rab  >it  Proof. 

Made    of    STEEL    TUBE,  with    Malleable    IRON 
FITTINGS;  with  Galvanised  Steel  Wire  wovet 

on  to  the  frames. 










0ouCk)C)Cx)C  C)uuuoCa 







Weight  of  a  9-foot  Gate  under  50  lbs.     Hinges,  Catchet, 
and  Stops  oomplete.     Can  be  hung  in  a  few  minuUs. 

Send  for  Illustrated  Oatalogrue 
of  Fence,  Qates,  and   Droppers. 



S_lK.^        BATH    CABINETi  .^       _ 

Is  a  Necessity  in  Every  Home.  •* 

Ready    for 

istant  use 
when  received. 
'No  setting  up 
N  0  trouble. 
You  can  have 
It  home  i  n 
V  o  u  r  own 
r-oom  Turkish, 
Russian,  Hot 
A  i  r,  Vapour, 
M  e  d  i  c  ated, 
P  e  r  f  u  m  ed, 
.Mineral,  Salt, 
>uinine,  Hop. 
or  Sulphur 
Haths.  Bene- 
"ts  and    cures 


"oesity,  L  a 
Irippe,    Neur 

Igia,  Rheu 
MatisiD,    Liver 

n  d  Kidney 
'"   roubles, 

;  1 o  o  d  and 
Skin  Distases 
"iires  a  hard 
•  Id  with  ono 
■ath.  These 
'aths    are 

i  g  h  1  y    en 

n^^*i^iu«"  *°«i  ^"^^   eminent  author..,.  „   „.s    Dr.^  Ruddock 
Dr.   Kellogg,   Sir  Erasmus  Wilson,   F.R.S. 

PRICE,    258.    and    45b. 
Carriage   paid   to   any   Victx)rlan    Railway   Station,    or   Au«» 
trallan  and  N.Z.  ports. 




Premier  Buildings.  229-23J  Collins  ::*reet,  Melbourne. 

^Pf'iljo,  1^03. 


Ci  There's  SECURITY  in 

Absolutely  OUTB 


They  TOUCH  the  L I V  E  R  ^"' "'"     ""  """■     '"'"  ^*'- 
Be  Sure  they  are      CARTER  ''S 





Is  galranised  after  being  put  together.  This 
galvanises  every  rivet  and  bolt  in  its  position. 
protecting  the  bolts  and  the  cut  edges  from 
rust.  ihis  galvanising  business  is  a  great 
feature— increasing  the  life  of  the  MILL. 


They  have  ball  bearings,  which  is  another 
valuable  point. 


JOHN    DANKS   &    SON 


Bourke  St.,  Melbourne.        Pitt  St.,  Sydney. 

The  **  Enterprise 

Makes,  Keeps  and  Restores 
Beauty  in  Nature's  own  way. 

The  cup-shaped  teeth  have  a  suction 
effect  on  the  skin  that  smooths  out 
wrinkles,  rounds  out  the  beauty  mus- 
cles, and  gives  perfect  circulation  of 
the  blood. 

It  is  so  constructed  that  it  treats 
every  portion  of  the  face  and  neck  per- 
fectly, even  to  the  "crow's  feet"  in 
the  comers  of  the  eyes. 

Sample  Jar  of  "SKIN  FOOD"  /, 

Given  Away  irlth  each   RoUm.     4/0 
Rofler  and  Sample  Jar     -     .     Pott  PrM 


For  mutual  advantair«"v,,i;^,ryou^r1ii^o~a:n 


Box  133,  G.P.O. 

advertiser  please  mention  the  Review  of  RevlewaT 

April  po,  190^. 



2.  "  Certainly.     I   never  refuse  a   genuine   case." 

(Continued   on   page   vii.) 


Ist.— The  New  MOULDED  Records,  made  of  a  harder 
material,  which  is  more  durable,  and  wears  better  than 
the  old  type,  is  not  damaged  by  handling,  and  is  more 
natural  in  tone,  more  distinct,  and  of  exceptional  loud- 

2nd. — The  new  Model  "  C  "  Reproducer,  for  all  ma- 
chines (except  Gem),  which  has  two  absolutely  new  and 
important  features,  viz.:  a  built-up,  indestructible  dia- 
phragm, very  hignly  sensitive,  and  a  new  form  of 
sapphire,  shaped  like  a  button,  and  so  placed  in  the  Re- 
producer arm  that  the  edge  of  the  sappnire  tracks  in  the 
groove  of  the  Record;  the  contact  surface  is  very  much 
smaller  than  that  of  the  old  ball  type,  and  in  conse- 
quence can  follow  the  undulations  of  the  Record  without 
that  tendency  to  jump  from  crest  to  crest  so  often  the 
case  with  the  old  style.  That  harshness  which  has 
hitherto  characterised  the  reproduction  of  the  Phono- 
graph and  kindred  machines  is  now  entirely  overcome, 
the  result  being  a  perfectly  natural  and  musical  effect 
most  pleasing  to  the  ear. 

In  future  the  "Gem"  will  be  equipped  with  the  Model 
B  Automatic  Reproducer,  as  previously  supplied  with 
the  higher-priced  machines.  This  will  materially  improve 
the  reproduction  of  the  Gem,  both  with  the  present  style 
and  the  new  Moulded  Record. 



Universal  C-iambers, 


Telephone  506a 

Alcoholic  Excess 

DRINK    and     DRUG     HABITS  and    resultant   Nervous   Diseases  eradicated  at  home 

without    inconvenience   by 


Assured  results.     Either  sex.     Adaptable  to  every  case.     Success  testified  by   Officials    of    London    Diocesan   Branch    ©f 

THOMAS  HOLMESt  the  famous  North  London  Missionary,  Author  of  "Pictures  and  Problems  of  the  London  Police 
Courts,"  writes:  "I  wish  to  bear  my  testimony  to  the  great  value  of  your  remedy.  I  selected  only  those  cases  that  are 
acknowledged  to  be  at  once  the  most  difficult  aiXi  the  most  hopeless.  In  the  lowest  depths  I  met  them.  I  soon  saw  the  beneficial 
effects  of  your  remedy,  their  physical  condition  rapidly  improved,  their  depression  of  mind  passed  away,  they  became  bright  and 
hopeful— in  fact,  new  men." 


"  The  Treatment  succeeds  in  ninety-seven  cases  out  of  a  hundred.  The  Faculty  acknowledges  itself  amazed  at  the 
"  marvellous  success  of  this  new  remedy,  which  destroys  the  taste  for  alcohol  and  kindred  drugs,  making  them  absolutely 
"abhorrent  to  the  patient.  A  strong  point  about  this  proved  cure  is  that  it  can  be  taken  as  ordinary  medicine,  and  in  no  way 
"Interferes  with  general  habits,  while  the  inebriate  home  becomes  practically  a  thing  of  the  past." — Whitbhall  Riviiw. 

"The  Advertiser  is  able  to  adduce  definite  evidence  that  his  method  has  had  really  good  results." — Trcth. 


REVIEWS"   (London),  in  an  Article  entitled 
are  holding  their  own,"— says  :— 

Where  the  English 

"For  some  years  the  Gold  Cure  as  a  remedy  for  inveterate  drunkenness  held  the  field.  This  American  method  of  treatment, 
'although  achieving  considerable  success  in  many  cases,  is  far  from  being  a  universal  specific.  It  entails  a  long  and  costly 
'treatment,  involving  subcutaneous  injections  and  residence  in  an  institute  during  the  time  of  treatment.  The  competing 
'•yttem  to  which  I  am  now  calling  attention  is  simpler,  and  appears  to  be  not  less  efficacious.  The  Tacquaru  Company, 
'although  in  its  infancy,  claims  already  to  have  effected  a  cure  of  nearly  3,000  cases  of  those  who  suffer  from  alcoholic  excess. 

"  The  Company  has  its  own  medical  men,  who  examine  every  case,  and  who  vary  what  may  be  called  the  supplementary 
'ingredients  of  the  specific  according  to  the  circumstances  of  the  case  with  which  they  are  dealing.  Unlike  the  Gold  Cure, 
'  it  necessitates  no  subcutaneous  injection,  and  patients  can  be  treated  in  their  own  homes." 

PamphlmtB,   etc.,   can   bo   obtalneH   from    THE   TACQUARU  CO.,   73   Amber  ley   House,  ■ 
Norfolk  Street,  London,  W.C.,  or  front  "Tacquaru,"  Box  133,  G.P.O.,  Melbourne. 

For  mutual  advantage  when  you  writfl  *«  an  advertiser  please  mentlo^  the  Review  of  Reviews 



April  20,  IQ03. 


Most  people  love  Pets. 

Most  people  have  Pets. 

Most  people  have  Pet   Corns. 

All  i> people  wish  they  hadn't. 
Why  keep  such 

troublesome  Pets 

when  .  .  . 


is  within  reach  of  all. 

P«8t   Pre«,   any   Address,    1/- 
80LE    AGENT, 

E.      H.      LEKTE, 

Cbemtdt  &  S>cuddf0t, 

TEL.    NO.    1926. 




with   Com- 
fort    Abso. 
lutely     un 


"Will  do  ALL  THE  COOKING-  for  a  household 


Every  Apparatus  fitted  with  the  silent  "Primus." 

Prices  from  38/6  to  7   ;-. 


Corner  of  Collins  and  Swanston  Sts., 








A    PAPER    FOR  THE    PEOPLE    OF    TOWN    AND 

COUNTRY,  for  the  Citizen  and  the  Settler, 

the  Farmer  and  the  Miner. 

THE  PAPER  FOR  THE  HOME,  with  Excellent  Fea- 
tures of  Special  Interest  to  Both  Old  and  Young. 





Posted  direct  to  subscribers  in  any  part  of  the  Aus- 
tralian CommonAvealth: 


Quarterly    3s.  Sd. 

Half-yearly     6s.  6d. 

Yearly    13s.  Od. 

All  Business  Communications  to  be  addressed  to  V^e  iVIanaffer,  "Weekly  Times 

Office,  Melbourne. 

with  Its  Larare  and  Widespread  Circulation  THE  WEEKLY  TIMES  is  an  EXCELLENT 

For  mutual  advantage  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  Diease  mention  the  Review  ot  Reviews- 

April  20,  ipos. 




Thb  f  amous  remedy  for 

Has  the  Larg:est  Sale  o-f  any  Chest  Medicine  in  Australia, 


*'hose  who  have  taken  this  medicine  are  amazed  at  its  wonderful  influence.  Sufferers  from  any  form  of  Bronchitis,  Cough,  Difficulty  ol 
Bieathing,  Hoarseness,  Pain  or  Soreness  in  the  Chest,  experience  delightful  and  immediate  relief ;  and  to  those  who  are  subject  to  Colds  on  the 
Chest  it  is  invaluable,  as  it  effects  a  Complete  Cure.  It  is  most  comforting  in  allaying  irritation  in  the  throat  and  giving  strength  to  the  voice, 
and  it  neither  allows  a  Cough  or  Asthma  to  become  Chronic,  nor  Consumption  to  develop.  Consumption  has  never  been  known  to  exist  where 
"Coughs"  have  been  properly  treated  with  this  medicine.  No  house  should  be  without  it,  as,  taken  at  the  beginning,  a  dose  is  generally 
sufficient,  and  a  Complete  Cure  is  certain.  

Remember  that  every  disease  has  its  commencement,  and  Consumption 
is  no  exception  to  this  rule. 




"  Mr.  W.  G.  Hearne — Dear  Sir, — I  am  writing  to  tell  you  about  the 
wonderful  cure  your  medicine  has  effected  in  my  case.  About  three 
years  ago  I  began  to  cough.  At  first  the  cough  was  not  severe,  but  it 
gradnally  got  worse,  and  I  became  very  weak  and  troubled  with  Tiight 
sweats,  pain  in  my  chest,  and  great  quantities  of  phlegm.  On  several 
occasions  there  was  blood  in  the  expect^ra  ed  matter.  I  had  been 
treated  by  a  doctor,  who  pronounced  my  case  to  be  Consumption,  and 
various  other  treatmen's  had  been  tried,  but  without  benefit.  It  was 
at  this  stage  that  I  heard  of  your  Bronchitis  Cure,  and  sf  nt  to  you  for 
a  course  of  the  medicine.  When  it  arrived  I  was  too  ill  to  leave  my 
bed,  but  I  commenced  taking  it  at  once,  and  gradually  improved.  I 
am  glad  to  say  that  the  two  lots  of  medicine  you  sent  have  effected  a 
complete  cure,  for  which  accept  my  very  best  thanks— Yours  grate- 
fully, "J.  BLAIR. 

"Westminster,  Bridge-road,  S.E  ,  London." 




"  Dergholm,  Victoria. 

"Dear  Sir, — I  wish  to  add  my  testimony  to  the  wonderful  effect  of 
your  Bronchitis  Cure.  I  suffered  fo>-  nine  months,  and  the  cough  was 
BO  dis'ressingly  bad  at  nights  I  was  obliged  to  get  up  and  sit  by  the 
fire.  I  had  medical  advice,  and  tried  other  '  remedies,'  without  avail. 
I  tried  yours,  and  never  had  a  fit  of  coughing  after  taking  the  first 
dose,  and  though  I  have  had  but  two  bottles  I  feel  I  am  a  different 
man,  and  the  cough  has  vanished.  You  may  depend  upon  my  making 
known  the  efficacy  of  your  wonderful  remedy  to  anyone  I  see  afflicted. 
"  Yours  faithfullv.  JAMES  ASTliURY." 



"The  Scientific  Australian  Office,  169  Queen-st.,  Melbourne. 
"  Dear  Mr.  Hearne, — The  silent  workers  are  frequently  the  most 
effective,  and  if  there  is  anybodv  in  Victoria  who  during  the  last  few 
years  has  been  repeatedly  working  for  and  singing  the  praises  of 
Hearne's  Bronchitis  Cure,  it  is  our  Mr.  Phillips.  This  gentleman, 
some  three  years  ago,  was  recommended  to  try  vour  Bronchitis  Cure 
by  Mr.  Barham,  accountant,  Collins-street,  and  the  effect  that  it  had 
was  so  marked  that  he  has  ever  since  been  continually  recommending 
it  to  others  We  are  glad  to  add  this  our  testimony  to  the  value  of 
Hearne's  m-st  valuable  Bronchitis  Cure,  which  has  eased  the  sufferings 
of  hundreds  and  hundreds  of  people  even  in  our  own  circle  of  acquaint- 
ance.   Believe  us  always  to  be  yours  most  faithfully, 




"69  Queen-st.,  Brisbane,  Queensland. 
•'  Mr.  W.  G.  Hearne.    Dear  Sir,— Please  send  us  36  dozen  Bronchitis 
Cure  by  first  boat.     We  enclose  our  cheque  to  cover  amount  of  order. 
We  often  hear  your  Bronchitis  Cure  spoken  well  of.    A  gentleman  told 
us  to-day  that  he  had  given  it  to  a  child  of  his  with  most  remarkable 
result,  the  child  being  (luite  cured  by  three  dosts. 
"  We  are,  faithfullv  yours, 
"THOMASON,   CHATER   &  CO.,   Wholesale  Chemists." 

We,  the  undersigned,  have  had  occasion  to  obtain  Hearne's  Bron- 
chitis Cure,  and  we  cert  if  v  that  it  was  perfectly  and  rapidly  successful 
under  circumotiuices  which  undoubtfdy  prove  its  distinct  healing 
power.  Signed  by  the  Rev.  JOHN  SINCLAIR,  Myers-street,  Geelong, 
and  fifty  nine  other  leading  residents. 



Mr.  Alex  J.  Anderson,  of  Oak  Park,  Charlesville,  Queensland, 
writes:— "  After  suffering  from  Asthma  for  seventeen  years,  and 
having  been  under  a  great  many  different  treatments  without  benefit, 
I  was  induced  to  try  Hearne's  medicine  for  Asthma.  After  taking 
three  bottles  of  this  medicine  I  quite  got  rid  of  the  Asthma,  and  since 
then,  which  was  in  the  beginning  of  1883  (15  years  ago),  I  have  not 
had  the  slightest  return  of  it.  The  medicine  quite  cured  me,  and  I 
have  much  pleasure  in  recommending  it." 

Writing  again  on  the  4th  April,  1899,  he  states:- "I  am  keeping 
very  well  now.    Never  have  the  slightest  return  of  the  Asthma." 


"  I  used  your  Bronchitis  Cure  for  three  of  my  family,  and  it  cured 
each  of  them  in  from  one  to  three  doses.- P.  F.  MULLINS,  Cowie's 
Creek,  Victoria  " 

"  Your  Bronchitis  Cure  relieved  my  son  wonderfully  quick.  I  only 
gave  him  four  doses,  and  have  some  of  the  medicine  yet ;  but  I  am 
sending  for  another  bottle  in  case  I  should  want  it.— D.  M'DONALD, 
Trinky,  via  Quirindi,  N.S.W." 

"  My  wife  is  82  years  old,  and  I  am  79,  and  I  am  glad  to  inform  you 
that  your  Bronchitis  Cure  has  done  us  both  a  wonderful  deal  of  good, 
it  having  quickly  cured  us  both.— R.  BASSET,  Strath  Creek,  via 
Broadford,  Victoria." 

"  I  have  used  one  bottle  of  your  Bronchitis  Cure  with  great  benefit 
to  myself,  as  the  smothering  has  completely  left  me.— (Mrs  )  JOHN 
RAHILLY,  Glenmaggie,  Victoria." 

"  I  have  finished  the  Bronchitis  Cure  you  sent,  and  am  amazed  at 
what  it  has  done  in  the  time.  The  difficulty  of  breathing  has  all  gone. 
—J.  HARRINGTON,  Bingegong,  Morundah,  N.S.W." 

"I  lately  administered  some  of  your  Bronchitis  Cure  to  a  son  ol 
mine,  with  splendid  effect.  The  cure  was  absolutely  miraculous.— D. 
A.  PACKER,  Quiera,  Neutral  Bay,  Sydney,  N.S.W." 

"Your  Bronchitis  Cure,  as  usual,  acted  splendidly.— 0.  H. 
RADFORD,  Casterton.  Victoria." 

"Kindly  forward  another  bottle  of  your  famous  Bronchitis  Cure 
without  delay,  as  I  find  it  to  be  a  most  valuable  medicine. — (Mrs.)  J. 
SLATER,  Warragul,  Victoria." 

"I  am  very  pleased  with  your  Bronchitis  Cure.  The  result  was 
marvellous.  It  eased  me  right  oflf  at  once.  -G.  SEYTER,  Bourke, 

"  Your  medicine  for  Asthma  is  worth  £1  a  bottle.— W.  LETTS,  Hey- 
wood,  Victoria." 

,  "I  have  tried  lots  of  medicine,  but  yours  is  the  best  I  ever  had.  I 
am  recommending  it  to  everybody. — S.  STEELE,  Yanko  Siding, 

"  I  suffered  from  Chronic  Asthma  and  Bronchitis,  for  which  I  ob- 
tained no  relief  until  I  tried  your  medicine,  but  I  can  truly  say  that  I 
am  astonished  at  my  present  freedom,  as  a  direct  result  of  my  brief 
trial.— JOHN  C.  TRELAWNEY,  Severn  River,  via  Inverell.  N.S.W." 

"  Last  year  I  s'^-^ered  severely  from  Bronchitis,  and  the  doctor,  to 
whom  I  paid  seven  guineas,  did  not  do  me  any  good ;  but  I  heard  of 
j'our  Bronchitis  Cure,  and  two  bottles  of  it  made  me  quite  well.— H. 
HOOD,  Brooklands,  Avoca-street,  South  Yarra,  Melbourne." 

"  Please  send  me  half-a-dozen  of  your  Bronchitis  Cure.  This  medi- 
cine cured  me  in  the  winter,  and  has  now  cured  a  friend  of  mine  of  a 
very  bad  Bronchitis. — A.  ALLEN,  Ozone  House,  Lome,  Victoria." 

"Your  Bronchitis  Cure  has  done  me  much  good.  This  is  a  new  ex- 
perie.ace,  for  all  the  medicine  I  previously  took  made  me  much  worse. 
I  am  satisfied  that  the  two  bottles  of  Bronchitis  Cure  I  got  from  you 
have  pulled  me  through  a  long  and  dangerous  illness.— HENRY 
WURLOD,  Alma,  near  Maryborough,  Victoria." 

"The  bottle  of  Bronchitis  Cure  I  got  from  you  was  magical  in  its 
effects —CH AS.  WHYBROW,  Enoch's  Point,  via  Darlingitord,  Vic- 

"  Upon  lookii.^  through  our  books  we  are  struck  with  the  steady 
and  rapid  increase  in  the  sales  of  your  Bronchitis  Cure.— ELLIOTT 
BROS.,  Ltd.,  Wholep^ile  Druggists,  Sydney,  N.S.W." 

Prepared  only,  and  sold  wholesale  and  retail,  by  the  Proprietor,  W.  G.  HEARNE,  Chemist,  Geelong:,  Victoria. 

Smallsize,  28.  6d. ;  large,  4s.  6d*     Sold  by  Chemists  and  Medici'ie  Vendors.     Forwarded  by  post  to  any  address  when  not  obtainable  looallr. 

For  mutual  advantage  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  please  mention  the  Review  of  Revlewst 



Jflsron's  Paieiii  Stcenuindnijifs 

Made  in  all  sixes  from  £5  tos. 

April  20,  igo^. 

My  Mil  is  are  imitated 
by  none  Hundreds 
of  Testimonials  re- 
ceived. Eight  Gold 
Medals  awarded. 

A  Friend  in-nceJ, 
A  Friend  ln-d:ed. 

The   First  Cost 
the  Only  Cost. 

No  Attention 

Thp  Best  Invest- 
uient  for  House, 
at  <:k,orGarde... 

I    make    Wind- 
mills  a    Special 
Line,  not  a  side 





The  Best  Trough 
Ever  Invented. 
Will  not  crack, 
leak,  rot,  or  rust. 

All  Lengths. 

Write   me   your 


Send  for  Catalogue 


Patentee  and  Manufacturer, 
Queen  s  Bridgre,  SOUTH  MELBOURNE. 

li^IR  PRESERVED  and 

The  only  article  which  really 
affords  nourishment  to  the 
bair,  prevents  baldness, 
greyness,       preserves       and 

^  strengthens     it     for     years. 

"  and  resembles  the  oily  mat- 
ter which  Nature  provides 
for  its  preservation,  is— 



fTids°"thi*   l"^"   ^^^"   ^^^°^^«   d^y   and    weak-  Tt 


polish,   prevents 'an^'^Jrrests  decay    »L  "■■'"»"' 
pleasant  fragrance  to  the  brejth  "   ^""^  " 

A,^f  AsfcStores  and  Chemists  for  ROWLANDS' 

^r,A  m.  A-  '^t?,®"'"^o*'L'^  Permanent  Cure  for  Blind 
and  Bleeding  Piles  SuflFerers  should  not  fail  to  give 
this  valuable  remedy  a  trial,  it  has  cured  thousands 
of  the  very  worst  cases!  Saved  many  a  painful  opera- 
tion  and  given  immediate  relief  from  pain.  "  Pila '" 
18  taken  internally,  and  is  specially  recommended  to 
delicate  constitutions.  Price,  5s.  per  jar;  postage  Is 
extra.  Send  for  "  Dr.  Ricord's  Treatise  on  P?lesTand 
testimonia  s  free  on  receipt  of  stamped  addressed  en- 
To  Co  obtainable  at  your  chemist,  apply  direct 



Ab^RA?'l^A°"'l^  ^^^"   ?.^   ^°"^^^   Street.    SOUTH 
AUblRALIA— F.  H.  Faulding  &  Co.,  Druggists    AAt^ 

cf\^  T^^^^f  AUSTRALTA-F:   H    fauldintt 
%'  i  ^""T^.^  S*""^^*'  ^^^^^-    N^^W  SOUTH  WALEbi 
-J^.  H.  Faulding  &  Co.,  16  O'Connell  Street,  Sydney. 



=    CURES 

>or  'n^^tiiir^d^^iiii^^^;;^^^^,^^^^ 













Write  to-day  for  our  Illustrated  Catalogue. 

Price,  delivered,  from  25/~  to  84/-. 

advertiser  please  mention  tne  Rev.evT^rRi 

April  20, 1903. 



A    CASE    OF    PRESENT    TREATMExn  r 
3.     !     !     ! 

(Continued   on  page  ix.) 

30  DAYS'  TRIAL. 

■^E  grant  every  purchaser  of  our  ELECTRIC  BELTS  and 
APPLIANCES  a  trial  of  Thirty  Days  before  payment, 
which  \s  fully  explained  in  our  "  ELECTRIC  ERA."    Our 
~  Electric    Belts    will    cure    all 

NERVOUS  and  other  DIS- 
EASES in  all  stages,  however 
caused,  and  restore  the 
wearer  to  ROBUST  HEALTH. 

Our  Marvellous  Electric 
Belts  give  a  steady  soothing 
current  that  can  be  felt  by  the 
wearer  through  all  WEAK 
PARTS.  REMEMBER,  we  give 
a  written  guarantee  with  each 
Electric  Belt  that  it  will  per- 
manently cure  you.  If  it  does 
not  we  will  promptly  return 
the  full  amount  paid.  We 
mean  exactly  what  we  say, 
and  do  precisely  what  we 
_        promise. 

NOTICE.— Before  purchasing  we  prefer  that  you  send  for 
our  "ELECTRIC  ERA"  and  Price  List  (post  free),  giving 
illustrations  of  different  appliances  for  BOTH  SEXES,  also 
TESTIMONY  which  will  convince  the  most  sceptical. 

German  Electric  Belt  Agency, 




THE     QUEEN     OF     GREECE.  ,—  H.R.H.     THE     DUCHESS     OF     SPARTA. 

H.R.H.     PRINCESS     MARIE     OF     GREECE. 
H.R.H.     THE     DUKE     OF     SPARTA. 

H.R.H.     PRINCE     GEORGE     OF     GREECE 
(High  Commissioner  of  Crete,  etc.,  etc.)     ' 




"  FOR 



The  Finest  Dressing  Specially  Prepared  and 
Delicately  Perfumed. 

A  Luxury  and  a  Necessity  to  Every  Modern  Toilet. 


Produces  Luxuriant    Hair.      Prevents  its  Falling  Off  or 
Turning  Grey.    Unequalled  for  Promotiug  the  Growth  of 
the  Beard  and  Moustache.     The  Renownid   Remedy  for 
Baldness.    For  Preserving,  Strengthening,  and  Rendering 
ihe  Hair  Beautifully  Soft;  for  Removing  Siurf,  Dandruff, 
etc.,  also  for  restoring  grey  hair  to  its  Original  Colour. 
Full  Description  and  Direction  for  nae  in  20  Languages 
supplied  with  every  Bottle. 
Is.,  2s.  6cl.,  and  ^8  times  28.  6d.  size)  48.  6(1.  per  Bnttlo, 
from  Chemists,  Hairdresfeers,  and  Stores  all  over  the  Work. 

EDWARDS'  "HARLENE"  CO.,  95  &  96  High  Holborn,  London,  W.C. 

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April  20,  igos- 




All  Functional  Derangements  of  the  Liver,   Temporary  Con- 
gestion arising  from  Aicoholic  Beverages,  Errors  in  Diet, 
biliousness.   Sick    Headache,    Giddiness,   Vomiting,    Heartburn", 

Sourness  of  the  Stomach,  Conscipation,  Thirst, 
Skin  Eruptions,  Boils,  Feverish  Cold  with  High  Temperature 
and  Quick  Pulse,  Influenza,  Throat  AfTections  and 
Fevers  of  all  kinds. 

INDIGESTION,  BILIOUSNESS,  SICKNESS,  etc.— "I  have  often  thou£?ht  of  writing  to  tell 
you  what  'FE-UIT  SALT'  has  done  for  me.  I  used  to  be  a  perfect  martyr  tn  Indigestion  and  Biliousness. 
About  six  or  seven  years  back  my  husband  suggested  I  should  try  '  FEUIT  SALT.'  I  did  so,  and  the 
result  has  been  marvellous ;  I  never  have  the  terrible  pains  and  sickness  I  used  to  have ;  I  can  eat  almost 
anything  now,  I  always  keep  it  in  the  house  and  recommend  it  to  my  friends,  as  it  is  such  an  invaluable 
pick-me-up  if  you  have  a  headache  or  don't  feel  iuf-;. .  '-ht.  "Yours  truly, (August  8,  1900)." 

The  effect  of  ENO'S  < FRUIT  SALT'  on  a.  Diserdered,  Sleepless,  and  Feverish  Condition  is  simfAy 
marvellous.      It  is,  in  -fact,  Naf'ure's  Own  Remedy,  and  an  Unsurpassed  One. 

CAUTION. — See  capsule  marked  Eno*S  *  Fruit  Salt.'    Without  it  you  have  a  Worthless  Imitamon, 
Prepared  only  by  J.  C.  ENO,  Ltd.,  at  the  « FRUIT  SALT'  WOR»<S,  LONDON,  by  J.  O.  ENO'S  Patent. 

*or  mutual  advantase  when  you  write  to  an  advertisei   piootse  mention  th«  Review  of  Reviews. 

April  20,  1003. 



4.  !  !  ! 

(Continued  on   page   xi.) 



Has  gained  a  world-wide  reputation  for  arresting  the  premature 
decay,  promoting  the  growth  and  giving  lustre  to  the  hair,  li  your 
hair  is  falling  off,  try  it.    If  it  is  thin,  try  it 

Price  38.|  48.y  68.     Postage  9cl.  extra. 


For  Eczema,  Riiigworm  and  all  Parasitical  Di  eas  s  of  the  Headt ' 
for  making  Ha  r  gr  w  on  Bald  Pa.ches. 
Price  5s.     Postagre  9ci.  extra. 

HOLLAND'S  NATURALINE  for  restoring  Grey  Hatr 

to  its  original  colour. 

Acts  qnickly,  naturally,  and  effectively.  Price  58. 6d.  Postage  9d.  extra. 

Consult  E.  HOLLAND  for  all  Diseases  o-Fthe  Hair. 

Sold  by  all  Chemists  and  by  Washington  Soul  &  Co.,  Pitt-st.,  Syanef> 

E-  HOLLAND,  Hair  Specialist, 


**A  PERFECT    Food   lor    Infants.*' 

Mes.  ADA  S.  BALLIN, 

Editresa  of  "  Baby." 

Over  70  Years*  Established  Ref  uUtioh. 




T  \*2^Sn^^"*^^^y  prepared    and  hiehly  nutrfttou*.'^— 

**  Admirably  adapted  to  the  want*  of  infaata  aod  youne 
pef«on«.''-Si»  CHAS.  A.  CAMERON,  OB.,  M.D. 
Ex-President  of  the  Royal  Collie  of 
Surgeons,  Ireland. 




Woman's  International   Exhibition, 
London,   1900. 

Manufactnrers :    JOSLA.H   B.    NEAVB   A  OC, 
Fordingrbridge,  England. 

RUPTURE  •''"'" 

mu.%Mm    ■  uaai^  without 

operation,    pain    or    dependence 

Upon  Trusses. 
The  only  humane  treatment 

Immediate  Relief  and  Permanent 
Cure  is  obtained  by  my  improved 
combined  treatment.  Send  for 
Treatise,  "  Rupture  and  its  Cure." 


M.R.C.S-,  BNG.. 


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April  20,  1903. 



was    marvellous.    Being    my    next    door    neighbour,    1 
saw  her  daily  until  she  was  quite  well.    1  consider  her 
case  a  wonderful  cure. 
61  O'Grady  Street,  Albert  Park.         MARY  FRY. 


428    Church    Street,    Richmond, 
15th    August,    1902. 
Mr.  8.  A.  PALMER, 

Dear  Sir, — About  six  years  ago  1  became  very  ill, 
suflfering  from  poverty  of  blood  and  general  weakness. 
My  medical  adviser  ordered  me  to  the  Ararat  Hospi- 
tal. I  remained  there  for  one  month,  then 
left,  removing  to  Ballarat,  where  I  became  much 
worse  and  very  weak.  About  four  years  ago 
1  returned  to  Melbourne,  and  eventually  became  so 
weak  I  had  to  take  to  my  bed,  and  remained  there 
eight  weeks.  Having  read  a  great  deal  about  Webber's 
VITADATIO,  I  made  up  my  mind  to  give  it  a  trial. 
The  first  bottle  upset  me  very  much,  and  I  laid  it 
aside  for  a  fortnight,  then  I  called  to  see  you  at 
Bourke  Street,  when  you  strongly  advised  me  to  con- 
tinue it,  stating  that  it  would  certainly  cure  me;  so 
I  persevered,  and  after  I  had  taken  the  fifth  bottle 
I  began  to  feel  much  stronger,  and,  by  continuing,  my 
health  was  completely  restored.  It  is  now  three  years 
since  1  took  the  last  bottle,  and  I  can  truthfully  say 
I  would  have  been  in  my  grave  long  ago  had  it  not 
been  for  VITADATIO.  I  can  recommend  it  to  any- 
one suffering  as  I  did,  and  hand  you  this  to  make 
use  of  as  you  please  for  the  benefit  of  other  sufferers. 
I  will  be  pleased  to  answer  any  questions,  either  by 
letter  or  personally,  at  above  address — Yours  faith- 

I  have  known  Mrs.  Smith  for  a  number  of  years, 
and  can  truthfully  certify  that  her  statement  is  true 
in  every  particular.  She  was  very  low  and  weak  when 
she   commenced    taking   VITADATIO,    and    the    effect 




Drummond   Street,   North   Carlton, 

August  15,  1902. 
MR.  S.  A.  PALMER, 

I  have  suffered  from  internal  abscesses  on  and  off 
for  five  years.  On  two  different  occasions  I  was  in 
the  hospital;  the  first  time  was  treated  for  Tubercu- 
losis peritonitis,  the  second  time  for  Tuberculosis 
abscesses.  I  underwent  two  operations;  was  told 
they  had  done  all  they  could  do,  but  could  not  cure 
me, -and  after  1  left  used  to  suffer  intense  agony,  and 
could  scarcely  lift  my  hands  to  my  head.  I  was  in- 
duced to  give  VITADATIO  a  trial,  and  took  four 
bottles,  which  gave  no  relief,  but  after  the  seventh 
bottle  I  got  relief,  and  continued  taking,  with  the 
result  that  after  about  eight  or  nine  bottles  an 
abscess  broke,  and  after  a  great  discharge  I  got  great 
relief.  Four  weeks  after  this  another  abscess  broke 
and  discharged,  and  after  this  my  former  health  re- 
turned. I  have  now  had  good  health  for  two  years, 
and  not  the  slightest  indication  of  a  return  of  the  old 
complaint.  You  are  at  liberty  to  use  this  as  you 
please.  Hoping  it  may  lead  some  other  sufferers  to 
regain  their  lost  health  by  taking  VITADATIO, 


I  have  known  Mrs.  Williams  for  ten  years,  and  can 
testify  to  the  whole  of  the  above  statement.    . 
382  Station  St.,  N.  Carlton. 


S.  A.   PALMER, 

Head  Office:    Clarendon  St.   /V.,  South  Melbourne. 

(Retail  Depot,  45  and  47  Bourke  Street.) 


The  Price  of  Medicine  is  5/6  and  3/6  per  Bottle. 

For  mutual  advantag*  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  please  mention  the  Review  of  Heviews 

April  2G,  1903. 





5.  "  Well,    I'm    blowed!" 

"  Life." 



Used  at  table  and  in  cooking, 
Cerebos  Salt  is  not  only 
dainty  and  economical,  but 
it  makes  all  tlie  food  more 
strengthening;  because  it 
contains  the  Bran  Phosphates 
(absent  from  White  Bread) 
out  of  which  Nature  forms 
Nerve  and  Brain,  Bones  and 
Teeth,  and   Healthy  Blood. 

From  Grocers  and  Stores 

Wholesale  Agents:— Peterson  &*  Co., 


Contain  no  Cocaine  or  other  Poisonous  Drug. 




and  ALL  Ai^  i  ..^xiONS 

of  the  THROAT 

and  LUNGS. 

The     Great     Antiseptic 
Remedy  for  the 


Their  Antiseptlo  properties  prevent  fermentation  of  the  food  and  are  thus  helpful  in 

Indigestion  and  Dyspepsia. 

Sold  by  all  Chemists,  Tins  1/6,  or  by  post  on  receipt  of  this  amount  in  Stamps  of  any 
State  from  the  Sole  Proprietor  and    Manufacturer, 

G.  HUDSON,  Chemist,  Ipswich,  Queensland,  Australia. 

SYDNEY   DEPOT:    5    and   7   QUEEN'S   PLACE 





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April  20,  190S' 


/Bbetbobiet  Xabics'  dollege. 


"If'  there  is  a  Colleire  in  Australia  that  trains  its  griris  to  be  ladies  it  is  tlie  IMethodist  Ladies' 
Collegre."— A  Parent  in  New  South  Wales. 

"The  best  praise  o-f  the  Collegre  is  that  it  trains  its  grirls  in  character.  This  is  what  a  parent 
values.''— A  Victorian  Parent. 

PRESIDENT    •    REV.  W.  H.  FITCHETT,  B.A.,  LLD.         HEAD  MASTER    -   J.  REFORD  CORR,  M.A.,  LL.B. 

THE  COLLEGE   consists  of  stately  buildings  (on 

which  nearly  £40,000  has  been  spent),  stand- 
ing in  Spacious  Grounds,  and  furnished  with 
the  latest  and  most  perfect  educational  appli- 
ances. It  includes  Gymnasium,  Art  Studio. 
Swimm  ng  Bath,  Tennis  Court,  etc. 

THE  ORDINARY  STAFF  numbers  fifteen,  and 
includes  six  University  Graduates,  making  it 
the  strongest  Teaching  Staff  of  any  Girls' 
School  in  Australia. 

ACOOMPLISHMEIMTS.— The  Visiting  Staff  con- 
sists of  eighteen  experts  of  the  highest  stand- 
ing, including  the  very  best  Teachers  in  Music, 
Singing,  and  all  forms  of  Art. 

BOARD&R:^  are  assured  of  wise  training  in  so- 
cial habits,  perfect  comfort,  refined  com- 
panions, and  a  happy  College  life. 

RELIGIOUS  TRAINING.— Each  Boarder  attends 
the  Church  to  which  her  parents  belong,  and  is 
under  the  Pastoral  Charge  of  its  Minister. 
Regular  Scripture  teaching  by  the  President. 

BOARDERS    FROM    A    DISTANCE.— G  i  r  1  » 

are  attracted  by  the  reputation  of  the  College, 
and  by  the  pre-eminent  advantages  in  Health, 
Happiness,  and  Education  it  otters,  from  all 
the  Seven  States, 

SPECIAL  STUDENTS.— Young  Ladies  are  re- 
ceived who  wish  to  pursue  Special  Lines  of 
Study  without  taking  up  the  full  course  of  or- 
dinary school  work. 

UNIVERSITY  SUCCESSES.— At  the  last  Ma- 
triculation Examinations,  fourteen  students  of 
the  M.L.C.  passed,  out  of  seventeen  officially 
"  sent  up,"  and  two  of  the  unsuccessful  missed 
by  only  one  point  each!  This  is  the  highest 
proportion  of  passes  secured  by  any  college. 
There  were  no  failures  in  Greek,  Algebra, 
French,  German,  Botany,  Geography,  and 
Music,  and  only  one  in  English  and  Physiology. 
Thirteen  "  Honours  "  were  obtained  in  English, 
French,  and  German. 

The  following  are  unsought  testimonials  to  me 
work  of  the  College,  taken  from  letters  of  parents 
received  during  1901.  They  are  samples,  it  may  be 
added,  of  scores  of  similar  letters  received: 

A  parent  whose  girls  have  been,  for  some  years, 
day-girls  at  the  College,  writes: 

"  Now  that  their  school  years  are  coining  to  an  end, 
it  is  a  p^reat  pleasure  to  me  to  be  able  to  say  what  I 
hope  will  be  the  life-long  benefit  they  have  derived  from 
being  alumnae  of  the  M.L.C.  Their  progress  imply 
repays  my  wife  and  myself  for  any  sacrifice  we  have 
made  to  secure  them  this  great  advantage." 

A  country  banker,  whose  two  daughters  were  re- 
sident students,  writes: 

"  1  am  satisfied  that  my  daughters  have  the  good  for- 
tune to  be  where  they  have  every  advantage  that  talent, 
tone,  and  exceptional  kindness  can  give  to  school-girls.' 

From  a  country  minister: 

*'  The  College  was  a  very  happy  home  to  our  girl 
for  the  two  years  she  was  there. '  She  is  never  weary 

telling  us  of  the  great  kindness  and  care  she  always 

A  South  Australian  lady   writes: 

"  I  wanted  my  girl  to  be  brought  up  amongst  lady- 
like companions,  and  to  be  happy;  and  I  must  con- 
gratulate you  on  accomplishing  what  is  not  only  my 
desire,  but  what,  I  am  sure,  is  the  desire  of  hundreds  of 
other  mothers  as  well." 

Prom  a  parent  whose  daughters  have  been  day- 

"  I  look  upon  the  M.L.C.  as  a  real  temple  of  purity, 
kindness,    and    happy   girl-life." 

The  "Young  Man"  (England): 

"  British  readers  will  probably  have  but  little  idea 
of  the  national  importance  of  this  institution.  It  has 
earned  the  reputation  of  being  one  of  the  best  High 
Schools  for  girls,  not  in  Australia  only,  but  in  all  the 


April  20, 1903. 



When  I  tell  you  that  I  teach  a  different  kind  of  exercise,  something  new, 
more  scientific,  more  rational,  safer,  and  immeasurably  superior  to  anything: 
ever  before  devised,  I  am  but  repeating:  what  thousands  of  prominent  men 
and  women  are  saying:  for  me  who  have  profited   by  my  instructions. 

If  you  are  not  convinced  from  my  previous  advertising  that  my  system  of 
Physiological  Exercise  will  do  all  that  I  claim  for  it,  the  fault  is  in  the  advertis- 
ing, and  not  in  the  system  itself. 

What  is  so  strong  as  the  testimony  of  others? 

Mr.  J.  Logan  Jones,  Vice-Pres.  and  Secy,  of  Jones  Dry  Goods  Co.,  of 
Kansas  City,  Mo.,  U.S.A.,  after  years  of  gradual  but  certain  decline  physically 
and  mentally,  had  a  complete  collapse.  It  was  impossible  for  him  to  sleep  with- 
out medicine,  and  he  went  without  natural  sleep  for  the  period  of  about  ten 
months.  He  tried  the  best  physicians  to  be  had,  travelled  almost  constantly, 
being  unable  to  remain  long  in  one  place;  took  hunting  trips  in  Colorado,  and  a 
sea-coast  trip  to  Northern  Maine,  with  no  appreciable  results.  He  had  been 
constipated  for  sixteen  or  seventeen  years,  and  had  to  take  phj'-sic  constantly, 
never  having  a  natural  actioii.  The  following  is  an  extract  from  a  recent  letter 
to  me:  "A  little  over  ten  months  ago  I  took  my  first  exercise  from  you,  and, 
under  the  circumstances,  consider  the  transformation  a  positive  miracle.  Will 
say  that  I  am  getting  to  be  q^jite  a  giant.  I  weigh  more  than  I  have  ever 
weighed  in  my  life,  and  my  muscular  development  is  something  wonderful.  1 
sleep  soundly,  my  digestion  is  good,  constipation  a  matter  of  ancient  history, 
and  do  more  work  than  I  ever  did  in  my  life,  and  enjoy  it  all  the  time."    What 

could  be  more  convincing,  and  do  you  wonder  that  he  is  enthusiastic?  I  could  name  hundreds  of  others  who  have 
received  similar  results,  but  it  would  not  make  the  system  any  better.  If  you  will  follow  my  instructions  for  a 
few  weeks,  I  promise  you  such  a  superb  muscular  development  and  such  a  degree  of  vigorous  health  as  to  for  ever 
convince  you  that  intelligent  direction  of  muscular  effort  is  just  as  essential  to  success  in  life  as  intelligent  mental 
efEort.  ,No  pupil  of  mine  will  need  to  digest  his  food  wi£h  pepsin  nor  assist  Nature  with  a  dose  of  physic.  I  will 
give  you  an  appetite  and  a  strong  stomach  to  take  care  of  it;  a  digestive  system  that  will  fill  your  veins  with  rich 
blood;  a  strong  heart  that  mil  regulate  circulation  and  improve  assimilation;  a  pair  of  lungs  that  will  purify 
your  blood;  a  liver  that  will  work  as  Nature  designed  it  should;  a  set  of  nerves  that  will  keep  you  up  to  the 
standard  of  physical  and  mental  energy.  I  will  increase  your  nervous  force  and 
capacity  for  mental  labour,  making  your  daily  work  a  pleasure.  You  will  sleep 
as  a  man  ought  to  sleep.  You  will  start  the  day  as  a  mental  worker  must 
who  would  get  the  best  of  which  his  brain  is  capable.  I  can  promise 
you  all  of  this  because  it  is  common  sense,  rational,  and  just 
as  logical  as  that  study  improves  the  intellect. 

I  have  no  book,  no  chart,  no  apparatus  whatever.  My 
system  is  for  each  individual;  my  instructions  for  you 
would  be  just  as  personal  as  if  you  were  my  only  pupil. 
It  is  taught  by  post  only,  and  with  perfect  success,  rt- 
quires  but  a  few  minutes'  time  in  your  own  room  just 
before  retiring,  and  it  is  the  only  one  which  does  not  over- 
tax the  heart. 

shall  be  pleased  to  send  you  free  valuable  in- 
formation and  detailed  outline  of  my  system,  its 
principles  and  effects,  upon  application.  This  infor- 
mation, which  I  furnish  free,  is  M^ry  interesting:  and 
cannot  be  secured  elsewhere  at  any  price. 
Write  at  once. 

ALOIS  P.  SWOBODA,  120  Washington  St.,  CHICAGO,  ILL.,  U.S.A 

For  mutual  advantage  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  Dieaee  mention  the  Review  of  RevlewCi 



April  20,  1^03. 


something  good  to  tell,  there  is  no  need  to  delude  the  unwary  into  reading  an  apparently 
interesting  story  which  proves  to  be  a  prelude  to  an  advertisement.  The  startling  story 
and  the  thrilling  "testimonial"  do  not  add  to  the  merit  of  the  article  advertised.  If 
you   are   troubled   with 


or  other  such  ailments  which  arise  from  a  Disordered  Stomach  imperfectly  doing  Its 
work,  you  need  not  experiment  with  the  many  medicines  so  plausibly  put  before  you— take 


and  you  have  a  reliable  remedy,  proved  by  thousands  of  sufferers  to  be  unequalled  for 
dispelling  Disorders  of  the  Stomach  and  Liver.  It  is  not  necessary  to  bring  BEECHAM'S 
PILLS  before  your  notice  surreptitiously,  as  they  are  openly  recogrimended  by  those  who 
have  found  that  BEECHAM'S  PILLS  will  do  all  that  is  claimed  for  them— hence  they  have 
the  largest  sale  of  any  Patent  Medicine  in  the  World. 

Sold  Everywhere,  in  Boxes,  price  is*  J  id.  {56  Pills)  and  2s.  9d*  (J  68  Pills). 



Q,  a 


s   a 











I  defy  all 











g  -.3 






For  mutual  advantage  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  please  mention  the  Review  of  Ravlews. 

April  20,  1903. 


Boy:     "  You     needn't     come     hanging     around 
me.       I  haven't  got  any  peanuts." 


Has  Never  Been  Known  to  Fail  to  Cure  Horses  of 


Sebastopol,  Marck  4,  1902. 
Dear   Sirs,— We   have   used   Solomon   Solution   for   a. 
number  of  years,  for  sore  backs,  girth  galls,  sore  shoul- 
ders,  greasy   heels,   and    for   all  kinds   of   wounds   and^ 
apraing  in  horses  and  cattle.      We  have  great  pleasure 
in  recommending  it.      No  stable  should  be  without  it.. 
Yours  truly, 


Price  2/6  and   5/-  jar. 

Obtainable  of  All  Chemists,  Storekeepers,  Saddlers.. 

Patentees  and  Sole  Manufacturers 

SOLOMON    COX    &    SON. 

422    BOURKE    STREET. 







eamerbury  Cintcs, 

The    National  Weekly    IMag^azine   of  New 

Sixty-eisht  Pag^es,  Illustrated. 

Read  by  all  classes  of  the  community,  in  all  parts  of  the 





'L    J 


Subscfip.ion — Postage  paid,  per  Annum,  in  advance : 
New  Zealand  and  Australia,  24/-;  Gseat  Britain    37/- 


Cbe  Cymiton  Ciities  Company  Ctd. 

ChHstchurch,  New  Zealand, 


Agrents  in  Australia:  GORDON  &  QOTCH  Ltd., 



On  Sale  by  all  Booksellers  and  News  Agents  jT 

For  mutual  advantsise  wnen  you  write  10  an  advertiser  ptt:u»o  mention  tna  Revi«>ww  01  kbvi... 



April  20,  ipo3. 



Have  far  and  away  the  LARGEST  SALE  OF  ANY 
CORSET,  British  or  Foreign,  in  the  World. 

Compel  the  approval  of  Corset  "Wearers  everywhere, 
Beyoiiti  comparison  the  most  perfect  Corsets  extant. 
C^^l^i"!®  unique  principles  of  Corset  manufacture. 
^Jf  their  kind  the  most  popular  competitive  speciality. 
R  epresentative  of  the  highest  standard  of  excellence. 
Stocked  in  good  assortment,  command  an  immediate  sale. 
E  ^-ch  season  marks  an  enormous  increase  in  their  popularity. 
Thousands  of  Drapers  recognise  their  unrivalled  merit. 
Sol<i  by  the  retail  Drapery  Trade  to  over  4,000,000  wearers. 

The  Otaqo  Witness 

is  one  of  the   Best  and   Most   Favourably   Known  of   the   Illustrated 
Weekly   Newspapers  of  New   Zealand. 

It  has  a  wide   circulation    throughout    the    Farming,    Pastoral,      $ 
and  riining  Districts  of  the  Colony,  and  is  a  J 


Subscription  in  New  Zealand,  25s.  per  annunr  ;   in  Australia  (except  Queensland), 
ajs.  6d.  per  annum  ;   Queensland,  £1   15s. 

»l      ^      ^ 

Publishing  Office,  Dowling  St.,  Dunedin; 

and   to  be  obtained  throughout  the  Comminonwealth  from  QORDON 
&  QOTcH,   News  Agents. 

For  mutual  advantage  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  please  mention  the  Review  of  Reviews 

April  20, 1^03. 




1.  "  Quick,  Marthy!  run  fer  the  cyclone-cellar. 
Here  comes   a  reg'lar  ripsnorter. " 

(Continued  on  page  xix.) 

The  Great  Cough  Remedy. 



Cherry  Cordial 


Relieves  Lung  Trouble  quicker  than  any  other 
Patent  Medicine. 


tj"  per  bottle. 

Sample  bottle  sent   1(4  per  post 


Wholesale  Agents : 

G.  THORN E,  Moorabool  Street,  Geeiong-. 

J.  McKAY  &  SONS,  Ballarat. 


A   BOX   OF 



A  complete  library  for  the  children,  of  the 
best  nursery  rhymes,  fairy-tales,  fables,  stories 
of  travel,  etc.,  that  have  ever  been  written  for 
the  little  ones,  illustrated  with  2,000  drawings. 
Each  set  consists  of  1,500  pages,  in  24  books, 
bound  in  12  volumes,  printed  on  stout  paper, 
with  stiff  cloth  covers,  and  enclosed  in  a  strong, 
handsome,  cloth-covered  cabinet. 

No  greater  happiness  could  be  granted  to 
your  little  ones  than  an  introduction  to  these 
characters.,  and  the  host  of  queer  animals — to 
say  nothing  of  giants,  fairies,  and  other  quaint 
folk — that  people  this  child's  fairy-land. 

And  no  other  children's  library  supplies  the 
means  as  effectively  as  a  Box  of  Books  for  the 
Bairns.  Children's  literature  of  every  land  has 
been  laid  under  contribution.  Every  page  is 
illustrated,  and  the  drawings  throughout,  num- 
bering over  2,000,  are  original,  and  executed 
solely  for  this  series  by  the  well-known  chil- 
dren's artists,  Miss  Gertrude  Bradley  and  Mr. 
Brinsley  Le  Fanu. 

The  Empress  of  Russia,  in  acknowledging  re- 
ceipt of  a  set  for  the  little  Grand  Duchess, 
writes*  ''  I  am  enchanted  with  the  admirable 

Sent  Post  Free  to  any  address  in  Australasia  on  receipt  of  10/-. 


167-169    QUEEN    STREET,    MELBOURNE. 

f*>r  mutual  aduanta^re  when  you  write  to  an  aHvertlser  please  nnentlon  the  Review  of  Reviews. 











^U  , 









Sole  Australasian  Ag^ents  : 








^  ---^      ~^*^^ 


•^•"^      ..^^\ 

Correspondence  Invited. 



Phcenix   Foundry, 


...   EUGEN    SANDOW'S  ... 



The  Gospel  of  Strength 


18     NOW     READY. 


^^  ^2^  ^^  f^^  ^r^  ^^  9^^ 


I.  A  Life-size  Photo  of  Sandow's  Arm,  2  ft.  6  in.  long.  II.  Seven  Beautiful  Photographs. 

And  126  pages  on  Physical  Culture,  written  in  Australia. 

^^  ^^  ^r^  ^r^  9^^  ^^  ^^ 

Posted  to  any  Address  in  Australasia  on  receipt  of  1/2  in  Stamps  or  Postal  Note 
by  T.  SHAW  FITCHETT,  Publisher,  167-9  Queen  Street,  iVIelbourne. 

For  mutual  advantacre  wiran  yeu  wrl««  *o  an  advertiser  oiease  mention  the  Review  of  Review* 

April  20,  igos- 



'f  ^  ^-Q: 


2.  Scratching  Jim  (neighbour  Jones'  big  roos- 
ter): "  Well,  I  thought  I  could  get  up  a  little 


No  Equal 

The  Most 

The  Most 



12/6, 16/6,21/- 
25/-  to  £20. 

Of  all 


Ask  for 

The  '  swan: 



93,  Cheapside,  London,  Eng. 




Rev.  Obokoe  Sanderson,  Huddersfleld,  writes: — 
"  It  is  with  very  real  pleasure  I  write  you  to  say  how 
greatly  my  sou  has  benefited  by  talcing  your  Remedy 
for  Epilepsy.  For  years  lie  had  suffered  from  this 
terrible  disease,  and  nothing  seemed  to  do  him  much 
good  until  I  incidentally  iieH,rd  of  >  our  Remedy,  and 
resolved  to  try  it ;  the  effect  lias  been  simply  wonder- 
ful. The  attacks,  which  up  to  then  had  been  fre- 
quent and  painful,  ceased  at  once,  and  for  a  long 
time  now  he  has  been  entirely  free  from  them.  I 
cannot  express  the  joy  and  relief  it  has  been  to  us  to 
feel  that  we  could  leave  him  without  fear  and  allow 
him  to  go  without  dread.  He  is  altogether  another 
being.  The  old  stupor  and  indifference  have  given 
way  to  active  interest  and  generally  improved 
mental  conditions.  Most  cordially  do  I 
recommend  your  Remedy  to  any  who  may 
be  suffering  as  my  boy  was." 

Rev.  James  Puoh  Perkins  (Congregational 
Minister),  Norwich,    writes: — "A  friend  of 
mine  suffered  from  Epileptic  Fits  from  1834, 
when    he  was  a  missionary  in   India.      Finding    it 
necessary   to  return  to   England  and    relinquish   all 
further  hope  of  mission  work,  he  tried  many  prescrip- 
tions and  remedies, but  with  no  satisfaciion.   In  Nov., 
1891,  he  heard  ot  your  Remedy,  and  iiniuediately  tried 
it,  and  has  never  suffered  an  attack  since  that  time, 
and  has  now  fully  recovered  his  health  and  spirits." 

Rev.  R.  DoNALUsoN.  A.M.,  T CO..  The  Rectory, 
Fintona,  writes  : — "  I  think  it  my  duly  to  let  you 
know  of  a  wonderful  cure  wrought  by  "Trench's 
Remedy"  on  a  case  of  Epilepsy  in  this  parish.  A 
young  man  had  suffered  terribly  with  this  disease  for 
6  years  When  I  became  acquainted  with  his  case  I 
got  your  Remedy,  and  after  using  it  as  directed  for 
some  months  he  got  quite  well.  He  is  now  able  to 
do  the  work  of  a  strong  man  on  the  farm,  and  is  full 
of  gratitude  for  his  cure.  Hoping  that  the  sight  of 
this  testimony  may  lead  other  sufferers  to  try  your 



Rev.  T.  R,  Shanahan,  P.P.,  Ballingany,  Co 
Limerick,  writes:— "The  Sisters  of  Mercy  here  have 
asked  me  to  write  you  a  line  (as  they  iire  precluded  by 
their  rules  to  do  so  themselves)  to  thank  ycu  for  your 
great  charity  and  successful  treatment  of  a  poor  girl 
of  this  parish,  whose  malady  and  sufferings  excited 
their  sympathy  and  compassion.  To  my  knowledge 
she  was  for  years  subject  to  severe  fits  of  Epilepsy, 
almost  every  week,  nay,  often  t\>o  or  three  times  in 
the  same  day.  I  thank  God  she  Is  now  perfectly 
cured  by  the  mediciie  " 

Rev.  G.  Wkauham,  Lew  sham  Road  Baptist  Church, 
Greenwich,  writes: — "I  am  extremely  pleased  to  be 
able  to  testify  of  the  wondrous  power  of  your 
Remedy  in  connection  with  a  lad  whose  case  I  have 


known  and  watched  for  some  eight  years.  He  was 
attacked  by  Epilepsy  when  about  eight  years  of  age. 
Certain  remedies  were  tried,  but  the  attacks  grew 
worse,  and  ai  length  he  was  taken  to  one  of  the  lead- 
ing London  specialists,  who  virtually  pronounced 
the  case  hopeless.  The  attacks  afterwards  so  in- 
creased in  nuniberand  st-verity  that  he  becameaper- 
fect  wreck,  idiotic  and  speechless.  Some  one 
advised  hi-  tat  her  lo  try  ymii  Remedy,  which  he  did. 
The  effect  was  truly  wonderful  I  Immediately  the 
attacks  ceased,  and  in  less  than  three  months 
his  speech  had  returned,  and  he  began  to  gain 
ground  rapidly.  In  a  year  he  was  so  much  im- 
proved that  a  number  of  people  could  hardly  believe 
that  lie  was  the  same  lad.  He  is  now  quite  strong 
and  robust,  and  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that 
your  Remedy  very  effectually  keeps  the  disease 
completely  under.  I  feel  bound,  after  what  I  have 
seen  to  urge  the  friends  of 
Epileptics  to  lose  no  time  in 
giving  your  Remedy  a  trial" 

The  Ven.  Archdn.  O'Sulmvan,  P.P., 
writes: — "  I  saw  the  girl  for  ihe  second  time  a  few 
days  ago,  and  sheassured  me  she  got  no  return  of  th« 
Epileptic  Fits  since  she  began  to  use  your  medicine, 
though  previously  she  got  those  Fits  two  or  thre* 
limes  a  week.  It  is  more  than  twenty  years  since  th« 
poor  girl  became  subject  to  this  terrible  disease,  and 
I  congratulate  you  on  having  conquered  one  of  ths 
"opprobrium  medicorum  "  by  your  skilful  Remedies." 
Rev.  A.  Mcli.WAiNE  Methodist  Minister),  Longford, 
writes: — "I  have  much  pleasure  in  letting  you  know 
that  the  young  man  to  whom  I  recommended 
your  Remedy  for  Epilepsy  is  now  quite  well.  H« 
took  the  medicine,  as  you  directed,  and  has  bad  aft 
return  of  the  disease.  His  iriends  are  very  grat«> 
ful  to  you  as  the  means,  under  the  dlvia* 
blessing,  of  his  complete  recovery." 

Rev.  R.  B.  Lynch,  Lilburne  Vicarage. 
Rugby,  writes: — "I  have  great  pleasure 
in  informing  you  of  the  remarkable  cor* 
effected  by  your  Remedy  for  Epilepsy 
in  the  case  of  a  young  lady  who  hail  been  suf- 
fering severely  from  that  illness  for  several  years. 
She  had  been  under  the  treatment  of  all  the  first 
doctors  for  the  brain,  but  none  of  them  gave  her  any 
relief.  Quite  by  accident  we  heard  of  your  Remedy, 
and  from  the  day  (Ijecem)ier  20  h, '94)  she  began  te 
take  it  she  has  never  had  a  single  attack.  Previous 
to  this  she  had  been  subject  to  iwo  or  ihi'ee  attacks 
within  24  hours,  occurring  fortnightly,  or  after  aay 
excitenment,  and  was  ill  and  disabled  for  days  after; 
now  she  is  able  to  travel,  sleep  and  go  about  by  heiw 
self,  and  is  a  different  creature,  bodily  and  mentally, 
I  cannot  recommend  too  liiglily  the  efficacy  of  yonr 
Treatment  and  Remedy  for  Epilepsy,  and  hope  yon 
will  make  whatever  use  you  may  think  fit  of  this 
letter  in  making  more  widely  known  your  most  re- 
markable cure." 
Many  equally  remarkable  cases  in  Australia. 



The    Union    lllanufacturinq    A    Agency    Co.,    359-361     COLLINS    STREET,     MELBOURNE. 

for  mutual  advantage  whan  you  write  to  an  advartlaer  please  mention  the  Review  uf  Aeviewa 



April  20,  iQO^- 

California  Syrup  of  Figs  is  the  one  True  Natural  Laxative.  It  acts 
gently,  pleasantly  and  beneficially  on  the  Kidneys,  Liver,  and  Bowels, 
and  permanently  overcomes  Habitual  Constipation. 

VV^ords  of  Advice: 

Ask  for  CALIFORNIA  SYRUP  OF  FIGS,  and  see  that 
the  package  bears  the  well-known  Name  and  Trade  Mark 
of  the  California  Fig  Syrup  Co.,  the  Manufacturers  of  the 
only  Original  and  Genuine.  Imitations  are  numerous,  but 
as  you  value  your  health  you  cannot  risk  taking  a  substi^ 
tute.  California  Syrup  of  Figs  is  sold  in  Australia  in  two 
sizes  at  1/3  and  1/11.  Worthless  substitutes  are  often 
offered  at  less  as  an  inducement. 

Of  all  Chemists  and  Stores. 

California  Fig  Syrup  Company,  32  Snow  Hill,  London,  E.G. 

Australia  :  7  Barrack  Street,  Sydney. 

For  mutuAl  advantage  whan  you  write  to  an  a«lverti83r  please  mention  the  Review  of  Reviews. 

April  20,  190^. 


















1.  Irate 
to  eating 
waiters  a 

Patron:    "  Look   here,    you 
Vou   can't  razzle-dazzle   me. 
in  swell  restaurants,  and  I 
tip  " 

dingy   hen- 

I'm   used 

11  give  you 

(Continued  on  page  xxiii.) 




LABOUR,    and 




Make   COFFEE 
equal  to  that 
prepared  direct 
from  Coffee  Beans. 




A  PROGRESSIVE  DIETARY,  unique  in  providing:  nourishment  suited  to  the  srrowingr  digestive  powers 
of  YOUNQ  INFANTS  from  birth  upwards,  and  free  from  dangrerous  ererms. 

Milk    Food    No.  i 

Specially  adapted  to  the  first  three  months  of  life. 

Milk    Food    No.  3 

^■'~"^— ^^~"""  Similarly  adapted  to  the  second  three  months  of  life. 

The  ««  Allenburys  "  Malted  Food    No.  3 

For  Infants  over  six  months  of  age. 

The  «« Allenburys 
The  «♦  Allenburys 

Complete  Foods, 


needing  the  addition  of 

hot  water  only. 

To  be  prepared  for  use  by  the 
addition  of  COW'S  MILK, 
according  to  directions  given. 

No.  3  Food  is  strongly  recommended  for  Convalescents,  Invalids,  the  Aged,  and  all  requiring  a  light  and  easily 

digested  diet.      The  "  London  Medical  Record"  writes  of  it  that—"  No  Better  Food  Exists.''  — 

PAMPHLET  ON   INFANT  FEEDING  Free  on  application  to  the  Wholesale  Depot,  495  BOURKE  ST.,  MELBOURNE 



MEDICINE.         JrlllS. 

Tliey  Purify  the  Blood,  and  ae  a  Mild  but  efleotaal  Aperient 
•sr«  anequalled,  and  beyond  this,  they  brace  up  the  nerves  and  let 
•  fMy  organ  in  healthy  action,  thus  ensuring  complete  restoration 

to  perfect  health. 
JTot  Ladias  of  all  Axes  thej  are  inTaluaki*.    Bold  b?  all  Btoras.  1/>. 




sLBEPLBaa  MiaMTm 



GtTM  Pstmanent  Relief  hj  fwinlcas  conitflctiea  ef  the  Nerres  te 
decayed  teeth.    Neutalglc  Headache  and  all  Nenre  paina  rcUcml. 

GORDON  STABLES,  BBQ.,  M.D.R.N.,  aays:  ••Nothinff  »■ 
be  oetter ;  it  banishes  all  pain  and  saTes  the  tooth.'* 

Dk.  G.  U.  JONES.  D.D.B.,  F.R8.,  L.F.B.M.S.,  MJB :  «*I  hav*  A 
high  opinion  as  to  the  action  of  Bunter's  Nerrlne  to  allay  pals. 
It  is  doabtlass  the  best  remedy  for  Tooth-ache." 

SOLD   BY  ALL   STORES,    fia. 

For  mutual  advantage  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  please  mention  the  Review  of  Review*. 



April  20,  igo^. 




^  Infants 
AND  Invalids. 

Benger's  Food 

I  with   Milk,   forms  a  dainty,  delicious,  and 

I  most»  easily  digested  cream.      Infants  thrive 

I  on  it,  and  delicate  and  aged  persons  enjoy  it. 

I  Benger's  Food  is  sold  in   Tins  by  Chemists,  etc.,  everywhere. 

Granular  Lids. 




476  Albert  Street,  Melbourne. 


T.  Ra  Procter  would  remind  his  Patients 
throughout  Australia  that,  having  once  measured  their 
eyes,  he  can  calculate  with  exactitude  the  alteration 
produced  by  increasing  age,  and  adjust  spectacles 
required  during  life  without  further  measurement. 
|r)P9Cter*s  Universal  Eye  Ointment  as  a  family  Salve  has  no  equal;  cures  Blight,  sore  and  inflamed  E^ii^ 

Granular  Eyelids,  Ulceration  of  the  Eyeball,  and  restores  Eyelashes.     2/6,  post  free  to  any  part  of  the  Colonies 
fl|>  oareful  housewife  should  be  without  Procter's    Eye    Lotion,  more  especially  in  the  country  places,   m 
>iflammatiou  is  generally  the  foremnner  of  all  diseases  of  the  Eye,    An  early  application  would  cure  and  prevsaaO 
ituQif  further  troubla  with  the  Byes,    Bottles  2/-  and  3/6,  post  tree  to  any  p»rt  ct  the  Colonies. 

¥or  mutual  advantage  when  you  write  to  an  advertiser  please  mention  the  Review  of  Reviews. 

April  20,  iQO^. 




2.  Chorus:    "  It's  mine,   boss — it's   mine!     Gim- 
me!      One  fo'   me!" 

("  Judge.") 

Irish  Mo55. 


The  above  preparation  has  the  largest  sale  of 
any  cough  medicine  in  Australasia.  It  is  a  safe 
and  valuable  remedy  for  Bronchitis,  Asthma, 
Whooping  Cough,  and  Chest  Affections  gene- 

The  "  Irish  Moss  "  is  used  largely  by  public 
speakers  and  singers  as  a  voice  restorative.  It 
removes  all  huskiness,  and  increases  the  power 
and  flexibility  of  the  voice. 


In  Large  and  Small  Bottles. 

I'REPARRO  BY  -.^— ^— - 

Christchurch,  N.Z. 


ONLY  .  .  . 

ZITHER,  or   Piano   Harp. 

Grand  Piano-like  tone.  Anyone  who  can  read  plays 
it  at  sight.  Observe  the  diagonally  crossed  strings,  al- 
most the  same  as  in  piano,  the  melody  strings  passing 
over  the  chord  strings.  By  means  of  this  improvement 
in  construction  the  similarity  and  tone  and  volume  of 
the  piano  is  produced.  It  is  the  easiest  to  learn  of  any 
musical  instrument  in  existence ;  a  child  who  can  read 
figures  can  play  it  at  sight,  although  unacquainted  with 
music.  The  music  is  supplied  on  strong  cards,  which 
are  placed  under  the  wires  ;  each  note  in  the  music  is 
by  numbers,  starting  from  1,  and  the  chords  are  indi- 
cated by  a  capital  letter,  hence  all  one  has  to  do  to  ren- 
der the  most  difficult  selections  is  to  follow  the  numbers 
and  play  on  the  strings  iLdicated ;  beautifully  sweet 
music  is  the  result.  The  ease  with  which  anyone  can 
learn  to  pJay  well,  the  grand  music  you  can  produce, 
makes  it  certain  that  no  one  will  part  with  the  "Aeolian 
Harp"  Zither.  Its  deep  feympathetic  tones  penetrate 
even  those  insensible  to  the  charms  of  ordinary  music  • 

PRICE.— Ebonised (beautiful  black ) ,  piano  finish ,  gold 
decoration  round  tound  h^le,  25  melody  strings  (com- 
plete chromatic  scale  for  two  octaves),  5  chords  (total  45 
strings),  2  picks,  key,  case,  and  lot  of  figure  music  on 
cards,  359.,  carriae-e  paid  (by  parcels  pobt)  to  any  part 
of  Australia. 

Size  of  "Aeolian  Harp"  Zither,  14  inches  by  20  inches.  Letters,  accompanied  by  money  order,  in  registered  letter  .should  be  addressed  to 

STAR  NOVELTY  COMPANY,  Premier  Buildings,   229-231  Collins   Street,  Melbourne, 


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April  20,  IQ03. 


A  Half-Guinea  Picture  for  7s. 



by  Albert  Moore,  entitled  "  Blossoms,"  measuring 
28 J  X  11}  inches,  and  valued  by  many  experts  at 
IDS.  6d.,  is  offered  for  a  limited  period  to  "  New 
Idea  "  readers  at  is.,  post  free. 

Why  are  we  practically  giving  this  picture 
away?  Because  we  want  to  introduce  to  you  our 
wonderful  set  of  pictures,  "The  Masterpiece  Art 
Series."  We  know  if  you  see  "  Blossoms  "  you 
will  want  the  others.  So  it  pays  us  to  send  it  to 
you  for  a  few  pence.  The  set  consists  of  seven 
portfolios,  each  containing  at  least  twelve  beautiful 
plates,  measuring  10  x  12,  which  are  reproductions 
of  the  world's  famous  pictures.  These  portfolios 
(twelve  pictures  each)  are  sold  at  2s.  each,  post 
free.  In  addition  to  "  Blossoms  "  there  are  eight 
other  collotypes,  measuring  20  x  25  each,  which  we 
sell  for  2s.  6d.  each,  post  free. 

We  don't  want  you  to  buy  without  knowing 
more  about  them,  so  send  twelve  stamps  for  "  Blos- 
soms." With  "  Blossoms  "  will  be  sent  a  beauti- 
fully illustrated  sheet,  giving  sample  reproductions 
of  the  other  pictures  and  full  particulars. 

Send  now  for  "  Blossoms,"  for  this  offer  may  be 
withdrawn  at  any  time. 


By   Albert   Moore,    R.A. 
Original   Collotype,   measuring  28i  x 
m  inches.       Sent  to  any  address  for 
One  Shilling  for  a  limited  time  only. 

Address  all  Orders  to 

r.    SHAW  FtTCHETT, 

"The  Nev^  Idea," 
167-9  Queen  Street,   Melbourne, 


April  20,  iQOj. 











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April  20,  1903. 




Open  to  readers  of  ''The  New  Idea." 

In  the  issue  of  **  THE  NEW  IDEA"  for  JUNE,  the  proprietors  will  throw  open 
to  its  readers — the  women  of  Australasia — an  engrossing  PUZZLE  COMPETITION, 
with  prizes  valued  at  ii75.  Twelve  sets  of  puzzle  pictures,  representing  well-known 
towns  in  Australas  ia,  will  be  published  in  consecutive  numbers  of  the  journal.  Prizes 
will  be  awarded  to  the  readers  sending  in  the  greatest  number  of  correct  solutions. 

First  Set  of  Pictures  and  fuii  details  will  appear 
in  ^'  Thie  New  Idea  "  for  June. 


FIRST  PRIZE.— Magrniflcent  Grand  Upright 
Lindahl  Piano.  Price,  100  Guineas.  (Agents, 
Buttons  Proprietary  Ltd.,  of  Bourke  St.,  Mel- 
bourne.) This  prize  will  be  awarded  to  the  reader 
of  "  The  New  Idea  "  from  whom  the  Editor  receives 
a  set  of  pages  containing  the  greatest  number  of 
correct  solutions.  We  chose  this  instrument  as  be- 
ing absolutely  the  best  prize  obtainable  in  Austral- 
asia for  100  Guineas.  This  style  of  Lindahl  Piano 
is  perhaps  the  finest  instrument  of  its  kind  in  the 
world.  It  is  open  for  the  inspection  of  our  readers 
at  Buttons  Music  Warehouses,  Bourke  Street,  Mel- 
bourne; 33  and  35  Sturt  Street,  Ballarat;  and  19  Pall 
Mall,  Bendigo. 

SECOND    PRIZE.— £50    Dress    Allowance   of 

£10  per  annum  for  five  years  to  the  reader  sending 
in  the  second  largest  number  of  correct  solutions. 

THIRD  PRIZE.  —  His^hest-grade  Wonderful 
Wertheim   Drop-Head  Seviring:  Machine,  price 

£13,  with  all  attachments.  For  genuine  value 
the  Wertheim  has  no  superior,  and  has  been  selected 
by  us  because  of  this  fact.  This  prize  will  be 
awarded  to  the  reader  sending  in  the  third  largest 
number  of  correct  solutions. 

FOURTH  PRIZE. -A  High-grade  Gramo- 
phone, the  most  marvellous  talking  machine  in  the 
world.  It  reproduces  the  human  voice  and  all  musical 
instruments  with  lifelike  accuracy.  Six  records  are 
given  with  the  Gramophone.  This  prize  will  be 
awarded  to  the  reader  sending  in  the  fourth  largest 
number  of  correct  solutions. 

Watch  ««The  New  Idea"  -for 

Monthly  Sets  of  Puzzle  Pictures. 

Send  3/-  for  a  Year's  Subscription 


167-9  Queen  Street, 



i     i     i     i 

April  20, 1 90s. 



Better  than   j 
Cod-livei*  oil  ^ 




R     ''(UIMEANO  SODA> 


AND  Lungs, 



Kidney  and    Bl«d<lef. 

a«i»er«l  OcMlluP  and 

Wasting  l)lse«ie» 


"Si^'  ^"S'riii'i^'.'ii  "*•'"**!  * 


Cod-liver  oil  is  good,  but  Angler's  Emulsion  is  better.  It  is 
better  because  it  is  pleasant  to  take,  agrees  with  the  most 
delicate  stomach,  and  aids  digestion  instead  of  disturbing  it. 
It  is  better,  too,  because  it  has  healing  and  curative  virtue.-; 
which  cod-liver  oil  does  not  possess,  and  which  make  it  of 
far  greater  efficacy  in  the  treatment  of  lung  affections  and 
wasting  diseases. 



is  made  with  our  specially  purified  petroleum,  and  has 
a  wonderfully  soothing  effect  upon  the  mucous  mem- 
brane of  the  throat,  lungs  and  air  passages,  relieving 
the  most  troublesome  coughs,  and  healing  any  inflamed  or 
catarrhal  condition.  At  the  same  time  it  promotes  appetite, 
and  keeps  the  digestive  organs  healthy,  greatly  improving 
digestion,  assimilation  and  nutrition,  and  increasing  weight 
and  strength.  Angler's  Emulsion  is  extensively  prescribed 
by  the  medical  profession  throughout  the  entire  English- 
speaking  world,  and  is  largely  used  in  hospitals. 


On  receipt  of  4d.  postage.    Mention  "Review  of  Reviews." 
CAUTION^ — Do  not  risk  dfsappointment  or  worse  by  try- 
ing cheap  imttatioi^  made  with   ordinary  petroleum,  but 
insist  upon  having  the  original. 

Of  all  Chemists  and  Drug  Stores.      In  three  sizes. 


kniQiers  IHroat  Tablets 

These  throat  tablets  are  composed  of  our  .'-pecially  purified  petroleum,  combined  with  pure  elm  bark  and 
other  valuable  ii  gredients.  They  are  pleasant  to  take,  and  do  not  contain  an  atom  of  any  narcotic  or  other 
injurious  drug.  While  not  having  the  same  constitutional  action  as  the  Emu'sion,  their  marked  local 
soothing  effect  upon  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  throat  and  adjacent  structures  is  just  what  is  needed  for 
acute  coughs,  irritation  of  the  throat,  hoarseness,  huskiness,  dryness,  and  those  peculiar  throat  affections 
common  to  public  speakers,  and  all  who  are  obliged  to  use  their  voice  to  excess.  A  point  greatly  in  thei. 
favour  is  that,  unlike  other  throat  tablets,  they  benefit  the  digestive  organs  and  promote  normal  bowel  action. 
Samples  post  free  on  request.  Angler's  Throat  Tablets  are  put  up  in  boxes  of  seventy-two  at  i/ij,  of 
chemists  and  drug  stores,  or  post  free  from 
THE      ANGIER      CHEHICAIi     CO.,      Ltd., 


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ASPINALL'S    ENAMEL   LTD.,   New  Cross,  London,  England. 




BOTH  ^^^   ^^^ 

cSred^!   morphia  habit. 

-    ill  "I..MThe  Sole  Rights  of  the 


stablished  TEN  years  ago  by  Dr.  Wolfenden,  are  held^by 
r      :    fche  CENTRAL  MISSION,  MELBQUBNE.      _ 

I  rIv.  a.  R.  EDGAR,  Superintendent. 

This  is  its  Guarantee  or  Good  Faith. 

The  Institute  has  been   Removed 

from  Joiimont 


30     COPPIN'S     GROVE, 

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CONTENTS   FOR   APRIL,    1903. 

Christ's  Prayer  After  the  Last  Swpper  ...    Frontispiece. 


Hktory  of  the  Month 321 

Humotsr  of  the  Month          336 

History  of  the  Month  in  Caricature          339 

A  Ministerial  Record 348 

Australian  Naval  Defence     353 

Is  Australian  Humour  Extinct                   357 

A  Picture  of  Waterloo           361 

Cfiaracter  Sketch : 

"  London     the     Step-mother,     and     the     Stranger 

Within    Her    Gates  " 363 

Some  Books  of  the  Month .368 

** To  Be  Continued  in  Our  Next''            378 

Leading  Articles  in  the  Raviews: 

Is  Man  the  Centre  of  the  Universe? 384 

Alcohol:  Food  or  Poison? 384 

The  German  Emperor  on  the  Bible: 

I.— The    Kaiser's    Creed        385 

II.— Professor  Harnack's   Criticism..         ..         ..  386 

The   Many   Kaisers 387 

The  Irish  Land   Problem 388 

"From  Out  of  the  Mist  of  Hell"       388 

The    Future    American        390 

The  American  Capture  of  the  Orient  Trade  . .         . .  391 

An   Armless   Artist 392 

Cardinal   Rampolla:   the  Next  Pope? 392 

Mr.   Balfour  at  Whittingehame 393 

A   Sketch   of   Victor   Emmanuel    III 394 

The  Canadian  West  and  North-West 394 

A  Volcano  in  Eruption .395 

The  Career  of  the  Tobacco  Trust         395 

Two  Ways  of  Boring  the  Alps . .  396 

The  Biggest  Social  Experiment  on  Record    . .         . .  396 

Sir  John  Gorst  on   Social  Reform         . .         . .         . .  397 

How  to  Improve  the  Average  Man       . .         . .         . .  398 

The  Sultan  of  Morocco       . .         . . 
President  Roosevelt  as   "  Tenderfoot  " 

Thirty   Years   in    Paris       

The    Surgery   of   Light        

How  I  Became  a  Novelist.. 
Venezuela:  Under  Which  Eagle?.. 
The  First  Cradle  of  Greek  Civilisation 
Gambling  at  Monte  Carlo  , . 
An  Enormous  Canal.. 
Motor    Triumphans    . . 

The  Reviews  Reviewed: 

The    National    Review 
The    Nineteenth   Century    . . 
The  New  Liberal  Review   . . 
The   Fortnightly   Review    . . 
The   Contemporary   Review 
The  Westminster  Review   . . 

The   World's   Work 

The   Monthly   Review 
Blackwood's    Magazine 
Page's    Magazine 
The   Engineering  Magazine 

The   Pall   Mall   Magazine 

The  North  American  Review 

The    Atlantic    Monthly        

Lippincott's    Magazine 

The    Century 

Harper's   Magazine 

McClure's    Magazine 

Scribner's    Magazine 

The    Cosmopolitan 

Frank    Leslie's    Monthly    . . 

Gunton's   Magazine    . . 

Foreign  Reviews: 

La   Revue   . . 

The  Nouvelle  Review   . . 

The  Revue  de  Paris     . . 

The  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes 

The  Dutch  Magazines 

Business  Department: 

The  Financial  History  of  the  Month 


..  399 
..  400 
..  400 
..  401 
..  402 




...  419 

W.  H.  FITCHETT,  B.A.,  LL.D., 

Editor,   "Review   of  Reviews  for  Australasia/' 


W.  T    STEAD, 

Editor,   English  "Review   oi   Reviews.'* 

American   Monthly  Review   of   Reviews/* 



The  Nevif  Woman's  Home  Journal 
for  Australasia, 


Sample  Copy  sent  to  any 
Address  in  Australasia  on 
receipt  of  Name  and  Ad- 



167-9  Queen  Street,  Melb. 




'o.  Too;^. 


IS  THE  SPIRIT  OF  OUR  DAY.      The  reach  upward  is  a  national  characteristic.       We  seek 
a  rational  stimulus  for  mind  and  body  in  every  likely  place.       Those    who    are    wise    go    to 
the  poets  each  day  for  rest  and  inspiration.      They  are     well-springs    of    optimism    and 
philosophy.       This  was  the  belief  which   prompted   the   editors   and   publishers  of  the 
Masterpiece  Library  of  Poetry  to  gi-oup  together  the   most    inspired    of    the    poets. 
Some  40  authors  are  included  in  these  50  volumes.    The  Library  is  not  an  an- 
thology  of  poetical   quotations,   but  is  a   practically   complete     poetical     library 
for  everyday  use. 


(1)  "  Lays  of  Ancient  Rome,"  etc.;   (2)  Scott's  "  Marmion";    (3)  Byron's  "Cliilde 
Harold  ";     (4)    Lowell;     (5)    Burns;    (6)    Shakespeare's    "Romeo  and  Juliet";  (7) 
Longfellow's   "Evangeline,"   etc.;    (8)   Mrs.    Browning;  (9)  Thomas  Campbell; 
(10)    Milton's    "Paradise    Lost,"    Part    I.;    (11)    "The    Eaithly     Paradise," 
"Wm.   Morris;    (12)   Byron's   "  Childe   Harold,"  Part     II.;      (13)      Whittler; 
(14)    Chaucer;    (15)    Milton's   "Paradise   Lost,"  Part     II.;      (16)      Moore's 
Irish  melodies;    (17)   Bryant;   (18)   The  Story   of    St.     George    and    tne 
Dragon;    (19)   Keat&;    (20)    Scott's   "Lady  of  the  Lake";   (21)   Whit- 
tier,    Part  II.;    (22)    Shakespeare's   "Julius    Caesar";     (23)     Pope's 
"Essay    on    Man,"    etc.;      (21)  Tom  Hood;    (25)  Coleridge's  "An- 
cient  Mariner";    (26)    Matthew   Arnold;    (27)     Walt     Whitman; 
(28)    Shelley;    (29)    Tennyson's  '•  In    Memoriam";     (30)    Some 
Ingoldsby    Legends;    (31)    Scott's    "  Lay    of    the    Last    Min- 
strel " ;    (32)  Wordsworth,  Part  I.;   (33)  Cowper;   (34)   Dry- 
den;      (35)    Southey;      (36)    Legends    and    Ballads;     (37) 
Wordsworth,     Part    II.;    (38)    Browning;    (39)    Milton's 
"Paradise    Regained";    (40)    Gray   and    Goldsmith; 
(il)    Poems    for    Schoolroom   and    Scholar,    Part    1.; 
(42)    Shakespeare's    "  As     You     Like     It  ";      (43) 
Poems   for   Schoolroom   and    Scholar,    Part   II.; 
(44)     Thomson's     "  Seasons  ";      (45)     Keble's 
"Christian   Year";     (46)     Longfellow,     Part 
II.;    (47)    Matthew    Arnold,    Part    II.;    (48) 
Spenser's    "  Faerie    Queene,"    Part    II.; 
(49)       Hymns       That       Have       Helped 
(double  number) ;  (50)  .^Esop's  Fables 





to  the 
of  self- 
that  the 
affords.  . 

is  the  remarkable  offer  made 
for  alimited  time,  to  make  known 
tlie   Library  in  Australasia.      The 
50  books  are  neatly  printed  on  stout 
white    paper,  and    bound    in    flexible 
imitation  leatherette  covers.       Each  con- 
tains 64  pp.       Usually  the  50  volumes  are 
sold  as  a  set,  in  a  cloth  cabinet,  for  los.,  post 
free  any  address,  which  is  2jd.  each.    The  pub- 
lishers of  these  capital  little  volumes  of  poetry  for 
the  people  are  so  confident  the  perusal  of  a  dozen 
volumes  will  mean   the  purchase  of  fifty,  that  they 
make  the  very  generous  offer,  for  a  limited  period,  of 
IS.  6d.  per  dozen,  post  free  any  address  in  Austral- 

Look  at  contents  given  above,  choose  one  dozen 
or  more,  and  remit  is.  6d.  in  stamps  for  each  dozen 

r.  SHAW  FITCH ETT,  167-9  Queen  Stroet, 

neview  of  Reviews,  iO/Ji/o.'i. 

Eugene  Burnand.] 

[Copyright,    1902,    by   Photographische   Gesellschaft. 


These  words  spake  Jesus,   and  lifted  up  His  eyes  to  heaven,    and   said.    Father,   the   hour   is  come;    glorify   thy 
Son,  that  thy  Son  also  may  glorify  Thee."— John  xvii.  1. 

.(By  permission  of  the  Berlin   Photographic   Company,   London,   W.,   who  are  the  publishers  of  a  large  engraving,   of 

which  the  above  are  the  central  figures. 




167-169    OUEEN    STREET^,    MELBOURNE. 

Editor:  W.  H.  FItchett,  B.A..  LL.D.  Manager:  T.  Shaw  FItchett. 

Annual  Subscription  for  Australasia,  8/6. 

Vol.  XXII.     No.  4. 

APRIL  20,  1903. 

Price,  Ninepence. 


The     political     sensation     of     the 

Political     "^onth  has  been  supplied  by  Tas- 

Earthquake  mania.      The   general   election   in 

that  island  was  practically  almost  a 
revolution.  It  certainly  supplies  the  one 
instance  known  to  political  history  in 
which  a  Government  has  "  gone  to  the 
country "  without  a  single  member  of 
it  returning  from  that  pilgrimage  into 
the  unknown.  The  "country,"  in  this  instance, 
as  far  as  Ministers  are  concerned,  proved  to  be, 
like  death,  a  bourne  from  which  no  traveller 
returned.  An  almost  totally  new  House,  in- 
deed, emerges  from  the  struggle.  Eighteen 
of  the  old  members  were  rejected ;  not  a  single 
member  of  the  new  Parliament,  except  the 
Speaker,  has  ever  held  oflfice.  The  election 
^'wiped  the  political  slate  clean,"  in  Tasmania, 
with  a  thoroughness  which  has  almost  the 
effect  of  a  stroke  of  humour,  and  may  well 
serve  as  a  political  education  to  Australia  at 
large.  Many  explanations  of  this  extraordinary 
result  are  offered.  Ministers  were  unpopular 
alike  for  the  money  they  spent,  the  retrench- 
ments they  proposed,  and  the  taxes  they  un- 
dertook to  levy.  The  public  debt  under  their 
management  increased  in  two  years  by 
£682,041.  They  tried  to  remedy  the  finances 
by  an  income  tax  of  great  severity,  with  a  very 
low  untaxed  margin,  and  they  proposed  to 
trim  with  heroic  scissors  the  salaries  of  all 
Civil   servants.      They   had   failed,   again,   in 

carrying    out    any    plan    for    simplifying    the 
machinery  of  government. 

But  these,  after  all,  are  only  what 
The  Reason  may  be  called  the  secondary  causes 
**^'*  of  the  political  revolution  in  Tas- 
mania. The  elections  in  that 
island  simply  make  visible  at  one  point  a  wave 
of  popular  sentiment  which  is  felt  throughout 
the  whole  Commonwealth,  and  which  found 
expression  in  Victoria  in  the  Kyabram  move- 
ment, and  in  New  South  Wales  in  the  Tarn- 
worth  election.  That  feeling  is  one  of  pro- 
found discontent  with  the  general  drift  of  State 
politics,  and  with  the  general  policy  of  State 
Parliaments.  These  Parliaments  have  shown 
an  exasperating  reluctance  to  adjust  them- 
selves to  the  political  conditions  created  by 
Federation.  They  have  loitered  in  the  busi- 
ness of  reducing  their  own  scale  and  cost. 
They  stand,  as  a  rule,  for  extravagance  in  ex- 
penditure. It  vexes  the  common-sense  of  even 
"  the  man  in  the  street "  to  find  himself  the 
member  of  a  community  of  less  than  4,000,000 
people,  burdened  with  fourteen  Houses  of 
Parliament,  most  of  them  paid!  All  these 
Parliaments,  too,  are  clothing  themselves 
with  the  functions  of  a  semi-diving  pro- 
vidence. They  are  pursuing  the  unhappy 
citizen  with  legislation  throughout  every 
department  of  life,  and  through  all 
his  waking  and  sleeping  hours.  They  are 
burdening  him  in  his  down-sitting  and  in  his 



April  20 y  190^. 

up-rising-  with  ever-multiplying  inspections 
and  regulations.  Fort^'-six  members  of  the 
New  Zealand  Parliament  have  just  started  on 
a  six  weeks'  cruise  in  the  Pacific;  and  the 
feeling  of  "the  man  in  the  street''  undoubtedly 
is,  that  if  the  whole  fourteen — or,  including 
New  Zealand,  sixteen — Houses  of  Parliament 
could  be  put  on  board  a  ship,  and  despatched, 
say,  to  the  South  Pole,  it  would  be  the  great- 
est possible  service  these  bodies  could  render 
the  State ! 

But  the  "man  in  the  street"  does 
Public  not  represent  the  highest  form  of 
Feeling:     wisdom ;  and  the  feeling  we  here 

describe  is,  of  .course,  absurd  and 
unjust ;  yet  it  is  certain  that,  temporarily,  there 
is  a  discord  of  sentiment  betwixt  the  Parlia- 
ments and  the  general  community  throughout 
Australia.  The  Houses  do  not  reflect  the 
mind  of  the  people.  The  electors  are  anxious 
for  simpler  forms  of  government ;  less  inter- 
ference with  private  liberty ;  a  resolute 
economy  in  public  finance,  and  a  suspension 
of  the  policy  of  big  loans  and  huge  public 
works.  But  the  new  conditions  need  new 
men.  The  older  politicians  cannot  readily 
change  their  ideals,  or  learn  new  ways,  or 
evolve  a  new  political  conscience.  So  in  all  the 
States  the  recent  elections  have  dismissed 
crowds  of  older  members  to  private  life,  and 
the  process  will  certainly  go  on. 

The  new  Tasmanian  Cabinet  is  to 
Tasmanian  cousist  of  four  men,  the  smallest 
Policy  Cabinet  in  the  British  E!mpire,  but 
quite  larg^e  enough  for  a  commu- 
nity numbering  about  one-third  of  the  popula- 
tion of  Sydney  or  Melbourne.  All  are  new  to 
office;  and  the  Premier,  Mr.  Propsting,  has 
been  less  than  five  years  in  public  life.  The 
chief  features  of  its  policy  are:  simplification 
of  State  machinerv,  retrenchment  of  public 
expenditure,  and  stoppage  of  loans.  Already 
the  Tasmanian  pays  more  in  the  shape  of  in- 
terest on  his  public  debt  than  the  member  of 
any  other  Australian  State.  He  pays  nearlv 
four  times  as  much,  indeed,  as  the  average 
English  citizen;  although  Tasmania  has  no 
foreign  policy,  no  inherited  debt,  and  no  huge 
military  and  naval  Budget!     One  feature  of 

Tasmanian  retrenchment  is  that  a  severe  re- 
duction in  the  salaries  of  Civil  servants  forms 
no  part  of  it.  The  Civil  Service  in  Tasmania 
has  not  expanded  to  the  enormous  dimensions 
known  in  the  sister  States,  and  the  scale  of 
payments  is  not  excessive.  With  an  abso- 
lutely new  House,  made  up  in  the  main  of 
business  men  and  of  young  men,  Tasmanian 
politics  may  be  expected  to  yield  some  refresh- 
ing novelties. 

The  new,  intense,  and  most  whole- 
Federai  Ex-  somc  sentiment  in  favour  of  the  re- 
travagance  ^^^^Jqj^  of  public  expenditure,  and 

of  the  public  burdens,  will  certainly 
make  itself  felt  in  the  Commonwealth  Parlia- 
ment, and  will  colour  Commonwealth  legisla- 
tion. It  may  well  postpone  for.  a  while  the 
creation  of  the  Federal  capital ;  and  postpone, 
too,  that  legal  luxurv  the  Federal  High  Court. 
No  doubt  a  final  interpreter  of  Australian  law 
on  Australian  soil  is,  sooner  or  later,  a  neces- 
sity. It  would  be  a  nearer  and  more  acces- 
sible, though  probably  not  a  cheaper,  tribunal 
than  the  Privy  Council.  But  to  set  up  a 
Federal  judiciary,  at  a  cost  of  £30,000  a  year, 
would,  in  the  present  condition  of  Australian 
finances,  be  an  ofifence  against  reason.  There 
are  six  Supreme  Court  benches — all  highly 
paid,  of  great  ability,  and  of  the  highest  cha- 
racter— already  in  existence.  If  a  Federal 
Court  of  Appeal  has  to  be  created,  the  six 
Chief  Justices  of  the  States  might  form  such 
a  Court.  It  would  be  a  Court  of  unrivalled 
character  and  ability;  it  would  make  scarcely 
any  addition  to  the  cost  of  Federal  administra- 
tion, and  could  do  its  work  without  injury  to 
the  legal  business  of  the  State  Courts. 

New  South  Wales  has  supplied  some 

"""w^rth  ^^citi"R  political  incidents  during 

Election    the  month.     One  is  the  Tamworth 

election,  which  has  been  described 
as  "the  New  South  Wales  Kyabram."  Under 
ordinary  conditions  a  bye-election  has  little 
significance ;  but  everyone  realised  that  the 
voting  at  Tamworth  would  make  visible  the 
general  drift  of  public  sentiment  in  New 
South  Wales ;  and  never  yet  in  the  political 
history  of  that  State  has  a  single  elec- 
tion   been     fought    with     so     much     energy 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/J,/iU. 



and  by  so  many  combatants.  There  were 
three  candidates,  representing  the  three  po- 
Htical  parties — the  Government,  the  Opposi- 
tion, and  the  Labour  party — and  the  rush  of 
honourable  members  to  the  scene  of  conflict 
suggests  the  gathering  of  the  clans  in  "Young 
Lochinvar" : 

There  was  mounting  'niong  Graemes   of  the  Netherby 

Forsters,    Fenwickes,    and    Musgraves,    they    rode    and 

they  ran. 

At  Tamworth  itself  during  the  days  before 
the  election  a  stone  could  hardly  be  thrown 
in  any  direction  without  hitting  a  member  of 
Parliament.  Every  balcony  in  the  town  was 
occupied  each  night,  and  for  many  ihours 
during  the  day,  by  perspiring  orators.  Thir- 
teen Ministerialists,  including  seven  Ministers, 
fifteen  members  of  the  Opposition,  and  four- 
teen members  of  the  Labour  party  were  per- 
orating and  canvassing  simultaneously,  or  in 
successive  detachments,  in  Tamworth. 
Roughly  speaking,  nearly  one-half  the  New 
South  Wales  Parliament  was  emptied,  as  if 
out  of  a  balloon,  on  the  astonished  electors  of 
Tamworth.  As  a  result,  the  Labour  represen- 
tative polled  only  one  vote  in  eleven,  and  the 
Opposition  candidate,  Mr.  Garland,  was  re- 
turned by  a  majority  of  137. 

The  Tamworth  election  will  cer- 
poiiticai  t^^^^y  make  history.  Ministers, 
Warning  indeed,  afifect  to  regard  the  inci- 
dent as  "of  no  importance,"  and 
the  Labour  party,  with  happy  and  irrespon- 
sible rhetoric,  announce  that  the  position  of 
their  candidate — at  the  bottom  of  the  poll — is 
a  "moral  victory" !  But  the  Tamworth  election 
is  something  more  than  a  ripple  showing 
which  way  the  tide  runs.  It  will  help  to  deter- 
mine the  flow  of  the  tide!  For  the  average 
politician,  like  Providence  as  Napoleon  under- 
stood it,  is  apt  to  be  on  the  side  of  the  strong- 
est battalion.  Public  sentiment  in  New  South 
Wales,  as  everywhere  else  throughout  Aus- 
tralia, is  eager  for  a  simpler  form  of  State 
Parliament,  lighter  public  burdens,  and  no 
more  borrowing.  The  story  of  State  politics 
in  New  South  Wales  since  Federation  need 
only  be  stated  in  the  simplest  form  to  be 

Under  Federation  three  great  de- 
Amazing  partments  were  transferred  from 
Finance     ^j^g  State ;  the  public  revenue  was 

increased  as  a  result  of  the  Federal 
tarifif,  and  rose  to  £11,178,214,  of  which  no  less 
than  £2,053,126  was  yielded  by  the  sale  or  lease 
of  public  lands — a  reduction,  that  is,  as  far  as 
sales  at  least  are  concerned,  of  the  national 
estate.  Yet  new  loans  were  floated — no  less 
than  £4,890,000  in  a  single  year — and 
the  expenditure,  which  averaged  less  than 
£11,000,000,  was  expanded  to  something  like 
£15,000,000;  or  from  £8  lis.  2d.  per  head  to 
£12  13s.  2d.  The  public  debt  of  New  South 
Wales  has  been  increased  by  £17,000,000  in  a 
little  over  three  years ;  and  it  is  still  increasing ! 
In  nine  months  of  the  present  financial  year 
the  expenditure  has  exceeded  the  revenue  by 
over  £700,000.  This  is,  of  course,  the  mere 
irresponsible  lunacy  of  extravagance.  For  no 
other  group  of  human  beings  in  the  civilised 
world  during  the  last  two  years  has  the  ex- 
penditure of  government  been  so  huge  as  for 
the  1,400,000  inhabitants  of  New  South  Wales. 
Sir  John  See  told  the  electors  of  Tamworth 
that  he  "regarded  our  huge  public  debt_as  a 
public  credit ;  because  by  it  the  Tamworth  and 
other  railways  were  made  possible."  That  sen- 
tence gives  an  instructive  glimpse  of  the  state 
of  Sir  John  See's  mind.  The  logic  which  suc- 
ceeds in  persuading  itself  that  a  huge  public 
debt  is  "a  public  credit"  is  truly  remarkable. 
It  suggests  the  story  of  the  enterprising  Amer- 
ican who,  as  a  proof  of  his  success,  told  in  ex^ 
ultant  tones  that  "when  he  began  business  ten 
years  ago  he  had  not  a  cent,  and  now  he  owed 

But    aflfairs    are    to    be    mended. 

The        though  the  process  is  certain  to  be 

Remedy    glow  and  difficult,  and  to  involve 

much  sufifering.  A  political  "rake's 
progress"  of  such  velocity  cannot  be  arrested 
without  a  shock  which  will  strain  the  whole 
machine.  Mr.  Waddell,  the  New  South 
Wales  Treasurer,  startled  the  public  by 
delivering  at  Cowra  a  speech  in  which 
he  showed,  at  least,  that  he  realised  the 
seriousness  of  the  financial  situation.  He  was 
prepared,  he  said,  to  consider  drastic  schemes 
of  retrenchment,  including  "an  all-round  re- 



April  20,  IP03. 

duction  of  salaries,"  a  stern  reduction  in  the 
scale  of  old  age  pensions,  etc.  This  announce- 
ment has  exasperated  the  Civil  servants,  who 
complain  that  "we  are  now  asked  to  pay  for 
Mr.  O'Sullivan  having  kept  the  day-labour 
boom  going,  and  placated  the  Labour  party  up 
to  date."  They  have  "had  to  see  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  pounds  thrown  away  in  extrav- 
agance, and  are  now  required  to  recoup  it  out 
of  their  salaries."  Mr.  O'Sullivan,  as  a  mat- 
ter of  fact,  has  himself  grown  tired  of  what  is 
termed  "  the  day-labour  razzle."  The  rate  of 
pay  on  relief  works  for  the  unemployed  has 
been  reduced  from  7s.  a  day  to  6s. ;  where- 
upon a  number  of  the  unemployed  "  struck  " ! 
Mr.  Waddell,  When  he  made  his  speech, 
spoke  for  himself,  and  not  for  the  Cabinet ; 
and  Sir  John  See  declines  to  either  confirm  or 
disavow  his  views.  Parliament  is  to  be  called 
together,  and  he  reserves  any  statement  of 
policy  till  the  House  meets.  It  is  certain 
that  State  politics  in  New  South  Wales  are 
likely  to  become  very  animated. 

New  Zealand  is  once  more  to  enjov 

New        the  luxury  of  a  surplus,  a  surplus 

Zealand    -^hich  Mr.  Seddon  announces  will 

be  from  £250,000  to  £300,000.  The 
best  proof  of  the  solid  and  great  prosperity 
enjoyed  by  the  colony,  however,  is  found  in 
the  circumstance  that  its  population  increased 
last  year  by  20,000  persons;  and  this  without 
any  State-aided  immigration.  The  ugly  fea- 
ture in  the  Australian  outlook,  the  sufficient 
condemnation  of  many  features  in  its  policy, 
is  found  in  the  circumstance  that  it  has  ceased 
to  attract  immigrants ;  and  it  is  the  avowed 
policy  of  the  Labour  party  to  discourage  im- 
migration. Canada,  on  the  contrary,  is 
eagerly  competing  for  new  population.  It 
has  despatched  fifty  prosperous  farmers  to 
lecture  throughout  Great  Britain  on  the  ad- 
vantages that  Canada  oflfers.  The  first  of  the 
fifty  who  arrived  in  London  told  a  press  inter- 
viewer that  he  had  landed  in  Canada  twenty 
years  before,  carrying  his  entire  possessions 
wrapped  up  in  a  pocket  handkerchief ;  at  the 
end  of  twenty  years  he  was  drawing  £2,000  a 
year  clear  from  his  wheat  fields !  This  is  the 
tale  which  will  set  the  listening  ears  of  Eng- 
lish farm  labourers  tingling!       It  is  expected 

that  at  least  200,000  immigrants  from  Great 
Britain  will  land  in  Canada  this  year.  This 
means  the  addition  of,  say,  twenty  new  towns 
of  ten  thousand  inhabitants  each  planted  on 
Canadian  soil  in  a  single  year.  Over  a  million 
emigrants  leave  Europe  annually  to  settle  in 
new  lands,  and  each  immigrant  is  estimated 
to  be  worth  £100  to  the  land  which  receives 
'him.  What  the  Australian  continent,  with 
its  measureless  spaces,  needs  is  population ; 
and  the  spectacle  of  a  few  great  and  crowded 
cities  perched  on  the  edge  of  an  empty  con- 
tinent, and  warning  the  rest  of  the  world  off,  is 
one  hitherto  unknown  to  civilised  mankind. 
Victoria,  to  take  only  one  case,  is  losing  popu- 
lation at  the  rate  of  16,000  per  annum.  What 
a  satire  on  Victorian  politics  ! 

South  Australia  is  reaping  the  re- 
south  ward  of  an  early  and  courageous 
Australia  adjustment  of  both  its  finances  and 
its  political  constitution  to  the  new 
conditions  under  Federation.  The  drought 
affected  only  part  of  the  area  of  the  State ;  in 
the  south  and  south-eastern  parts  pastoralists 
and  farmers  have  had  a  splendid  year,  and  the 
high  prices  have,  of  course,  turned  the  wheat 
fields  in  these  districts  into  fields  of  gold. 
South  Australia  is  not  plunging  into  big  loans, 
or  making  doubtful  social  experiments.  For 
years,  indeed,  it  has  had  the  sanest  financial 
policy  of  any  Australian  State.  The  point  of 
equilibrium  betwixt  its  income  and  its  expen- 
diture seems  to  be  reached,  and  the  horizon  of 
the  State  steadily  brightens. 

Mr.  Russell,  the  Government  As- 
The  Secret  tronomer  of  New  South  Wales, 
the  Drought  thinks  he  has  discovered  the  secret 

of  Australian  droughts.  He  has 
the  rainfall  records  for  1867- 1903,  a  period  of 
thirty-six  years;  he  finds  that  they  resolve 
themselves  into  four  alternating  groups  of 
roughly  nine  years  each,  with  an  average  rain- 
fall of  29.47  inches,  21.64  inches,  28.39  inches, 
and  20.24  inches  respectively.  This  seems 
to  show,  Mr.  Russell  argues,  that  droughts 
come  in  cycles,  and  the  cycles  correspond  with 
the  relations  of  the  moon  to  the  earth.  The 
moon  to  the  south  of  our  hemisphere  means 
good  seasons;  the  moon  to  the  north  means 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/^/03. 



drought.  This  explanation  has  at  least  the 
merit  of  simplicity;  but  is  the  demonstration 
perfect?  The  area  of  facts  observed  is  narrow ; 
the  alleged  cause,  if  it  is  in  operation,  must 
affect  other  lands  than  Australia,  and  there  is 
no  proof  that  this  is  the  case.  Moreover,  it 
is  easy  to  shuffle  Mr.  Russell's  figures  afresh, 
and  produce  another  and  conflicting  set  of 
cycles.  A  Scotch  verdict  of  *' not  proven" 
must  certainly  stand  against  Mr.  Russell's 

If    it    were    possible,    indeed,    to 

RemedieB  foi*^cast    the    arrival    of    a    great 

!  drought,    its    evils   would   be   half 

destroyed;  until  this  is  done, 
however,  it  is  clear  that  the  mischiefs 
of  a  drought  might  be  enormously  reduced 
by  foresight  and  a  wise  use  of  the  re- 
sources which  nature  puts  at  man's  disposal. 
The  valley  of  the  Lachlan,  for  example,  in  a 
wet  season,  resembles  an  arm  of  the  sea.  The 
river  expands  into  vast  proportions;  but  the 
mighty  and  fertilising  floods  are  allowed  to 
flow  unchecked  into  mere  space.  It  is  calculated 
that  a  weir  on  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Lach- 
lan, at  a  cost  of  £250,000,  would  store  for  use 
in  dry  seasons  an  enormous  body  of  water; 
and  this  would  make  possible  a  wide  ribbon  of 
irrigation  along  the  whole  extent  of  the  river, 
which  would  serve  as  a  resource  against 
drought  and  make  it  possible  for  the  sheep- 
owners  to  keep  their  flocks  alive  through  rain- 
less years.  The  water  problem  of  eastern  Aus- 
tralia, experts  declare,  may  be  solved  in  the 
valley  of  the  Lachlan.  It  is  certain  that  the 
drought  has  burnt  in,  as  in  characters  of  fire, 
some  wholesome  lessons  on  the  imagination  of 
Australian  stock-owners;  and  no  future 
drought  will  repeat  the  dreadful  mischiefs  of 
the  drought  just  ended. 

The  question  of  the  naval  defence 
Naval      of  Australia,  and  of  the  part  which 
Defence    Australians  themselves  are  to  take 
in  it,  continues  to  supply  the  text 
of  a  lively  discussion  on  both  sides  of  the  sea. 
The  Federal   Cabinet  has  announced  that  it 
will  stand  or  fall  as  a  Government  by  the  in- 
creased naval  subsidy;    and  though  there  is 
certain  to  be  a  fierce  Parliamentary  debate  on 
the  subject,  it  may  be  safely  assumed  that  the 

increased  subsidy  will  be  granted.  For  Aus- 
tralians, it  may  be  added,  the  question  of 
naval  defence  is  not  one  of  a  little 
more,  or  of  a  little  less,  cost.  Even 
when  the  subsidy  has  been  increased  the 
naval  contribution  of  each  Australian  per  head 
is  a  little  less  than  thirteenpence,  while  for 
each  person  in  the  United  Kingdom  it  is  15s. 
2d. !  The  real  matter  in  debate  is,  "Shall  Aus- 
tralia contribute  only  cash  to  her  own  naval 
defence,  or  shall  she,  in  addition,  contribute 
men?"  Is  she  to  have  a  real  and  living  part- 
nership in  the  fleet,  and  so  make  the  fleet  itself 
part  of  the  sea-education  of  her  people,  a  help 
to  the  development  of  a  national  interest  in 
maritime  affairs? 

For  ourselves,  we  have  no  doubt 

and   ^  whatever  as    to    the    direction    in 

the  Sea    which  Australian  sentiment  flows, 

and  will  flow.  A  full-dress  debate 
on  this  subject  was  held  in  the  Royal  Colonial 
Institute  before  a  brilliant  and  representative 
audience,  with  the  Earl  of  Aberdeen  in  the 
chair,  and  the  best  naval  experts  in  the  Em- 
pire took  part  in  the  discussion.  *  Admiral  Sir 
N.  Bowden-Smith,  in  the  course  of  the  debate, 
paid  the  editor  of  this  magazine  a  quite  too 
spacious  compliment.  He  said :  "  He  quite 
understood  the  aspirations  of  Australians; 
they  had,  he  believed,  been  largely  shaped  by 
that  distinguished  writer.  Dr.  W.  H.  Fitchett, 
Whose  book  on  Nelson  was  one  that  every 
English  boy  ought  to  read."  No  one  person 
can  pretend  to  have  "shaped"  Australian  sen- 
timent on  this  subject,  but  any  person  of  aver- 
age intelligence  can  interpret  it.  The  question 
has  been  obscured  by  a  hundred  irrelevant  is- 
sues. Men  of  straw  have  been  set  up  and 
knocked  down  by  ingenious  disputants  with  an 
almost  mournful  waste  of  energy.  No  one 
proposes,  for  example,  that  Australia  shall 
spend  millions  just  now  in  buying  or  building 
a  fleet  of  her  own.  That  the  Imperial  fleet  is 
a  unit  and  must  be  under  a  single  control ;  that 
Australia,  under  some  conditions,  might  be 
best  defended  by  a  battle  fought,  say,  in  Chi- 
nese waters,  are  platitudes.  No  one  dreams 
of  denying  them.  But  without  injury  to  those 
venerable  aphorisms  it  is  quite  possible  for 
Australia    to    make    a    contribution    to    the 



April  20,  190^. 

navy  which  would  be  worth  more  to  the 
Empire  than  any  cash  payment;  and  which 
would,  in  addition,  perfectly  satisfy  Australian 
aspirations,  and  act  as  a  tonic  on  Australian 

Admiral  Sir  N.  Bowden-Smith 
The  himself  suggests  one  way.  Let 
Wiser  Way  ^  certain  number  of  ships  be  pro- 
vided by  England,  but  be  manned 
and  officered  by  Australians,  and  paid  at  Aus- 
tralian rates  out  of  Imperial  funds;  the  ships 
to  form  part  of  the  Australian  squadron  and 
be  absolutely  under  the  authority  of  the  ad- 
miral in  command.  Or  let  Great  Britain  build 
a  certain  number  of  ships  specially  fitted  for 
Australian  coast  defence;  swift  boats,  that  is, 
heavily  armed  ;  but,  since  they  are  not  intended 
for  long  sea  travel,  of  light  coal  capacity.  Let 
it  be  remembered  that  all  the  Imperial  ships, 
since  they  are  intended  for  service  in  all  seas, 
sacrifice  weight  of  armour  and  gun-power  to 
coal  capacity.  The  Americans  in  the  war  of 
1 812  won  naval  victories  which  set  every 
British  captain  betwixt  Halifax  and  Ports- 
mouth swearing,  by  building  frigates 
with  the  gun-power  of  line-of-battle 
ships.  And  to-day  if  a  British  and  American 
ship-of-war  of  equal  tonnage  be  compared,  the 
American  will  have  nearly  twice  the  hitting 
power  of  the  British  ship.  The  British  Ad- 
miralty is  at  last  admitting  its  own  defective 
policy  in  this  matter,  and  is  increasing  the  gun- 
power  of  its  ships.  But  ships  built  for  coast 
defence,  which  never  move  far  from  their  coal 
base,  may  easily  carry  a  weight  of  armour  and 
a  scale  of  guns  impossible  to  ships  built  for 
long  sea  travel.  All  this  goes  to  prove  that 
Australian  coast  defence  may  be  best  served 
by  a  section  of  the  Australian  squadron  being 
ships  of  a  special  type ;  and  these,  supplied  and 
paid  by  the  Imperial  Government,  might  be 
manned  and  officered  by  Australians  and  New 

The  labour  problem  is  in  its  most 

Labour     Unsettled  and  trying  stage  in  Vic- 

Troubies    ^qj.^^^  where  the  existing  scheme — 

that     of     the     wages     boards — is 

hopelessly  discredited,  and  no  other  scheme  is, 

as  yet,  definitely  proposed.    Evidence  as  to  the 

mischiefs  wrought  by  the  wages  boards  multi- 

plies. They  have  raised  the  wages  of  a  sec- 
tion of  the  artisan  class;  but  they  have  nar- 
rowed the  area  of  employment,  they  have  un- 
settled business,  they  have  destroyed  some  in- 
dustries altogether,  they  have  widened  the  in- 
terval betwixt  employers  and  employed,  and 
they  have  swollen  the  great  army  of  the  un- 
employed. The  ''  Age,"  the  organ  of  the 
Protectionist  party,  and  which  interprets,  as 
far  as  any  one  journal  can  interpret,  the  mind 
of  the  working  classes,  is  publishing  a  striking 
series  of  articles  on  "  The  Industrial  Situa- 
tion.'' It  gives  statistics  showing  that  \'\c- 
torian  manufacturers  have  lost  since  1899 
trade  to  the  value  of  £800,000.  This  means, 
of  course,  a  great  reduction  in  the  amount  of 
labour  employed,  and  a  shrinkage  in  the  wage 
fund  of  the  State.  It.  is  proved,  as  far  as 
figures  can  prove  anything,  that  the  legislation 
intended  to  serve  the  working  classes  of  the 
State  has  seriously  injured  them.  Behind  this 
legislation  were  the  most  benevolent  inten- 
tions; but  nature  is  very  cruel  sometimes  to 
mere  "  benevolent  intentions." 

The  industrial  unions  of  Victoria 
A  New      ^j.g  employinpf  Mr.  Tom  Mann,  at 

Political  ,  .    ,         1  (( 

Leader  a  substantial  salary,  to  organise 
the  labour  forces  "  of  the  State  for 
a  new  campaign ;  and  Mr.  Tom  Mann's  ideals 
of  future  legislation  are  of  a  somewhat  alarm- 
ing character.  He  would  reduce  the  work- 
ing day  to  six  hours,  and  impose  a  land  tax 
of  such  an  actively  progressive  sort  that,  by  its 
means,  "  the  whole  of  the  unearned  income 
shall  become  the  property  of  the  State." 
"  There  would  be  nO'  poverty  in  the  world," 
Mr.  Tom  Mann  holds,  "  but  for  the  monopoly 
of  raw  material  and  machinery  by  the  capital- 
istic section."  Here  is  a  sample  of  Mr.  Tom 
Mann's  teaching: 

The  question  was.  How  inue|i  of  the  total  wealth 
they  produced  were  the  workers  entitled  to  receive? 
Mr.  Mann  said  the  worker  was  entitled  to  the  lot,  after 
expenses  and  State  charges  had  been  paid.  He  in- 
cluded the  brain-worker  amongst  the  producers,  pro- 
vided his  aim  was  to  benefit  the  community,  and  main- 
tained that  no  man  who  did  not  work  (the  man  who 
lived  on  the  unearned  increment,  for  instance)  should 
get  anything.  Amongst  ideals  the  unions  were  to 
strive  for  were  the  State  ownership  of  the  land  and 
nationalisation  of  the  industries. 

Mr.  Tom  Mann  adds  that  :he  is  in  favour  of 
''  solid  anarchy ;"  though  he  adopts  a  some- 
what  ethereal   rendering   of   that   ugly   word 

Rccicic  <i(  lleciixs.  2i)/.'i/ii.i. 



'*  anarchy."  England  sends  us  this  new 
authority  on  political  economy,  though  the 
pockets  of  Victorian  working  men  pay  him. 
But  Mr.  Tom  Mann's  advent  will  certainly  not 
add  to  the  industrial  peace  of  Australia. 


Victoria  has  got  its  new  and 
amended  constitution.  Representa- 
tives of  the  two  Houses  met  in 
conference;  and,  after  a  long  and 
anxious  debate,  an  agreement  was  reached, 
was  accepted  by  both  Houses,  and  is  reserved 
for  the  Royal  assent.  The  new  constitution 
is,  of  course,  a  compromise,  and  does  not  ex- 
press fully  the  ideals  of  either  party.  The  As- 
sembly is  reduced  to  sixty-eight  and  the  Coun- 
cil to  thirty-five  members ;  woman's  suffrage  is 
abandoned ;  the  franchise  for  the  Council  is  re- 
duced to  £10  freehold  and  £15  leasehold  per 
annum;  if  the  Council  rejects  a  Bill  the  As- 
sembly may  dissolve  on  the  question  as  an  ap- 
peal to  the  country;  if  the  Council  again  re- 
jects the  measure  both  Houses  are  dissolved. 
There  are  to  be  two  dissolutions  of  the  As- 
sembly, that  is,  and  one  of  the  Council,  as  a 
penalty  for  disagreement.  The  Civil  Service 
vote  is  represented  by  two  members  in  the  As- 
sembly and  one  in  the  Council.  Under  the 
new  constitution  the  Council  has  the  right  of 
suggesting  amendments  at  every  stage  of  a 
money-bill.  Both  existing  Houses  are  to  be 
dissolved  for  re-election  on  the  new  basis.  The 
constitution  ought  to  work  well,  and  the  re- 
duced Houses  represent  a  certain  financial 
saving.  But  Parliaments  are  only  means  to  an 
end;  and  the  real  work  of  reform  in  Victoria 
— the  task  of  prudent  finance  and  of  healing 
legislation,  that  is — has  yet  to  be  undertaken. 

Great    interest — much    of    it    of    a 
Customs    political  sort — has  gathered  round 
cutions     in  what  is  called  "  the  Reid  Cus- 
toms   case"    at    Brisbane.        The 
Customs    Department   instituted   proceedings 
against  Robert  Reid  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  for  ''  passing 
false  entries  with  intent  to   defraud."       Mr. 
Reid  was  a  member  of  the  Irvine- Cabinet,  was 
elected  by  both  Houses  of  the  Victorian  Par- 
liament to  fill  the  seat  in  the  Federal  Senate 
made  vacant  by  the  death  of  Sir  Frederick 
Sargood,  and  is  a  man  of  the  highest  com- 

mercial standing.  The  case  lasted  twenty- 
six  days;  the  jury  found  against  the  defen- 
dants on  every  count,  and  the  judge  imposed  a 
penalty  of  £50.  Under  ordinary  circum- 
stances such  a  verdict  would  drive  its  object 
from  public  life ;  but  probably  nine  persons  out 
of  every  ten  in  Australia  hold  that  at  least  Mr. 
Reid's  personal  character  emerges  untouched 
from  the  case.  Under  a  new  and  complex 
tariff,  where  the  classification  of  goods  is  yet 
in  an  embryo  stage,  a  thousand  disputes — dis- 
putes representing  mere  conflict  of  judgment 
amongst  experts — are  sure  to  arise.  The  Cus- 
toms authorities  try,  naturally  enough,  to  col- 
lect the  largest  amount  of  duty  possible,  and 
to  classify  all  the  multitudinous  items  of 
modern  trade  under  the  heads  which  carry  the 
heaviest  duties.  The  representatives  of  the 
importing  houses  try  to  secure  exactly  oppo- 
site results ;  and  in  the  struggle  there  are  end- 
less blunders  on  both  sides,  and  much  sharp 
practice,  it  may  be  added,  also  on  both  sides. 

Mr.  Kingston  has  somehow  suc- 
Kingrston's  ceeded  in  pouring  gall  into  the  re- 
'^*'"tion*''*'lations  betwixt  his  own  department 

and  the  trading  community  gener- 
ally. He  himself  is  not  merely  incorruptible, 
but  what  may  be  called  aggressively  incorrupt- 
ible; incorruptible  after  the  type  of  Carlyle's 
"  seagreen  incorruptible'"  himself!  But  it 
would  be  unfair  to  suggest  that  the  triumphant 
consciousness  of  his  own  excessive  virtue  tends 
to  make  Mr.  Kingston  suspect  the  virtue  of 
everybody  else.  He  fails  as  an  administrator 
— or,  rather,  he  misses  the  success  as  an  ad- 
ministrator which  his  energy,  honesty,  and 
mental  power  ought  to  win — for  two  reasons. 
First,  he  is  a  lawyer,  not  a  business  man,  and 
he  does  not  in  the  least  understand  that  prime 
secret  of  business  success,  the  art  of  organisa- 
tion; the  art  of  choosing  able  men,  and  then 
trusting  details  to  them.  Mr.  Kingston  does 
everything  himself !  A  great  bank,  or  a  great 
newspaper,  run  by  Mr.  Kingston,  and  on  the 
methods  employed  in  the  Federal  Customs, 
would  simply  come  to  a  standstill.  Then,  by 
some  mental  peculiarity,  Mr.  Kingston  is  un- 
able to  distinguish  betwixt  the  relative  sizes  of 
things.  He  cannot  see  that  trifles  are  trifles. 
He  treats  them  as  if  they  were  Alps! 



April  20,  1^03. 

All  this  helps  to  explain  the  tumult 
which  rages  at  the  Federal  Cus- 
toms: the  incessant  disputes,  the 
outcries,  the  accusations,  the 
prosecutions!  The  Customs  Department 
succeeded,  after  twenty-six  days'  trial  at 
Brisbane,  in  securing  a  verdict  against 
Robert  Reid  &  Co. ;  that  firm  has  paid  £90,000 
in  duty,  the  amount  in  debate  was  little  over 
i8o,  the  fine  imposed  was  £50.  In  another 
prosecution  against  the  same  firm  in  Adelaide, 
the  verdict  of  the  court  was  against  the  Cus- 
toms Department,  with  costs.  Another  prose- 
cution was  begun  against  the  great  firm  of 
Sargood,  Butler  &  Nicol;  the  ofifence  was  a 
clerical  error  in  a  transfer  certificate  for  im- 
ported goods  consigned  to  a  town  in  another 
State ;  it  was  discovered  by  the  firm  itself ;  the 
amount  involved  was  8s.  6d.  A  prosecution 
was,  however,  instituted;  was  cancelled  by  the 
department ;  was  begun  afresh  "by  a  mistake," 
and  was  again  cancelled.  Prosecutions  by 
the  Customs  Department  have  lost  all  mean- 
ing, and  even  convictions  are  without  much 
moral  weight,  under  the  present  administra- 
tion; and  this  is  a  public  misfortune. 

The  wave  of  sentiment  in  New 
Prohibition  Zealand  against  the  liquor  traffic 
still  runs  strongly,  and  is  of  great 
volume.  The  official  figures  of 
the  voting  at  the  last  local  option  poll  are 
striking: — 148,449  votes  were  recorded  in 
favour  of  continuing  existing  licenses — includ- 
ing one  district,  that  of  Clutha,  where  the  vote 
(1,368)  was  for  restoration  of  the  licenses  can- 
celled at  the  poll  taken  in  1899 — 132,240  for  re- 
duction, and  151,524  for  no  license  (including 
2,245  votes  cast  for  non-restoration  in  the 
Clutha  district).  This  shows  a  narrow, 
but  clear,  majority  in  favour  of  prohibi- 
tion. It  will,  of  course,  need  an  over- 
whelming majority  to  make  prohibition, 
as  a  general  policy,  effective;  meanwhile 
the  temperance  sentiment  is  registering  itself 
in^  the  annual  election  of  the  licensing  com- 
mittees. These  have  been  captured  in  great 
numbers,  and  the  restraints  on  the  trade  are 
being  drawn  steadily  tighter.  There  will  be 
no  "  dead  letter !'  in  future  amongst  the  regu- 

lations affecting  public-houses.  It  seems  pro- 
bable that  at  the  next  general  election  three 
of  the  great  cities  of  New  Zealand — Welling- 
ton, Dunedin,  and  Christchurch — will  declare 
in  favour  of  prohibition.  In  New  Zealand, 
as  in  Ontario,  the  sentiment  in  favour  of  try- 
ing some  heroic  remedy  for  the  dreadful  mis- 
chiefs of  the  liquor  traffic  is  gathering  over- 
whelming strength. 

At  the  moment  we  go  to  press  the 
st*^t  State  Premiers  are  in  conference, 
Premiers  and  are  discussing  a  very  wide  area 
of  subjects  indeed ;  ranging  from 
"  the  control  of  the  Murray  river  waters  "  to 
"  the  establishment  of  a  Federal  Government 
printing  office;"  from  "the  question  of  the  rela- 
tive precedence  of  Federal  and  State  officials 
to  that  of  "  the  creation  of  a  Federal  capital  " 
and  "  the  federation  of  State  loans."  The 
annual  conference  of  State  Premiers  serves 
many  uses,  and  it  promises  to  become  a  per- 
manent part  of  the  machinery  of  government. 
There  is,  however,  just  a  little  danger,  at  the 
present  moment — when  the  relations  betwixt 
the  Commonwealth  and  the  States  are  new, 
undefined,  and  somewhat  exasperated — that 
the  conference  of  Premiers  may  become  a 
centre  of  hostile  influence,  a  weapon  of  offence 
and  defence  against  the  Federal  Government 

Someone  has  suddenly  remembered 
that  there  is  a  stain  of  suspicious 
colour  on  the  fair  face  of  a  "  white 
Australia."  The  brown  man  of 
Asia  and  the  black  man  of  the  South  Sea 
groups  may  be  kept  out  by  a  sufficiently 
severe  legislation ;  but  what  about  the  sooty 
Australian  aboriginal  himself?  New  Zea- 
land has  40,000  Maoris ;  but  Australia  has 
some  160,000  aboriginals.  There  are  70,000 
in  Western  Australia,  50,000  in  South  Aus- 
tralia, and  25,000  in  Queensland.  The  total 
number  of  coloured  people  of  other  races  in 
Australia — Kanakas,  Chinese,  etc. — is  about 
50,000;  so  that  the  Australian  blackfellow 
contributes  a  splash  of  suspicious  colour  to  the 
Australian  complexion  three  times  as  big  as 
that  of  all  the  other  coloured  races  put  to- 
gether!      Australia   is   still   distressingly    far 

iMixed  Tints 


Review  of  Rei:iewit,  20/i/().l. 



from  being-  white.  In  Western  Australia,  ap- 
parently, the  problem  of  the  wise  and  humane 
treatment  of  the  blacks  has  not  yet  been  solved. 
The  Australian  aboriginal  has  not  the  endur- 
ing fibre  and  the  fighting  energy  of  the  New 
Zealand  Maori ;  but  he  is  capable  of  being  both 
civilised  and  Christianised;  and  he  is  entitled 
to  the  most  generous  consideration  from  the 
white  race  which  has  taken  his  continent  from 

LONDON,  March  2,  1903. 
The   King   opened    Parliament   in 
openfris    ^tate  on  February  17.    The  King's 
»     ..'*^         Speech    was    long,  and    calls    for 

Parliament,...^  ^        "' 

little  comment.  The  programme 
of  legislation  promised  contained  four  princi- 
pal measures  and  seven  minor  Bills,  to  which 
Ministers  were  constrained,  in  the  debates  on 
the  Address,  to  add  three  others — one  dealing 
with  the  Housing  Question,  the  second  plac- 
ing restrictions  on  the  immigration  of  unde- 
sirable aliens,  and  the  third  amending  the  law 
against  frauds  on  the  Stock  Exchange.  The 
King's  Speech  list  of  promised  Bills  was  as 
follows : 

(1)  An  Irish  Land  Bill. 

(2)  An  Education  Bill  for  London  on  the  lines  of  the 
general  Education  Bill  of  last  Session. 

(3)  A  Bill  to  give  effect  to  the  Brussels  Sugar  Con- 

(4)  A  South  African  Loans  Bill. 

(5)  A  Bill  to  deal  with  the  Port  of  London. 

(6)  A  Scotch  Licensing  Bill. 

(7)  An   Amendment   of  the   Law   of   Valuation   and 

(8)  A  Bill  to  regulate  the  Employment  of  Children. 

(9)  A  Bill  to  deal  with  adulterated  Dairy  Produce. 

(10)  A  Savings  Bank  Bill. 

(11)  The  Eeform  of  the  Patriotic  Commission. 


Dr.  Macnamara  secured  the  firs*- 
Opening  place  for  his  amendrfient  calling 
Debates    attention  to  the  Housing  Question. 

He  scored  a  great  success.  Mem- 
bers on  both  sides  of  the  House  supported 
him  in  his  criticism  of  the  omission  of  all 
reference  to  the  vital  question  of  the  housing 
of  the  people  from  the  King's  Speech.  Of 
the  urgency  of  the  question  there  can  be  no 
doubt.  There  are  in  London  over  a  million 
persons  living  in  rooms  too  small  to  secure 
decency  and  health  to  their  inmates.  Twenty- 
six  thousand  are  living  six  in  a  room,  9,000 

"  Town  Crier,"]  [Birmingham. 

Stage  Manager  Balfour  (excitedly):   "Now,  you  imps  and 
demons,  keep  out  of  sight,   or  you'll  spoil  the  grand  open- 
ing spectacle." 

seven  in  a  room,  and  3,000  eight  in  a  room. 
These  rooms  are  small  for  the  most  part,  mere 
styes  for  human  beings  degraded  to  the  level 
of  swine.  The  insufficiency  of  healthy  houses 
in  the  country  is  notorious.  The  Act  passed 
to  facilitate  the  erection  of  houses  has  been  a 
total  failure.  The  period  allowed  for  the  re- 
payment of  loans  is  too  short.  A  Committee 
reported  in  favour  of  extending  the  period 
from  thirty  or  forty  to  seventy  or  eighty  years. 
So  strong  was  the  feeling  in  favour  of  Dr. 
Macnamara's  motion  that  Mr.  Long  was  com- 
pelled to  promise  to  bring  in  a  Bill,  and  even 
then  the  amendment  was  only  defeated  by  a 
majority  of  39,  the  nominal  Ministerial  ma- 
jority being  120. 

Mr.  Keir  Hardie  followed  with  an 

The  \3n-    amendment,  proposing   to   add   to 

employed  ^]^g   programme    of  "  the    Session : 

''Such  measureor  measures  as  would 
have  empowered  the  Government  and  local 
administrative  authorities  to  acquire  land  for 
cultivation,  and  to  set  up  undertakings  where- 
by men  and  women  unable  to  find  employment 
in  the  ordinary  labour  market  might  be  profit- 
ably set  to  work."  He  set  forth  his  case  with 
much  care  and  earnestness.  He  estimated 
the  numbers  of  workers  now  unemployed  at 
400,000.  "  In  Manchester,  according  to  the 
Trades  Council,  the  police  reported  that,  all 
sleeping  accommodation  being  filled,  every 
night  2,000  houseless  wanderers  slept  in  brick- 
fields and  in  the  open  air."       His  amendment 



April  po,  Ji}0^. 

Photo   by]. 



was  rejected  by  a  majority  of  40.  Its  prin- 
ciple was,  however,  approved  by  two  represen- 
tative Conferences  held  in  London.  The  first 
dealt  solely  with  the  unemployed  of  London. 
It  was  presided  over  by  the  Chairman  of  the 
County  Council.  The  second,  a  National 
Conference,  was  held  at  the  Guildhall,  where  it 
sat  for  two  days.  The  latter  passed  several 
resolutions,  one  of  the  most  important  of  which 
was  the  first,  which  declared: 

That  the  responsibility  of  providing  for  the  unem- 
ployed in  each  district  should  be  undertaken  jointly 
by  the  local  authorities  and  by  the  Central  Govern- 
ment, and  that  such  legislation  should  be  introduced 
as  would  empower  both  central  and  local  authorities 
to  deal  adequately  with  the  problem. 

Both  Conferences  were  practically  unanimous. 
But  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  Government  will 
even  consent  to  receive  a  deputation  on  the 

The  tide  was  now  running  strongly 

whittaker  against    the    Government,    and    it 

Wright     showed  no  tendency  to  turn  when 

the  scandalous  case  of  Mr.  Whit- 

taker Wright  came  on  for  discussion.  Mr. 
Whittaker  Wright  was  the  financial  genius 
whose  exploits  with  the  London  and  Globe 
brought  down  Lord  Dufiferin's  grey  hairs  with 
sorrow  to  the  grave,  and  ruined  thousands  of 
innocent  victims.  It  was  admitted  that  he  had 
issued  a  fraudulent  balance-sheet  with  intent 
to  deceive.  But  it  was  alleged  that  to  make 
such  an  act  criminal  it  must  be  with  intent  to 
deceive  either  shareholders  or  creditors,  where- 
as the  worthy  Whittaker  Wright  only  intended 
to  deceive  prospective  investors.  The  law 
officers  of  the  Crown  refused  to  prosecute,  and 
Mr.  Lambert  moved  an  amendment  express- 
ing regret  at  this  refusal.  The  House  was 
righteously  angry,  and  it  would  have  gone 
hard  with  the  law  officers  if  Mr.  Balfour  had 
not  intervened.  He  threw  all  the  blame  on 
the  law,  and  promised  to  bring  in  a  Bill  to 
amend  it.  Even  after  this  promise  had  been 
made,  the  Government  only  escaped  defeat  by 
a  majority  of  51.  We  have  not  heard  the  last 
of  that  case  yet.  Immediately  after  this  divi- 
sion, an  amendment  was  moved  objecting  to 
the  retention  of  directorships  m  trading  com- 
panies by  Ministers  of  the  Crown.  Again  Mr. 
Balfour  intervened,  but  this  time  his  majority 
sank  to  38.  On  the  first  four  divisions  since 
the  recess  the  nominal  Ministerial  majority 
of  120  had  sunk  to  an  average  of  42. 

The  great  debate  on  the  Address 

The        took  place  on  Mr.  Beckett's  motion 

Debate     declaring  that  our  present  military 

system  was  unsuited  to  the  needs 
of  the  Empire,  and  that  no  proportionate  gain 
had  resulted  from  the  recent  increase  in  mili- 
tary expenditure.  Mr.  Beckett  stated  six  ob- 
jections to  the  Army  Corps  scheme.  "  First, 
it  was  based  on  a  wrong  principle;  secondly, 
it  was  not  suited  to  the  real  needs  of  the  coun- 
try; thirdly,  it  was  enormously  costly; 
fourthly,  it  did  not  remove  the  defects  which 
the  war  in  Africa  had  clearly  shown  to  exist; 
fifthly,  it  was  not  adapted  to  this  country; 
and,  sixthly,  it  had  no  real  existence."  Mr. 
Brodrick,  in  reply,  said  that  he  had  added 
54,000  men  to  the  regular  army  in  the  last  six 
years,  and  if  the  House  liked  to  save  five  mil- 
lions a  year  it  could  put  the  army  back  to  the 
old  figure.      Mr.  Balfour,  who  wound  up  the 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/Ji/03. 



two  days'  debate,  declared  thai  if  the  House 
wanted  a  smaller  army  it  must  instal  another 
Government.  As  no  one  on  the  Unionist  side, 
not  even  Mr,  Winston  Churchill,  wished  to 
see  the  Liberals  again  in  office,  and  as  the 
Irish  Nationalists,  with  a  keen  anticipation  of 
favours  to  come,  refused  to  vote  against  the 
Government,  the  amendment  was  rejected  by 
a  majority  of  116.  It  was  stated  in  the  debate 
that  if  we  include  the  military  budget  of  India, 
we  spend  £51,000,000  on  the  army  and 
£30,000,000  on  the  navy. 

For  the  first,  and  possibly  the  last, 

'*'*'®        time  the  Irish  amendment  to  the 

"^TJ-^::  Address  was  an  elaborate  exchange 

of  compliments.  Both  landlords 
and  tenants  are  hoping  that  the  phenomenal 
spectacle  of  their  agreement — ^even  although 
it  is  an  agreement  to  loot  the  British  Treasury 
— will  soften  the  hard  heart  of  John  Bull  and 
induce  him  to  loosen  his  purse-strings.  The 
only  speech  in  the  debate  of  any  importance 
was  Mr.  Morley's.  He  calculates  that  the 
Irish  tenant  now  oays  £4,000,000  a  year  in 
what  are  termed  second-term  rents.  To  in- 
duce him  to  buy,  the  Conference  proposed  a 
reduction  of  20  per  cent,  and  the  land  as  a 
free  gift  a<-  the  end  of  a  term  of  years.  He 
will  pay,  therefore,  £3,200,000.  The  landlord 
will  lose  £800,000  a  year,  which  is  to  be  made 
good  by  the  State.  Mr.  Morley,  however, 
thinks  that  the  extreme  sum  asked  from  the 
Treasury  would  only  be  from  £400,000  to 
£600,000.  In  round  figures,  we  are  to  gua- 
rantee a  loan  of  £100,000,000,  and  make  a  free 
gift  over  and  above  of  £22,000,000.  That  may 
be  all  right;  but  why  should  the  present  ten- 
ants, many  of  whom  are  landgrabbers  and 
worse,  be  set  up  as  landlords  at  the  expense 
of  John  Bull,  without  any  regard  being  paid 
to  the  interest  of  the  landless  labourers  and 
others  who  do  not  happen  to  have  grabbed 
land,  and  many  of  whom  have  been  the  vie 
tims  of  eviction  ? 


Another  debate  upon  the  Address 

undesir-    ^^^^^^ted  a  promise  from  the  Min- 

abie  Allen  isters   to   take  measures   to  check 

the  influx  of  undesirable  aliens  into 

this  country.     What  these  measures  must  be 

"  Westminster   Gazette.] 

The  Dragon  dances  to  the  Irish  harp  played  by  a  Geral- 
dine   St.   George. 

it  is  at  present  impossible  to  say.  Probably  it 
will  turn  out  that  the  only  aliens  whom  it  will 
be  possible  to  exclude  will  be  the  foreign  pros- 
titute and  her  owner.  This  can  hardly  be  de- 
scribed as  protection  for  a  native  industry, 
but  there  is  no  doubt  as  to  the  extent  to  which 
the  foreigner  has  driven  the  native  off  the 
stree'ts.  According  to  a  remarkable  census 
taken  in  Oxford  Street,  Piccadilly  and  the 
neighbourhood,  there  were  233  foreign  girls 
and  only  43  natives.  Many  of  these  women 
are  to  all  intents  and  purposes  the  chattels  of 
"souteneurs"  and  bullies  who  live  upon  their 
earnings.  If  the  foreign  bully  and  white-slave 
owner  could  be  kept  out,  not  many  foreign 
girls  would  come  in.  The  traffic  in  young 
women  is  carried  on  every  day  between 
Europe,  Africa,  and  America.  Vigorous  ef- 
forts are  being  made  by  the  National  Vigilance 
Association  to  suppress  it,  but  the  evil  is  one 
which  it  is  much  more  difficult  to  deal  with 
than  appears  at  first  sight,  owing  to  the  ignor- 
ance and  innocence  of  the  unfortunate  victims, 
who  firmly  believe  that  they  are  going  to  re- 
spectable and  lucrative  situations,  and  who 
wake  up  with  horror  to  find  themselves  at  the 
other  end  of  the  world,  and  nothing  before 
them  but  the  dread  alternative  of  starvation  or 

^  ^^.  The  little  war  which  England  and 

Settlement  ^ 

ot  the      Germany  have  been  waging  against 
Venezuelan  Ygj^g^iiela  was  brought  to  a  close 

Question  ^ 

in  the  middle  of  last  month  by  the 
signature  of  the  Protocol,  which  provided, 
first,  for  the  immediate  payment  of  what  are 



April  20,  jcjoj 

Photograph   by] 

[Elliott   &    Fry. 




called  first-line  claims;  secondly,  for  the  re- 
ference of  other  claims  to  a  mixed  Commis- 
sion composed  of  one  Venezuelan,  and  one 
Briton  or  German,  as  the  case  may  be,  who, 
if  they  disagree,  shall  refer  the  question  to  an 
umpire  appointed  by  President  Roosevelt; 
thirdly,  for  the  reference  of  any  question  as  to 
the  distribution  of  the  Custom  House  reve- 
nues assigned  for  the  payment  of  these  claims, 
in  default  of  arrangement,  to  the  Hague  Tribu- 
nal. The  publication  of  the  official  documents 
proves  that,  contrary  to  the  statement  of  the 
Ministers,  the  first  proposal  to  go  to  war 
against  Venezuela  was  made  by  Germany  to 
England  on  July  23,  ten  days  after  the  retire- 
ment of  Lord  Salisbury.  They  further  proved 
that,  so  far  from  the  United  States  being  taken 
into  our  confidence  and  consulted  before  any- 
thing was  done,  nothing  was  said  to  the  Go- 
vernment at  Washington  until  Germany  and 

England  had  made  their  pact  and  decided  upon 
war,  for  blockade  is  war,  on  however  limited 
a  scale  it  may  be  conducted.  That  we  have 
got  out  of  the  mess  is  due,  in  the  first  case,  to 
the  United  States  Government,  and,  in  the 
second  place,  to  the  existence  of  the  Hague 
Tribunal.  The  one  satisfactory  feature  of  the 
whole  thing  is  the  almost  universal  disgust 
which  has  been  excited,  even  among  the  sup- 
porters of  our  Government,  at  their  refusal  to 
use  these  two  great  instruments  for  the  peace- 
ful settlement  of  disputes  before,  instead  of 
after,  embarking  upon  a  perilous  joint-stock 
appeal  to  arms  against  an  American  Republic. 

President  Roosevelt,  Mr.  Secretary 
Well-earned  Hay  and  Mr.  Bowen  deserve  to  be 
y'^*i°''^J[^  heartily    congratulated    upon    the 

skill  with  which  they   have  man- 
aged   to   avert    the    dangerous  complications 
that  might  easily  have  ensued  if  the  American 
Government  had  been  less  cautious  and  reso- 
lute.      The  great  danger  which  they  had    to 
avoid  was  that  of  being  forced  into  the  ac- 
ceptance of  a  position  which  would  have  ap- 
peared to  the  jealous,  susceptible  South  Ameri- 
cans as  the  assumption  of  authority  over  the 
southern    half    of    the    Western  Hemisphere. 
The  belief  entertained  in  some  quarters  that 
the  Germans  intended  to  use  this  Venezuelan 
trouble  as  an  occasion  for  making  a  frontal  at- 
tack  upon   the   Monroe   Doctrine   does   little 
credit  to   German  statescraft.       If  Germany 
desired  to  upset  the  Monroe  Doctrine,  it  would 
be  done  by  a  flank  attack,  and  the  first  move 
would  be  to  tempt  the  United  States  to  take 
up  a  position  of  authority  in  South  America,  . 
which  would  immediately  have  provoked  the 
South  American  Republics  to  unite  on  a  Mon- 
roe Doctrine  of  their  own,  for  resisting  the 
overshadowing   power   of   the  United  States. 
Germany  would  then  have  found  convenient 
opportunity  for  appearing  on  the  scene  as  a 
protector   of   South   American   independence. 
If  the  Kaiser  entertained  any  ^ch  design    it 
was  frustrated  by  the  resolute  refusal  of  Presi- 
dent Roosevelt  to  accept  the  position  of  arbi- 
trator.     The    President   not   only   foiled  this 
manoeuvre,  but,  by  insisting  upon  the  dispute 
going  to   the   Hague  Tribunal,   added   enor- 

Review  of  Keviewft,  20/4/OS. 



mously  to  the  prestig^e  of  the  Court  whose 
authority  the  German  Government  re- 
gards with  but  half-concealed  jealousy  and 
distrust.  At  the  same  time  he  secured  an 
emphatic  recognition  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine 
from  Great  Britain  and  a  tacit  acceptance  of 
the  same  principle  by  Germany.  The  Ger- 
man Ambassador  at  Washington  is  said  to 
have  declared  that  his  Government  had  no 
hostility  to  the  Monroe  Doctrine,  while  Mr. 
Balfour  went  much  further,  and  almost  in  so 
many  terms  accepted  it  on  the  part  of  his  Go- 
vernment.     He  said : 

The  Monroe  Doctrine  has  no  enemies  in  this  country 
that  I  know  of.  We  welcome  any  increase  of  the  in- 
fluence of  the  United  States  of  America  upon  the  Great 
Western  Hemisphere.  We  desire  no  colonisation,  we 
desire  no  alteration  in  the  balance  of  power,  we  desire 
no  acquisition  of  territory.  We  have  not  the  slightest 
intention  of  interfering  with  the  mode  of  government 
of  any  portion  of  that  continent.  The  Monroe  Doc- 
trine, therefore,  is  really  not  in  the  question  at  all. 


Mr.  Secretary    Root,  Mr.  Lodge, 
Alaskan     and  Mr.  Turner  have  been  nomi- 
^<*"™'       nated  as  the  American  members  of 

mission  •        1       /-. 

the  mixed  Commission  of  six 
which  will  examine  into  and  report  upon  the 
vexed  question  of  the  Alaskan  frontier. 
There  is  not  even  a  pretence  on  the  American 
side  that  the  Commissioners  will  approach  the 
question  with  an  open  mind.  It  is  frankly 
asserted  in  many  quarters  that  the  Senate 
would  never  have  accepted  the  treaty  if  there 
had  been  any  doubt  as  to  the  determination  of 
each  and  all  of  the  American  Commissioners 
to  support  the  American  contention  through 
thick  and  thin.  No  provision  is  made  for  the 
decision  of  the  question  by  an  umpire  in  case 
the  British  Commissioners  are  equally  reso- 
lute in  upholding  the  claims  of  Canada.  Un- 
less, therefore,  one  of  the  British  Commis- 
sioners goes  over  to  the  American  side  the  net 
result  of  the  investigation  will  be  a  report  of 
hopeless  disagreement.  It  will,  however,  be 
some  gain  if  the  Commissioners  should  draw 
up  in  brief  compass  a  clear  statement  of  the 
reasons  which  led  them  to  disagree.  We 
should  then  have  an  authoritative  statement  of 
the  case  for  each  party,  and  the  air  would  to 
that  extent  be  cleared.  More  than  this  it 
would  be  idle  to  hope  for. 

The  moral  justification  for  the 
The  New  presence  of  European  authority  in 
Slavery  rtropical  AfHca  is  the  suppression  of 
the  slave  trade  and  the  extirpation 
of  that  sum  of  all  villainies,  slave-raiding.  But 
what  if  it  be  true,  as  many  authorities  allege, 
that  the  only  result  of  the  advent  of  the  armed 
European  is  to  introduce  a  new  and  still  more 
infernal  system  of  slave-raiding,  and  to  estab- 
lish under  the  protection  of  our  arms  of  pre- 
cision a  new  slavery  more  ghastly  than  any- 
thing described  in  "  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin  "  ? 
Out  of  the  mist  of  conflicting  assertions  there 
is  gradually  looming  distinct  before  the  moral 
consciousness  of  the  world  the  fact  that  the 
Congo  Free  State — formed  but  the  other  day 

Photograph  by]  [Lafayette. 





April  20,  rpos- 

with  the  loftiest  professions  of  philanthropy, 
for  the  purpose  of  ^ivinp^  freedom  to  the  Afri- 
can, and  of  securing-  free  trade  to  all  European 
nations — ^has  degenerated  in  seventeen  years 
into  a  vast  slave  State,  whose  economic  basis  is 
forced  labour,  whose  fiscal  system  is  one  of  the 
strictest  monopoly,  and  whose  authority  is 
maintained  by  cannibal  levies  who  terrorise, 
massacre  and  eat  up  (literally)  the  unfortunate 
tribes  Whom  they  are  supposed  to  protect. 
One  very  melancholy  feature  about  the  Congo 
business  is  the  extent  to  which  the  Baptist 
Missionary  Society,  or  some  of  its  repre- 
sentatives, have  built  a  moral  zareba  round  the 
new  slavery,  so  that  it  appears  to  some  as  if 
the  horrible  massacres  and  tortures  by  which 
alone  the  Congolese  can  be  compelled  to 
"  bring  in  rubber  ''  were  perpetrated  under  the 
protecting  shield  of  these  devoted  missionaries 
of  the  Cross. 

The    Austro-Russian    Note    which 

The  . 

Austro-  has  been  so  long  m  preparation 
"'J'®®'^"  was  formally  presented  to  the  Porte 
on  February  21.  It  formulated  a 
long  string  of  reforms  which,  in  the  opinion  of 
all  the  signatories  of  the  Treaties  of  Berlin 
and  of  Paris,  ought  to  be  introduced  into 
Macedonia.  The  Sultan  furnished  the  best 
evidence  of  their  worthlessness  by  gaily  ac- 
cepting them  one  and  all  without  note  or  com- 
ment, and  as  if  still  further  to  advertise  their 
real  character  he  is  said  to  have  declared  his  in- 
tention to  apply  them  to  his  other  European 
provinces.  The  precious  scheme  contains  as 
its  chief  feature  the  appointment  of  a  Turkish 
Pasha  as  Inspector-General  for  a  term  of  three 
years.  He  is  to  have  authority  over  the  local 
governors,  and  on  emergency  he  is  to  have  the 
right  to  employ  Turkish  soldiers  and  Bashi 
Bazouks  on  his  own  initiative.  As  every  such 
Pasha  at  the  end  of  three  years  must  look  for 
his  promotion  to  the  Sultan,  it  is  tolerably  cer- 
tain that  if  he  employs  Ottoman  troops  on  his 
own  initiative  it  will  not  be  tO'  curtail  the  right 
of  rapine  which  the  Sultan  enjoys  in  Mace- 
donia, but  to  consolidate  and  extend  it.  The 
police  and  gendarmes  are  to  be  recruited  from 
Mohammedans  and  Christians  in  due  propor- 
tions, and  organised  by  Europeans  who  will 
have  no  independent  authority.       The  Sultan 

is  to  compel  the  Albanians  to  abstain  from 
murder  and  pillage.  There  is  to  he  an  amnesty 
for  political  offences,  and  a  speedy  trial  for  all 
criminals.  Finally,  local  expenses  are  to  be 
a  first  charge  upon  the  budget  of  each  vilayet. 
And  that  is  all.  In  the  name  of  the  prophet 
— figs!  What  is  needed  is  that  the  Powers 
agree  to  compel  the  Sultan  to  let  them  hang 
a  Pasha  and  appoint  a  European  governor, 
with  absolute  power  to  use  Turkish  or  other 
troops  to  maintain  order !  Even  a  Turkish 
Pasha  like  Rustem  might  do  if  he  had  a  secure 
tenure  of  office.  But  now  everything  will  go 
on  as  before.  There  will  be  only  a  few  empty 
proclamations  the  more.  Macedonia  cannot 
be  reformed  by  wastepaper,  and  the  Mace- 
donians will  have  to  continue  as  before  to 
suffer  the  horrors  of  the  regime  to  which  they 
were  thrust  back  at  Britain's  bidding. 

Mr.    Chamberlain    told    the    Cape 
The  Empire  Jq^j^  Chamber  of  Commerce    on 


thecoionics  February  23  that  he  was  anxious 
for  the  future  of  the  Empire : 

**  The  burden  laid  on  the  Mother  Country  was 
becoming  more  than  it  can  bear.  ...  I  ask 
for  nothing  except  that  you  shall  contribute  your 
full  share  to  the  defence  of  the  Empire  and  South 

At  present  we  are  spending  sixty-one  millions 
sterling  upon  our  Imperial  naval  and  military 
forces.  Every  penny  of  this  is  paid  by  forty 
million  taxpayers  in  these  islands.  Outside 
these  islands,  in  Canada,  Australia  and  South 
Africa,  there  are  ten  million  British  subjects 
who  enjoy  all  the  benefits  of  our  expenditure 
equally  with  ourselves,  but  so  far  from  paying 
their  "  full  and  fair  share  "  of  the  bill  their  con- 
tributions do  not  amount  to  more  than  10  per 
cent,  of  it.  On  the  principle  of  community  of 
sacrifice,  every  British  subject,  whether  living 
in  Great  Britain,  Ireland,  or  the  self-govern- 
ing Colonies,  should  contribute  equally  to  the 
cost  of  the  army  and  the  navy.  Reckoning  our 
colonists  in  round  numbers  to  be  ten  millions 
strong,  they  ought  to  pay  on  this  reckoning 
£11,000,000  a  year  into  the  Imperial  ex- 
chequer. As  they  will  not  listen  for  a  mo- 
ment to  any  such  proposal,  it  is  no  wonder 
Mr.  Chamberlain  is  anxious  as  to  the  future. 

Review  of  Rerinrs.  20/'t/03. 



The  answer  of  the 
^^  mf*'.^*  -      Colonies     is     very 

the  Colonies  -^ 

Say  simple.  They  say 
that  they  have  at 
present  no  voice  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  affairs  of  the  Em- 
pire, and  it  is  monstrous  to 
ask  them  to  tax  themselves 
for  the  maintenance  of  an 
Army  and  Navy  over  which 
they  have  no  control.  Arma- 
ments depend  upon  policy, 
and  if  the  Colonies  have  no 
voice  in  framing  our  policy, 
they  will  never  consent  to 
contribute  equally  with  the  en- 
franchised Britons  to  met  the  cost  of  the  arma- 
ments necessary  for  its  execution.  Mr.  Wise, 
the  Attorney-General  for  .Australia,  last  month 
made  a  strong  protest  against  the  Venezuelan 
policy  of  the  Government  because  it  had  been 
entered  upon  without  any  consultation  with 
the  Colonies.  He  quoted  the  resolution 
passed  by  the  Colonial  Premiers  last  year: 
"That  so  far  as  may  be  consistent  with  the  con- 
fidential negotiations  and  treaties  with  foreign 
Powers,  the  views  of  the  Colonies  affected 
should  be  obtained,  in  order  that  they  may  be 
in  a  position  to  give  adhesion  to  such  treaties," 
and  asked  how  this  could  be  reconciled  with 
the  action  of  the  Imperial  Government  in 
plunging  into  war  with  Venezuela  without 
even  sounding  a  single  Colonial  Government 
as  to  its  views  on  the  matter? 


There  was  no  mention  of  old  age 
Labour  Bill  pcusious  in  the  King's  Speech,  but 
^enston^^  the  demand  for    them    grows    in 

volume  and  definiteness.  The  Na- 
tional Committee  of  Organised  Labour  met  in 
Birmingham  early  in  the  month,  and  approved 
"A  Bill  to  Provide  Pensions  for  the  Aged." 
The  first  and  chief  clause  runs : 

1.  The  Treasury  shall,  on  and  after  the  first  day  of 
October,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1903,  cause  to  be  paid 
5s.  a  week  to  every  British  subject,  male  or  female,  ap- 
plying in  the  appointed  way,  and  certified  to  be  not  less 
than  sixty-five  years  of  age,  excepting  such  persons  as 
(a)  are  domiciled  outside  the  United  Kingdom;  (b) 
were  born  outside  the  United  Kingdom  and  have  re- 
sided less  than  twenty  years  in  the  United  Kingdom 
prior  to  application;  (c)  are  under  police  surveillance; 
or  (d)  have,  on  conviction  of  crime,  been  sentenced  to 
deprivation  of  pension. 


The  pensioner  secures  certificate  from  Regis- 
trar and  Superintendent-Registrar  of  Births 
and  Deaths  in  his  district  and  draws  his  pen- 
sion from  the  nearest  money-order  office.  So 
long  as  he  may  become  chargeable  to  the 
Guardians  his  pension  is  transferred  to  them. 
Conviction  of  crime  entails  forfeiture  of  pen- 
sion during  term  of  sentence.  The  Bill  was 
backed  bv  Mr.  John  Burns,  Mr.  T.  Burt,  Mr. 
C.  Fenwick,  Mr.  J.  Wilson  (Durham),  Mr.  R. 
Bell,  and  Mr.  C.  Shackleton,  but  was  flung  in 
the  balloting  to  a  remote  and  impossible  date. 
Official  Liberals  dreaming  of  Labour  alliances 
are  slowly — very  slowly — ^waking  up  to  the 
popular  mandate  in  favour  of  pensions. 

The        First  get  people  out  of  the  Black 
First  step  in  jj  J    bcforc  you  think  of  rebuild- 

London  ^  , 

Housing  ing  it.  That  is  an  obvious  prin- 
Reform  ^.jpj^  when  stated,  but  it  has  taken 
housing  reformers  in  London  a  long  time  to 
realise  it.  Thanks,  however,  to  Mr.  Charles 
Booth  and  the  Browning  Hall  Conference  on 
Housing,  the  public  has  been  induced  to  see 
that  an  adequate,  and  therefore  unified,  system 
of  locomotion  under  public  control  is  the  first 
step  to  the  solution  of  London's  housing  diffi- 
culties. On  the  7th  of  last  month  was  an- 
nounced the  appointment  of  a  Royal  Com- 
mission to  inquire  generally  into  the  means  for 
improving  locomotion  and  transport  in  Lon- 
don, and  more  particularly  "as  to  the  desira- 
bility of  establishing  some  authority  or  tri- 
bunal   to    which    all    schemes    of   railway    or 



April  20,  1^0^. 

tramway  construction  of  a  local  character 
should  be  referred,  and  the  powers  which  it 
would  be  advisable  to  confer  upon  such  a 
body."  This  central  authority  is  precisely 
what  the  municipal  bodies  of  Greater  London, 
convened  by  Mr.  Booth  a  year  ago,  unani- 
mously urged  the  Government  to  appoint. 

Is  the      President  Roosevelt  created  a  mild 

s"^Mn'    sensation  last  month  by  writing  a 

Race       letter    to    an    authoress    who    had 

Dying  Out?  gQ^j^^g^j  a  notc  of  alarm  as  to  the 

voluntary  avoidance  of  maternity  by  American 

women.     In   this   epistle   he   says   that   "  the 

Americans    are    committing    racial    suicide." 

President  Roosevelt  says : 

Those  who  shun  their  responsibility  through  a  desire 
for  independence,  ease  and  luxury  commit  a  crime 
against  the  race,  and  should  be  objects  of  contempt  and 
abhorrence  to  all  healthy  people.  If  men  shirk  being 
fathers  of  families  and  women  do  not  recognise  that 
the  greatest  thing  for  women  is  motherhood,  the  nation 
■has  cause  to  be  alarmed  about  the  future. 

President  Eliot,  of  Harvard,  following  in  the 
same  strain  as  President  Roosevelt,  says  that 

Harvard  graduates  have  on  an  average  only 
two  children  each.  This  he  attributes  to  late 
marriages,  and  he  suggests  a  shortening  of  the 
years  devoted  to  study,  so  that  a  professional 
man  could  conclude  his  training  at  twenty- 
five.  It  is  not  only  Harvard  graduates  who 
are  limiting  their  families.  The  birth-rate  in 
1850  in  the  United  States  was  fifty-six  per 
1,000.  In  1900  it  was  forty-seven.  It  would 
have  fallen  much  more  but  for  the  foreign  im- 
migrants, who  at  first  multiply  and  increase 
like  rabbits.  The  average  American  family  in 
1900  was  three  children.  Twenty  years  ago  it 
was  four  or  five.  The  same  phenomenon  is  ob- 
servable in  Great  Britain  and  in  Australia.  The 
truth  is  that  the  human  race  has  learnt  that 
conception  does  not  necessarily  follow  union, 
but  it  has  not  learnt  that  if  the  race  is  not  to 
decay  it  is  the  imperative  duty  of  every  healthy, 
intelligent  pair  to  breed  up  to  the  maximum 
that  they  can  afiford  to  produce,  rear,  feed,  and 
educate.  '  .i^  .  ?liO 

The  masterpiece  of  Mr.   G,   F.  Watts,   R.A.,  a  bronze  cast  of  which  is  now  being  taken   for  erection   on  the  Matoppo 
Hills   as   a   memorial   to   Mr.    Rhodes.       The   figure   stands  twelve   feet   high. 
(Photograph  by  F.  Hollyer,  Pembroke  Street  West.) 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/k/OS. 





The  humour  of  the  month  contains  nothing  bet- 
ter than  the  chapter  in  "  F.C.G.'s  Froissart,  1902," 
which  deals  with  the  doings  of  Sir  Dickon  Seddon. 
It  is  of  special  interest  to  New  Zealanders: 

Of  the  journey  that  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  made  from 
Maoriland  to  Africa,  how  he  conversed  with  the 
lord  de  Kitchener,  and  how  he  hastily  departed 
from  Africa,  and  sailed  to  England. 

Xow  let  us  leave  somewhat  to  speak  of  the  adven- 
tures of  a  certain  Sir  Dickon  Seddon,  the  which  are  a 

great  marvel,  as  I  shall  shew  you.  Now,  Sir  Dickon 
Seddon  was  of  great  puissance,  by  reason  of  kis  push- 
fulness,  in  the  island  wherein  he  dwelt,  the  name  of 
which,  as  I  have  been  informed,  is  Maoriland.  It  lieth 
in  an  ocean  on  the  other  side  of  the  world,  and  belong- 
eth  to  -England,  howbeit  it  hath  its  own  governance. 
And  of  this  governance  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  was  chief 
He  was  a  knight  of  great  spirit,  and  had  so  great  belief 
in  himself  that  it  was  a  wonder  to  all  men,  for  he 
would  say  to  those  around  him,  "  Things  are  not  well 
with  the  realm  of  England,  nor  will  be  until  Sir 
Dickon  ruleth  the  roast." 

When  King  Edward  the  Seventh  made  preparations 
for  his  crowning  he  caused  invitations  to  be  sent  to 
every  part  of  the  kingdom,  even  beyond  the  seas,  bid- 
ding the  chief  men  of  every  land  to  journey  to  London 
that  they  might  attend  him  at  Westminster  on  the 
day  appointed  for  the  Coronation. 

Even  had  it  not  been  so  I  trow  that  Sir  Dickon 
Seddon  would  have  gone  there,  for  he  greatly  desired 
that  he  should  not  be  overlooked.  Of  a  truth  he  did 
not  journey  straight  to  England,  but  caused  the  ship 
in  which  he  sailed  to  be  steered  first  to  Africa,  being 
minded  to  see  how  it  fortuned  that  the  war  in  that 
country  still  continued,  and  had  not  been  made  an  end 

"  I  will  look  into  this  business,"  quoth  he,  "  for 
meseemeth  that  the  English  are  not  bestirring  them- 
selves as  they  ought  to  do,  and  are  not  fighting  against 
these  Dutch  rebels  as  felly  as  I  would  have  them  do. 
They  are  too  pitiful;  let  them  entrust  the  ordering  of 
the  war  to  me  and  to  my  Maories,  and  we  will  riglit 
speedily  roll  over  the  land  and  crush  these  pestilent 
Dutchmen.  By  St.  Jingo  but  I  will  have  no  con- 
ditions for  their  surrendering  themselves." 

In  this  wise  spake  Sir  Dickon  Seddon,  and  he  sent 
messengers  before  him  to  Africa  and  to  England,  saying, 
"  Thus  and  thus  hath  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  spoken." 





April  30,  ipoj. 

land,  and  dance  a  war-dance  to  give  countenance  to  the 

When  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  arrived  at  the  place  where 
the  lord  de  Kitchener  was  encamped  with  his  army, 
he  set  himself  to  hold  converse  with  him,  and  when 
he  found  where  his  tent  was  within  the  camp,  ht 
betook  himself  thitherward.  Now,  the  lord  de  Kit- 
chener was  seated  therein  planning  how  he  might 
build  more  castles  if  it  should  fortune  that  the  con- 
ferences with  the  Dutch  should  be  made  an  end  of 
without  peace,  and  he  was  sore  amazed  when  Sir 
Dickon  Seddon  presented  himself  demanding  to  know 
if  he  wanted  more  mutton  from  Maoriland  for  the 

When  the  lord  de  Kitchener  answered  him  nay, 
Sir  Dickon  said  that  it  rather  behoved  him  to  have 
said  Yea,  seeing  that  it  would  have  gone  hardly  with 
the  Mother  country  if  her  children  from  Maoriland 
had  not  made  great  sacrifices  to  save  her  from  the 
Dutch  in  Africa. 

Moreover,  he  charged  the  lord  de  Kitchener  that  he 
should  not  entertain  any  terms  with  the  Dutch  rebels 
without  taking  counsel  with  him.   Sir  Dickon. 

Now  what  reply  the  lord  de  Kitchener  made  to  this- 
I  cannot  of  a  surety  tell,  but  it  has  been  shewed  me 
that  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  made  a  sudden  end  of  speak- 
ing, and  departed  with  great  haste  for  his  ship,  saying 


Now  you  must  know  that  in 
Maoriland  they  set  great  store  by 
sheep,  the  wool  thereof  they  send 
abroad  for  profit,  and  the  meat  they 
send  to  England  where  it  has  been 
sold  for  Scottish  mutton,  as  it  has 
been  told  to  me. 

Sir  Dickon  would  have'  had  those 
in  England  to  buy  no  other  mutton 
but  that  which  came  from  ]\l;iori- 
land,  saying,  "  Wherein  is  the  profit 
of  having  a  Motherland  if  she  buy 
not  that  which  her  children  have  to 

So  when  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  ar- 
rived in  Africa  incontinent,  he  set 
out  to  journey  up  the  country  to 
find  the  lord  de  Kilchener.  And 
whensoever  he  encountered  any  of 
the  English  army  by  the  way,  he 
demanded  of  them  to  know  whether 
they  had  yet  made  peace  with  the 
Dutch,  charging  them  stoutly  that  in 
no  wise  should  they  yield  anything 
to  their  enemies. 

"  Wherefore  should  we  sacrifice 
that  which  we  have  striven  so  hard 
to  gain?"  quoth  he. 

Then  would  he  paint  his  face  in 
the  manner   of  the   men    of   Maori- 


Review  of  Reviews,  20/Ji/OS. 



that  he  might  well  have  deemed  he  was  anywhere  but 
on  English  land. 

Of  the  further  marvellous  adventures  of  Sir  Dickon  Sed- 
don,  how  he  counselled  Sir  Joseph  de  Birmingham 
and  others  in  England  and  the  end  thereof. 

Anon  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  continued  on  his  viage  to 
England,  for  he  held  that  the  King  could  not  rightlj^ 
be  crowned  if  he  were  not  there  at  the  appointed 
time.  And  when  his  ship  had  taken  land  in  England 
he  hastened  on  shore  and  went  straightway  to  London. 
Here  he  was  received  with  great  honour,  and  the  King 
sent  to  him  horses  and  servants  richly  apparelled  in 
scarlet  and  gold,  whereat  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  was 
mightily  pleased,  saying  to  himself,  "  The  King  doth 
well  to  honour  me  in  this  wise,  for  of  a  surety  this 
realm  could  not  continue  without  me." 

And  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  rode  to  and  fro  in  England 
in  state  as  though  he  had  been  a  Prince,  telling  the 
people  everywhere  what  they  should  do  if  they  desired 
to  prosper.  Moreover,  he  counselled  them  that  they 
should  make  haste  to  wake  up  and  see  to  it  that  no 
other  mutton  should  be  allowed  to  be  brought  into 
the  country  save  only  that  from  Maoriland. 

He  spake  in  this  wise  also  to  Sir  Joseph  de  Bir- 
mingham, saying,  "  Thus  and  thus  should  the  Mother 
country  do  if  she  would  continue  in  the  love  of  her 

When  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  had  thus  spoken  many 
times.  Sir  Joseph  de  Birmingham  answered  that  it 
behoved  not  children  to  teach  their  mothers  the  art  of 
obtaining  nutriment  either  from  eggs  or  mutton. 

Sir  Dickon  was  sore  vexed  that  they  of  the  govern- 
ance in  England  gave  so  little  heed  to  ms  counsel,  for 
he  was  full  of  marvellous  opinions.  Howbeit  he  dis- 
simuled   the  matter,   avowing   that  he  would   still  con- 


tinue  to  love  the  Mother  country,  and  when  the  King 
had  been  crowned,  as  I  have  herebefore  shewed  you, 
Sir  Dickon  Seddon  journeyed  back  to  Maoriland  across 
the  seas. 

And  thereafter  whatsoever  thing  was  devised  or  done 
in  England,  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  would  say,  "Of  a 
surety  this  was  done  on  the  counsel  that  I  gave  to  Sir 
Joseph  de  Birmingham  and  others  in  England." 

Sir  Robert  Ball,  in  "  Good  Words,"  well  illustrates 
his  contention  that  astronomy,  of  all  the  sciences,  most 
expands  the  imagination.  He  writes  on  the  scale  ot 
the  visible  neavens,  and  endeavours  to  make  less  in- 
conceivable the  stupendous  distances  of  the  stellar  uni- 

At  this  time  such  an  article  as  appears  in  "  Pear- 
son's Magazine  "  dealing  with  the  life  of  the  Sultan, 
cannot  fail  to  be  of  interest.  The  deepest  impression 
given  by  the  sketch  is  one  of  sincere  pity  and  com- 
miseration for  the  ruler  of  Turkey,  who  is  also,  in  the 
opinion  of  many,  one  of  the  ablest  diplomatists  of  the 

Two  of  the  articles  of  interest  in  the  "American 
Historical  Review "  for  January  are  concerned 
with  the  Protestant  Reformation  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury; there  is  an  admirable  survey  of  the  literature  of 
the  Lutheran  movement  in  Germany  by  Prof.  James 
Harvey  Robinson,  while  Prof.  Herbert  D.  Foster  writes 
on  "Geneva  Before  Calvin  (1387-1536):  The  Ante- 
cedents of  a  Puritan  State." 

The  late  Monsieur  de  Blowitz  is  the  subject  of  a  spe- 
cial sketch  in  "Macmillan's."  It  appears  that  when  De 
Blowitz  was  asked  to  act  as  temporary  correspondent 
to  the  "  Times"  he  asked  to  see  a  number  of  the 
"Times,"  as  he  had  never  before  seen  it!  The  story 
is  told  of  the  discreditable  means  by  which  he  secured 
an  advance  copy  of  the  Berlin  Treaty.  Blowitz  thought 
of  himself  as  an  ambassador  rather  than  a  journalist, 
and  the  -v^^iter  regards  this  as  a  most  pernicious  de- 

In  the  "Nuova  Antologia "  (February  1)  Signora 
Rosselli  describes  the  recent  revival  throughout  Italy 

of  female  home  industries  of  an  artistic  nature — lace- 
making,  embroidery,  weaving,  etc. — thanks  to  the  ener- 
getic enterprise  of  various  Italian  ladies.  Already  two 
exhibitions  of  artistic  female  handiwork  have  been 
held  in  Rome,  and  it  is  now  intended  to  open  a  per- 
manent depot  for  the  sale  of  the  goods.  There  is  a 
long  character  sketch  of  Andrew  Carnegie,  with  a  re- 
view of  his  book,  "  The  Empire  of  Business,"  which 
has  been  translated  into  Italian;  while  General  Luchino 
dal  Verme  reviews  De  Wet's  "  Three  Years'  War," 
paying  a  high  tribute  to  his  generalship  and  strategy, 
and  protesting  against  the  tendency  in  some  quarters 
to  decry  him  as  a  mere  guerilla  leader. 

The  "  Civilta  Cattolica "  (February  7)  does  its  best 
to  dislodge  Italy  from  its  unhappy  pre-eminence  as  the 
mother  of  regicides.  It  has  drawn  up  an  exceedingly 
interesting  table  of  all  the  assassinations  of  monarchs 
and  presidents,  both  attempted  and  successful,  for  the 
last  hundred  years,  beginning  with  the  murder  of  the 
Emperor  Paul  and  ending  with  Rubino's  attempt 
against  King  Leopold.  In  all  seventy-three  crimes 
are  tabulated,  and  undoubtedly,  taken  over  so  wide  a 
field,  Italy  is  responsible  for  no  more  victims  than 
other  nations;  but  the  fact  remains  true  that  the  most 
notorious  regicides  of  recent  years  whose  crimes  have 
been  due  to  Anarchist  doctrines — Caserio,  Luccheni, 
and  Bresci— are  all  of  Italian  birth.  One  remarkable 
fact  emerges  from  the  table.  The  crimes  against 
heads  of  States  in  the  second  half  of  the  nineteenth 
century  were  four  times  as  numerous  as  in  the  first 
half.  The  mid-February  number  contains  a  laudatory 
analysis  of  the  Jesuit  Pere  Fontaine's  much-discussed 
volume  "  Les  Infiltrations  Kantiennes  et  Protestantes 
et  le  Clerge  Francais." 

340  THE  REVIEW  OF  REVIEWS.  April  20,  i()0_:t. 


"  Bulletin."] 


Review  of  lieoiews,  20/4/03.  CARICATURES  OF  THE  MONTH. 


Journal,"    Detroit.] 

John   Bull;    "  Ain't  'e   got  a   'orrible  temper 

Plain    Dealer,"    Cleveland.] 

"CALL    OFF    YOLK    DOGI" 




April  20,  1903. 


iray   take 

'  Free  Lance."] 

Zealand   (to  King  Dick):   "It's  a  rather  ticklish  job,    Dick,    and   wants   careful   handling, 
a  horse   to   the   water,   but  you   can't  make  him  drink." 

Remember,    you 

N.Z.   "  Free  Lance."] 
(Mr.    Seddon    said   this   Pacific    cable   compact   was    the  first  partnership  New  Zealand  had  had  with  the  Common- 
wealth,  and,   under  the   circumstances,   it  would   probably  be  the   last.— The   Premier  at   Christchurch.) 

Mrs.  Premier  Dick  (to  Mrs.  Premier  Toby):  "  It  won't  do,   Toby.      You've  broken  the  agreement,   and  the  part- 
nership is  hoff.     'Enceforth  we  are  hutter  strangers." 

.Review  of  Reviews,  w',/03.  CARICATURES  OF  THE  MONTH. 


'^  AX's-v r-' 

Herald,"   New   York. J 







April  20,  1(^0^. 


Abdul    Hamid    (to   Doctors   Nicolas   and    Franz    Josef):  "Thank  vou  so  much!      I'll  have  this  made  up,   and— er- 
(aslde)   put  it  away  with  the  others!" 

(By  permission  of  the  proprietors  of  London    "  Punch     ) 

Review  of  lieiiews,  2o/i/o3.  CARICATURES  OF  THE  MONTH. 


World,"   New  York.] 

John  Bull:  "  Come  out  o'  that,  you  blooming  idiot!' 

Herald,"  New  York.] 




April  20,  1903. 

"  Westminster   Gazette."] 

Mrs.   Britannia  Bull:    "  Good   gracious,   John,   what  on  earth  have  you   been   doing   with   yourself?" 
John  Bull:    "  All   right,    my   dear;    I've  only   been   muddling  through  a  little  mess.      What  does  it  matter  as  long 
I  come  home  right  side  up?" 
Mrs.  B.  B. :  "  It  matters  a  good  deal,  sir!      I've  got  to  do  the  mending!" 

"  Westminster   Gazette."] 


John  Bull:  "  What  I  want  to  know  is  this,  Mr.  Brodrick— Am  I  an  Island?  or  am  I  a  Continent?  If  I'm  an  Island, 
I  want  a  big  Navy  and  a  small  Army.  If  I'm  a  Continent,  I  want  a  big  Army  and  a  small  Navy.  I  can't  afford 
to  be  an  Island  and  a  Continent  too!" 


Review  of  Reviews,  2o/.i/o3.  CARICATURES  OF  THE  MONTH. 


'  New   York  Journal."] 

"  I  vender  vere  iss  my  dog  Chonny!       I  hope  he  dit  not 
deserted   me   yet  alretty!" 

New   York   Journal.'"] 

"  Scn:e  Day  She'll  be  Mine!" 


Herald,  '   New   York.] 




April  20,  1^0^, 


Copyright,  1902,  by  Photograph ische  Gesellschaft.]  [By  permission  of  the   Berlin  Photo   Company,    London,    W 


The  frontispiece  of  the  "  Review  "  this  month 
contains  the  three  central  figures  of  a  great  pic- 
ture by  the  Swiss  painter,  Eugene  Burnand,  which 
has  been  on  view  at  Messrs.  Dowdeswell's  Gallery 
in  London,  and  was  exhibited  at  the  Salon  in  Paris 
last  year.  The  subject  challenges  comparison 
with  the  famous  "  Last  Supper  "  of  Leonardo  da 
Vinci  which  is  now  fading  away,  but  which  for 
four  hundred  years  and  more  has  been  regarded 
as  the  supreme  effort  of  art  in  portraying  one  of 
the  most  memorable  scenes  in  sacred  history.  That 
a  modern  painter  should  have  ventured  to  give  us, 
not  the  Last  Supper,  indeed,  but  a  picture  of  our 
Lord  and  the  eleven  disciples,  as  Jesus  pronounced 
the  final  benediction  before  He  went  out  to  His 
betrayal,  is  a  welcome  proof  that  courage,  not  to 
say  audacity,  has  not  died  out  from  the  modern 
world.  Opinions  will  differ  as  to  the  success  with 
which  Mr.  Burnand  has  rendered  the  features  of 
Jesus.  The  central  figure  is,  perhaps,  too  conven- 
tional to  please  many,  but  the  artist  could  hardly 
be  blamed  for  having  followed  the  generally  ac- 
cepted type.     There  will  be  less  criticism  of  the 

figures  of  the  eleven  apostles.  Judas  had  gone  out 
from  the  presence  of  his  Master,  but  each  of  the 
other  apostles  is  rendered  with  extraordinary  skill 
arid  individuality.  The  players  at  Oberammergau, 
who  were  all  made  up  more  or  less  on  the  figures 
in  Leonardo  da  Vinci's  picture,  were  not  more  life- 
like and  more  ruggedly  real  than  these  fishermen 
of  Galilee  who  stand  on  the  right  and  left  of  our 
Lord.  The  whole  picture  is  very  remarkable,  and 
likely  to  become  a  great  favourite.  It  is  Mr.  Bur- 
nand's  first  success  in  the  realm  of  sacred  art.  He 
was  first  known  as  a  landscape  and  animal  painter. 
From  this  he  turned  his  attention  to  historical 
paintings,  thereby  achieving  considerable  recog- 
nition in  his  own  land.  One  of  his  pictures,  "The 
Flight  of  Charles  the  Bold,"  was  bought  by  the 
Swiss  Government  and  hung  in  the  Castle  of  Chil- 
lon.  It  was  not  until  he  was  about  fifty  years  of 
age  that  he  turned  his  attention  to  the  theme  by 
which  he  has  achieved  so  remarkable  a  success. 
The  picture,  which  is  reproduced  in  miniature  at 
the  head  of  this  page,  is  a  publication  of  the  Berlin 
Photographic  Company. 

Review  of  Reviews,  20 /It/OS. 




Australia  does  not  provide  for  her  boys  so  many 
fascinating  "Log  Cabin  to  White  House"  stories  of 
industry  and  success  as  the  United  States  of 
America  did  when  that  great  countiy  was  making 
its  early  history;  but  the  political  success  of  the 
Hon.  John  Greeley  Jenkins,  Premier  of  South  Aus- 
tralia, bears  a  marked  resemblance  to  the  exam- 
ples which  were  set  American  boys  by  some  of  the 
Presidents.  Little  did  Mr.  Jenkins  dream,  when, 
with  his  three  elder  brothers,  he  roamed  the  woods 
of  Susquehanna,  in  Pennsylvania,  that  he  would 
become  Prime  Minister  of  a  large  and  important 
British  State  in  the  Southern  Seas,  and  that  Le 
would  live  to  establish  a  record  for  the  State  in 
the  length  of  his  term  of  Ministerial  office.  Few 
men  who  have  been  only  twenty-five  years  in  any 
of  the  States  can  boast  of  having  spent  more  than 
twenty  of  them  in  the  service  of  the  public  in 
this  manner:  Two  years  a  councillor  in  an  im- 
portant suburban  corporation,  two  years  mayor  o" 
the  town,  sixteen  years  in  Parliament  for  the  one 
district,  including  ten  years  ninety  days  in  Minis- 
terial office. 

The  record  of  Ministerial  service  in  S.A.  to 
Mar'^h  3i,  1903,  is: 


Hon.   J.   G.   Jenkins 3,740 

Rt.   Hon.   C.    C.    Kingston 3,641 

Senator   T.    Playford 3,55r) 

Sir   Frederick   Holder 3,421 

Sir  Arthur  Blyth 3,247 

Sir  John   Cockburn 3,025 

Sir  J.  C.  Bray 2,910 

Hon.    Lavington    Bonython    . .    . .  2,663 

Sir  Henry  Ayers 2,429 

Hon.  J.  H.   Gordon 2,185 

Personal  History* 

Mr.  Jenkins  was  born  in  County  Susquehanna, 
Pennsylvaria,  on  September  8,  1851,  and  on  leav- 
ing school  entered  the  office  of  a  large  publishing 
firm,  for  whom  he  was  soon  commissioned  to 
travel  in  various  parts  of  the  United  States  and 
Canada.  At  the  age  of  twenty-six  he  was  sent 
out  to  exploit  South  Australia,  and  he  landed  In 
Aaelaide  in  April,  187S,  unknown  to  anyone.  To- 
day, if  he  landed,  nine  out  of  every  ten  persons 
would  recognise  him,  and  he  would  greet  the  ma- 
JGri{y  as  personal  friends.  He  has  the  reputation 
of  knowing  more  men  and  women  in  South  Aus- 
tralia than  any  other  man.  The  publication  with 
which  he  first  began  business  was  "  Our  Fir=t 
Century,"  an  American  history,  but  he  soon  began 
business  on  his  own  account,  and  imported  a  larga 
number  of  English  and  American  books,  and  then 
he  abandoned  that,  to  take  the  position  of  man- 






















ager  of  the  Picturesque  Atlas  Company,  in  S.A. 
In  the  meantime  he  had  been  taking  an  active  part 
in  literary  society  work.  He  became  president  of 
the  Literary  Societies'  Union,  and  second  Premier 
in  the  Union  Parliament,  which  was  established  by 
the  literary  societies.  As  representative  of  Park- 
side  Ward,  in  the  Unley  Corporation,  and  then  as 
Mayor  of  Unley,  which  has  now  a  population  of 
20,000,  he  had  further  abundant  opportunity  for 
political  training.  In  the  Union  Parliament  his 
ready  tongue  and  smart  repartee  had  helped  to 
make  him  an  able  debater,  much  feared  by  oppon- 

In  May,  1886,  he  sought  a  seat  for  the  re- 
presentation of  East  Adelaide,  a  vacancy  having 
occurred  by  reason  of  the  resignation  of  Mr. 
George  Button  Green,  but  Mr.  Jenkins  was  badly 
beaten  by  Mr.  J.  T.  Scherk.  The  contest  served 
to  bring  him  prominently  before  the  public,  and 
when,  in  the  succeeding  April,  he  stood  for  Sturt, 

Photo   by    Duryea,    Adelaide.] 
THE    HON.    J.    G. 




April  20 y  yos 

the  chief  polling  place  being  Unley,  he  was  re- 
turned at  the  top  of  the  poll.  He  was  in  the 
same  honourable  position  at  the  elections  in  1890, 
but  in  1893  he  was  beaten  for  the  senior  seat  by 
Mr.  T.  Price,  the  leader  of  the  Labour  Party,  and 
he  secured  the  junior  seat  by  twenty-one  votes 
from  Mr.  H.  Adams.  That  was  the  year  that  the 
Labour  Party  became  a  force  to  be  reckoned  with 
in  Parliament,  for  every  Labour  candidate  was 
successful  with  the  exception  of  Mr.  Adams,  who 
later  on  entered  the  Legislative  Council.      At  ail 

times.  He  was  Minister  of  Education  and  of  Ihe 
Northern  Territory  from  March  2,  1891,  till  Janu- 
ary 6,  1892,  when  he  succeeded  the  Hon.  W.  B. 
Rounsevell  as  Commissioner  of  Public  Works;  he 
held  the  office  until  June  21,  1892,  when  the  Holder 
Ministry  took  office.  On  the  formation  of  tha 
Kingston  Ministry,  in  1893,  Mr.  Jenkins  was  ap- 
pointed Government  Whip;  but  early  the  follow- 
ing year,  when  the  Hon.  T.  Playford  went  to 
England  as  Agent-General,  Mr.  Jenkins  took  his 
old  position  as  Commissioner  of  Public  Works,  in 


subsequent  elections  Mr.  Jenkins  has  topped  the 
poll  for  Sturt,  but  last  year  the  districts  were  le- 
arranged,  and  the  Premier  ran  third  for  Torrens, 
the  name  of  the  amalgamated  districts  of  Sturt 
and  East  Torrens. 

Years  of  Office. 

Mr.  Jenkins'  first  Ministerial  appointment  was 
in  Mr.  Playford's  Government,  which,  during  a 
life  of  two  years,  was  reconstructed  five   or  six 

succession  to  Mr.  Holder.  The  Kingston  Minis- 
try went  out  on  December  1,  1839,  having  been 
defeated  by  one  vote,  and  the  Solomon  Ministry, 
known  as  the  "  Week  "  or  "  Weak  "  Ministry,  took 
office  for  seven  days.  Then  Mr.  HolderV 
Government,  which  was  practically  the.  Kingsto\ 
Government  without  Mr.  Kingston,  came  in,  and 
Mr.  Jenkins  held  the  portfolio  of  Chief  Secretary. 
With  a  keen  eye  to  the  future,  the  representative 
of  Sturt  did  not  stand  for  the  Federal  Parliament. 

Rei-iew  of  Reviews,  20/^/03. 



He  was  content  to  take  the  more  responsible  po- 
sition of  Premier  of  S.A.,  in  succession  to  Mr. 
Holder,  who,  of  course,  advised  the  Governor  to 
ask  Mr.  Jenkins  to  form  a  Ministry. 

In  every  walk  of  municipal  and  political  life  U 
may  be  claimed  that  Mr.  Jenkins  has  been  a  suc- 
cess. Personally,  he  has  no  enemies,  and  is  one 
of  the  most  popular  men  in  the  State.  He  is  the 
life  of  a  Parliamentary  party,  and  a  most  enter- 
taining host,  especially  if  his  guests  are  ladies,  la 
the  House  he  can 
suit  his  mood  to 
the  occasion.  As 
leader  of  the 
Government  in  a 
time  of  much  dif- 
ficulty, he  has  of 
late  adopted  a 
serious  tone  in 
his  speeches,  but 
many  members 
recall  with  plea- 
sure their  delight 
at  listening  to  his 
smart  speeches. 
Seldom  has  the 
member  who  in- 
terjected escaped 
the  ever-ready, 
witty  retort,  and 
more  often  than 
not  he  has  had  to 
laugh  with  the 
House  at  his  own 
discomfiture.  His 
position  as  Pre- 
mier has  brought 
him  before  all 
sections  of  the 
community,  and 
he  has  been  able 
to  adapt  himself 
to  his  surround- 
ings with  a  facil- 
ity possessed  by 
few.  He  is  as 
much  at  home 
cracking  jokes  before 
brokers  and  business 
siding  at  a  meeting 
tian  Temperance 
he    is    a 


a  gathering  of  share- 
men  as  he  is  pre- 
of  the  Women's  Chris- 
Union.  Like  Mr.  Kingston, 
teetotaller,  and  he  was  a  founda- 
tion member  of  the  Leopold  Masonic  Lodge,  in 
which  intoxicants  are  tabooed  at  the  banquets  In 
favour  of  tea,  coffee,  and  temperance  drinks. 

It  is  now  well  known  that  Mr.  Jenkins  might 
have  had  his  services  to  the  State  rewarded  with 

a  knighthood,  but  that  he  intimated  to  Lord  Ten- 
nyson that  he  did  not  desire,  at  that  time,  to  ac- 
cept such  an  honour.  An  amusing  story  is  told 
in  connection  with  the  aftair.  When  questioned 
as  to  the  truth  of  the  rumours  that  were  current, 
the  Premier  replied:  "What  would  I  do  with  it? 
If  I  retired  into  private  life  it  would  follow  me; 
if  I  went  into  the  wilds  of  Africa  it  would  be 
there,  and  when  I  got  to  the  cemetery  it  would 
still  stick  to  me." 

What  Office 
Has  Taugfht^ 
Mr.  Jenkins  has 
not  had  so  long 
a  Parliamentary 
career  as  some  of 
the  other  mem- 
bers  of  both 
Houses  of  the 
State  Legislature, 
and  some  o  f 
the  State's  repre- 
sentatives in  the 
Federal  Par  1  i  a- 
ment,  but  he  has 
had  exceptional 
opportunities  o  f 
forming  opinions 
on  the  different 
phases  of  Austra- 
lian political  life 
he  has  witnessed. 
Though  he  was 
busy  preparing 
for  a  trip  to  Syd- 
ney to  attend  his 
third  Premiers' 
Conference,  h  e 
readily  consented 
to  give  some 
of  his  ideas  for 
the  "  Review  of 
Reviews  for  Aus- 
tralasia ": 

"  What  changes 
have  I  observed 
in  Australian  politics?  Well,  oae  of  the  principal 
changes  that  I  have  observed  in  all  the  States  is  the 
greater  care  and  attention  which  is  evidently  being 
given  by  Ministers  to  the  various  departments  un- 
der their  control,  and  the  deeper  interest  that  is  be- 
ing manifested  in  the  actions  of  Ministers  and 
members  of  Parliament  by  the  electors.  This  has 
been  more  apparent  since  the  necessity  for  in- 
creased taxation  has  been  brought  so  prominently 
before  the  public.  Another  change  I  have  ob- 
served is  the   introduction  of  direct  taxation  on 



April  20,  IQO^. 

land  and  income,  not  only  in  S.A.,  but  in  the  other 
States.  One  of  the  causes  of  that  taxation  was  the 
dropping  off  in  the  receipts  for  the  sale  of  land,  re- 
ceipts which  should  never  have  been  allowed  to 
go  into  general  revenue.  Another  cause  was  the 
expenditure  of  borrowed  money — in  some  instances 
— upon  works  that  were  not  directly  reproductive. 
The  interest  on  these  loans  has  had  to  be  met 
annually  out  of  revenue  from  other  sources. 

"The  general  .drift  of  legislation?  Well,  that 
Is  a  very  wide  question.  I  should  say,  though, 
that  the  general  drift  of  legislation  throughout 
Australasia  is  undoubtedly  liberal.  The  South 
Australian  record  will  show  this.  We  passed 
adult  suffrage  in  1893,  and  it  has  since  been  adop- 
ted by  the  Commonwealth,  New  South  Wales,  and 
Western  Australia.  Then  there  was  the  '  Free 
Education '  Act,  the  arbitration  and  conciliation 
laws,  the  recognition  of  the  eight  hours  system, 
and  its  adoption  in  Government  employment,  the 
general  assistance  of  the  producers,  in  the  matter 
of  storing  and  shipping  produce,  and  endeavouring 
to  find  markets,  and  the  assistance  of  the  people 
in  other  respects  where  private  enterprise  has 
failed.  Where  the  Government  have  stepped  in, 
they  have  generally  been  successful." 

The  Politicians  of  S»A. 

"  How  do  the  politicians  of  to-day  compare  for 
ability  with  bygone  politicians?" 

"  That  is  rather  a  difficult  question  to  answer, 
and  I  would  rather  not  be  placed  in  the  position 
of  judge.  No  one  can  deny  that  the  removal  of 
such  men  to  the  Commonwealth  Parliament  as 
the  Right  Hon.  C.  C.  Kingston,  Sir  Frederick  Hol- 
der, the  Hon.  Thomas  Playford,  Sir  John  Downer, 
Mr.  P.  McM.  Glynn,  and  Mr.  V.  L.  Solomon,  has 
robbed  South  Australia  of  able  debaters  and  men 
of  ability;  but  their  places  have  been  filled  in  the 
local  Parliament  by  many  new  men  who  are  rap- 
idly gaining  experience,  and  are  ably  filling  the 
positions  to  which  they  have  succeeded.  It 
may  not  be  out  of  place  to  say  a 
word  in  reference  to  the  late  Sir  John  Bray,  who 
was  a  colleague  of  mine  in  the  Playford  Govern- 
ment as  Chief  Secretary,  and  who  in  my  earlier 
Ministerial  life  gave  me  some  very  good  advice. 
It  is  questionable  whether  any  politician  ever  held 
office  in  South  Australia  who  could  seize  a  point 
more  readily,  and  debate  it  with  more  ability  and 
tact  than  he." 

"  What  is  there  in  South  Australian  politics  that 
tends  to  political  stability?" 

"  Up  to  ten  years  ago  the  Ministerial  changes 
were  much  more  frequent  than  they  have  been  in 
tile  last  decade.  Between  1856  and  the  present 
time  there  have  been  forty-three  Ministries  in 
South  Australia,  the  average  life  of  each  being 
about  one  year  and  six  weeks.  The  long  continu- 
ation in  office  of  the  Kingston  Ministry,  from 
June,  1893,  to  December,  1899,  was  in  a  measure 
due  to  the  general  support  given  by  the  Labour 
Party,  which  came  into  political  power  in  1893. 
It  was  understood  that  the  members  of  the  Party 
were  not  to  accept  Ministerial  office,  but  this  un- 
derstanding was  evidently  departed  from  at  the 
defeat  of  the  Kingston  Government,  for  three  of 
those  who  were  returned  as  Labour  men  voted 
against  the  Government,  and  one  of  them  took 
office  in  the  succeeding  Government.  Then,  when 
a  week  later  the  Government  was  thrown  out, 
Mr.  Holder  asked  Mr.  Batchelor,  the  leader  of  the 
Labour  Party,  to  accept  the  portfolio  of  Minister 
of  Education,  and  he  did  so.  Another  thing  which 
has  tended  to  the  stability  of  Ministries  for  the 
last  few  years  is  the  loyal  support  which  has  been 
given  by  the  agricultural  members,  in  consequence 
of  the  care  and  attention  that  have  constantly  been 
given  by  the  various  Ministerial  departments  to 
the  advancement  and  encouragement  of  the  pro- 

When  asked  to  mention  the  principal  legislative 
measures  that  he  had  been  connected  with,  Mr. 
Jenkins  replied:  "  Every  liberal  measure  which 
has  been  passed  during  the  la«t  ten  years."  He 
went  on  to  point  out  that  these  included  the 
Free  Education  Act,  which  he  introduced;  woman 
suffrage;  the  eight  hours  system;  the  Act  under 
which  the  produce  depot  was  established;  indus- 
trial legislation,  and,  more  lately,  the  Constitution 
Amendment  Act,  under  which  the  Legislative 
Council  was  reduced  from  twenty-four  members 
to  eighteen,  and  the  House  of  Assembly  from  fifty- 
two  to  forty-two;  the  Outer  Harbour  Act,  which 
provides  for  the  expenditure  of  up  to  £500,000  on 
a  harbour  for  ocean-going  steamers,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Port  Adelaide  River,  and  the  Transconti- 
nental Railway  Act,  under  which  it  is  intended  to 
complete  the  railway  to  the  Northern  Territory, 
on  the  land-grant  system.  The  beneficial  effect 
of  the  Constitution  Amendment  Act,  In  which 
South  Australia  showed  an  example  to  the  other 
States,  was  shown  last  session,  when  more  than 
the  usual  amount  of  work  was  done  in  about  two- 
thirds  of  the  time  ^f  former  sessions. 

Review  of  Reciews,  ZO/k/OS. 




Of  all  the  arguments  put  forward  by  the  oppon- 
ents to  Australian  naval  development,  the  favour- 
ite Is  cost.  It  is  wonderful  how  this  card  is 
played  again  and  again,  no  matter  how  clearly 
and  plainly  the  falsity  of  the  argument  is  demon- 
strated. Nevertheless,  only  a  few  days  ago  Mr. 
Seddon  made  the  appalling  statement  that  an 
Australian  Navy  would  cost  something  over  three 
millions  to  start,  and  over  a  million  a  year 
to  maintain.  This  estimate  was  put  forward  as 
the  alternative  to  the  acceptance  of  the  scheme, 
costing  £200,000  a  year,  which  our  representatives 
at  the  Conference  in  London,  last  year,  promised 
and  vowed  for  us.  It  is  an  estimate  in  its  mod- 
esty characteristic  of  the  great  New  Zealand  Pre- 
mier, who  is  nothing  if  not  modest,  and  it  has  the 
additional  charm  of  having  "  nothing  to  do  with 
the  case."  It  is  worth  ventilating.  Once  well 
understanded  of  the  people,  and,  perad venture,  Mr. 
Seddon  will  be  compelled  to  look  round  in  those 
rich  turnip  fields  of  his  for  one  of  another  shaye 
to  hollow  out  and  frighten  us  with. 

What  Wc  Don't  Want» 

An  "  Australian  Navy "  means  Australian  in- 
dependence—that is  the  plain  English  of 
it.  How  far  off  from  that  evil  ideal  we 
are,  we  who  believe  in  the  naval  develop- 
ment of  Australia  as  a  direct  Imperial  duty,  we 
need  scarcely  affirm.  An  Australian  Navy  is  no 
more  possible  than  an  Australian  King  or  Aus- 
tralian Emperor,  Sultan,  or  President,  or  Panjan- 
drum. The  sea  is  one,  and  upon  it  there  cannot 
be  two  independent  sea  forces  under  one  Empire. 
There  is  the  British  Navy — frequently  miscalled 
the  Imperial  Navy — and  Australian  ships  or  squad- 
ron, or  even  fleet,  in  the  years  to  come,  would 
only  he  a  working  portion  of  it,  and  constitute 
the  addition  that  would  justify  its  "Imperial"' 
title.  An  "Australian  Navy"  means  an  independent 
force,  directed  to  independent  action  (or  inaction), 
and  this  is  only  possible  to  an  independent  Gov- 
ernment. For  in  one  sea,  as  in  one  field  of  cam- 
paign, there  must  be  one  scheme  and  one  com- 
mand. An  Australian  ship  or  ships  would  not, 
therefore,  be  a  Navy,  but  an  addition  to  the  Em- 
pire's sea  forces.  Such  an  addition  might  be 
great  or  small;  at  least  we  will  give  ourselves  the 
credit  of  making  it  proportionate  to  our  means, 
with  some  due  appreciation  of  our  necessities,  and 
the  added  load  to  the  Empire's  sea  responsibilities 
incurred  by  our  existence.  As  has  just  been  said, 
such  an  addition,  such  a  contribution  by  Aus- 
tralia may  be  great  or  small;  but.  says  Mr.  Seddon, 

you  cannot  do  this,  you  can  make  no  contribution 
In  ships  which  are  Australian  (or  New  Zealand), 
because  an  "Australian  Navy"  would  cost  three 
millions,  or  a  dozen  millions,  and  some  other  huge 
sum  to  maintain. 

Why  stop  at  three  millions?  Mr.  Seddon  and 
his  school  (there  are  more  than  a  few  in  Austra- 
lia) evidently  mean  that  if  we  did  any  portion 
of  our  sea  defence  we  must  do  the  lot,  undertake 
the  whole  of  our  naval  defence,  and  relieve  the 
Mother  Country  completely  of  this  responsibility. 
His  estimate  is  possibly  based  on  the  cost  and 
maintenance  of  ships  of  the  Royal  Navy  in  those 
waters.  We  may  parenthesise  here,  to  remark 
that  £3,000,000  would  provide  a  fleet  capable  of 
making  very  small  mincemeat  of  the  ships  of  the 
Royal  Navy  in  these  waters  to-day.  This,  how- 
ever, by  the  way. 

Puzzlc-hcadcd  Arithmetic* 

Why  may  we  not  supply  a  portion  of  the  fleet 
for  our  naval  defence?  We  can  only  surmise 
that,  for  some  reason  or  another,  co-operation  Is 
judged  to  be  impossible.  We  may,  without  con- 
ceit, credit  ourselves  with  the  capacity  to  turn  out 
efficient  ships.  Fairly  competent  in  other  lines 
and  departments  of  life.  It  Is  curious  If  we 
are  a  sort  of  naval  "  colour-blind  "  In  sea  work. 
This,  as  Euclid  says.  Is  absurd,  and  we  can  only 
conclude,  as  the  corollary  to  Mr.  Seddon's  state- 
ment, that  co-operation  between  ships  manned  by 
Australians  and  ships  of  the  Royal  Navy  is  Im- 

For  the  same  reason,  Mr.  Seddon's  "  three-mil- 
lion fleet "  would,  It  must  be  supposed,  be  equally 
Incapable  of  acting  in  concert  with  those  East 
Indian  and  China  squadrons  that  we  hear  are  to 
rally  to  the  aid  of  the  Royal  Naval  Squadron  in 
these  seas  should  we  ever  be  seriously  threatened. 
And  this,  again,  leaves  with  us  as  the  only  possible 
deduction — and  we  present  It  without  reserve  ro 
Mr.  Seddon — that,  for  safety,  we  must  have  a  fleet 
equal  to  the  strongest  afloat  in  the  world.  It  Is 
quite  evident  that  a  three-mlllioa  fleet  would  be 
powerless  against  France  or  Russia,  or  Germany 
— who  to-day  Is,  of  all  Powers,  the  most  peevishly 
hungry  for  over-sea  possessions.  But  out  of  this 
horrible  danger  we  are  to  be  saved  by  payment  of 
that  quite  too  ridiculous  trifle  of  £200,000  a  year, 
to  provide  one  second-class  cruiser,  and  two  of  our 
dear  old  friends  of  the  Auxiliary  Squadron,  who 
have  been  with  us  so  long,  to  be  used  as  training 



April  20,  190S' 

There  is  really  something  puzzling  in  antipo- 
dean mathematics  when  applied  to  defence.  The 
Admiralty  can  make  us  quite  safe  for  £200,000; 
but  if  we  of  Australia  take  a  hand  in  it,—"  Well.'' 
says  Mr.  Seddon,  no  small  authority  in  making  the 
Empire  safe,  "  it  can't  be  done,  let  me  see,  under 
£3,000,000  odd.  first  cost,  and  about  Wz  millions 
maintenance."  Really,  a  man  with  his  experience 
in  Empire-saving  might  have  given  us  a  slightly 
lower  quotation. 

The  Logfic  that  Proves  Too  Much. 

But,  seriously,  the  absurdity  of  this  "  cost  argu- 
ment "  can  best  be  seen  by  applying  it  to  our  land 
defences.  Now  who,  for  instance,  would  put  for- 
ward, as  a  serious  reason  for  doing  away  with  our 
land  forces  and  paying  the  Imperial  Government  a 
lump  sum  for  our  land  defence,  that  a  complete 
army  for  a  land  like  this,  if  gauged  by  population, 
and  compared  with,  say,  Holland,  would  cost  us 
some  millions;  or,  if  gauged  by  extent  of  territory, 
and  compared  with  Russia,  would  cost  something 
more  than  even  the  President  of  the  New  Zealand 
Empire  Salvage  Company  would  care  to  quote? 

Here  Is  another  parallel:  In  point  of  time  and 
distance.  Western  Australia,  though  connected  by 
impassable  land  with  the  main  centres  of  Aus- 
tralian resources  and  population,  is  yet  further 
than  New  Zealand;  nevertheless.  Western  Aus- 
tralia maintains  a  defence  force  according 
to  its  means  and  capacity.  There  would 
be  far  more  reason  to  say  to  that  State, 
"  Disband  your  defence  force;  it  is  useless. 
Why,  an  army  to  protect  you  would  cost  several 
millions!  You  can't  do  any  real  good  with  It  in 
an  emergency."  W.A.  would,  however,  immedi- 
ately and  sensibly  reply  that  they  could  make  a 
small  attack  impossible;  that  if  threatened  more 
seriously,  they  could  co-operate  with  any  forces 
Australia  Felix  sent  to  her  assistance;  and  If  her 
Eastern  neighbours,  in  their  turn,  were  pressed, 
they  would  lend  their  aid,  to  the  best  of  their 
power  and  numbers. 

Similarly,  the  British  War  Office  might,  with 
some  reason,  argue  the  absurdity  of  any  Austra- 
lian military  forces,  using  precisely  the  same  ar- 
gument that  any  armed  strength  we  could  raise 
would  be  useless  against  the  millions  of  France, 
Russia,  or  Germany.  That,  while  the  Empire  ex- 
isted, Australia  would  be  safe  from  over-sea  In- 
vasion, and  the  only  proper  and  sensible  policy 
was,  clearly,  general  disbandment,  and  payment  of 
a  sum  Into  the  Imperial  Treasury.  That  If  the 
Empire  lost  her  sea  supremacy  and  fell,  nothing 
but  an  army  far  exceeding  anything  we  could 
raise  would  save  us,  and  we  must.  In  fact,  b»  lost. 

The  Secret  of  It. 

Now,  In  that  contention  there  is  fact  and  un- 
assailable logic.  Why,  then,  are  we  not  so  ad 
vised?  Why  do  not  the  War  Office  say,  "Disband 
your  land  forces"?  And  how  should  we  meet 
such  a  proposal?  We  say  at  once,  "  Our  land 
forces  can  make  a  small  raiding  attack  impossible, 
and,  moreover,  if  you  are  ever  hard-pressed  in 
the  East,  we  have  a  force  in  Sir  Ed.  Hutton's  field 
army,  specially  designed  and  organised  to  aid  you." 
This  the  War  Office  know,  and  have  used  evevy 
means  to  bring  about,  and  is  a  very  sufficient  rear- 
son  why  the  War  Office  do  not  advise  what,  on  the 
face  of  it,  seems  so  logically  sound.  The  great 
difference — and  we  have  at  last  arrived  at  It— is 
that  the  War  Office  accept  and  appreciate  Aus- 
tralian co-operation,  be  it  with  a  thousand  men„ 
or  ten  thousand,  or  whatever  we  can  spare,  and 
the  Admiralty  do  not.  They  will  have  none  of  it. 
have  persistently  set  their  faces  against  it,  and 
have  lost  no  opportunity,  during  the  last  fifteen 
years,  to  repress  any  tendency  in  that  direction, 
and  to  dwarf  our  naval  arm.  The  War  Office  say, 
"  Do  all  you  can,  and  join  us."  The  Admiralty 
say,  "  Do  nothing,  but  pay  us."  The  Admiralty's 
message  to  us,  through  Admiral  Sir  L.  Beaumont, 
was  to  disband  and  abolish  all  our  sea  forces. 
Australia's  naval  claws  were  actually  becoming 
visible;  they  must  be  pulled  out.  If,  they  say 
in  effect,  you  want  to  do  anything  in  the  way 
of  naval  defence,  you  must  do  it  all  by  yourselves, 
and  we  won't  have  any  hand  in  it  whatever. 

Latterly,  at  the  suggestion  of  Sir  Ed.  Barton, 
pressed,  no  doubt,  to  show  some  sign  of  a  feather 
or  two  cast  into  our  side  of  the  balance,  the  privi- 
lege has  been  conceded  to  Australia  of  the  training 
of  Australian  seamen  in  one  of  the  subsidised 
ships,  and  the  forming  of  a  reserve  for  service  in 
the  Empire's  fleet. 

Again,  using  the  parallel  of  the  land  forces, 
the  present  proposal,  agreed  to  by  Sir  Ed.  Barton, 
would,  if  applied  to  land  forces,  mean  the  dis- 
banding of  all  our  regiments,  corps,  and  the  pay- 
ment of  a  subsidy  for  defence  by  regiments  of  the 
regular  army.  Into  one  of  those  regiments  Au-s- 
tralian  private  soldiers  would  be  enlisted,  and  a 
militia  reserve  for  general  army  service  would  be 
open  to  about  500  Australians.  It  is  needless  to 
comment  upon  the  reception  which  such  a  pro- 
posal would  meet  with,  or  the  unpleaslng  time 
which  our  representatives  would  experience  upon 
their  return,  after  signing  a  draft  agreement  to 
that  effect.  Could  our  Prime  Minister,  in  hi3 
highest  sugar-coating  flight,  have  been  equal  to 
administering  that  pill  to  an  Australian  audience?" 
He  would  have  tried  nobly,  but  the  imagination 
fails  to  picture  the  result.       And  yet  a  proposal 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/^/08. 



on  exactly  parallel  lines  is  calmly  agreed  to  in 
London  for  our  sea  defences!  Truly  extraordin- 
ary, this,  when  it  is  remembered  that,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  our  sea  are  our  only  defences — only  by 
sea  are  we  assailable.  It  is  amusing  to  think  it  is 
one  and  the  same  Cabinet  which  has  established 
such  a  proprietary  over  the  oceans  that  surround 
our  shores,  as  to  levy  duty  on  every  glass  of  grog 
drunk  on  a  dirty  night,  and  every  yard  of  can- 
vas drawn  from  the  store-room  to  patch  a  sail, 
that  elects  to  do  its  defence  duty  over  those  seas 
by  payment  of  a  cheque  to  the  Admiralty! 

Unircal  Objections* 

For  the  time,  and  we  humbly  apologise,  we  have 
wandered  away  from  Mr.  Seddon.  We  return 
to  his  estimate,  and  the  why  and  the  wherefore 
of  its  immensity;  and  it  will  be  easy  to  show  how 
that  inflated  absurdity  can  be  pricked,  and  shrink 
to  a  sum  that  will  admit  of  our  doing  our  due 
share  as  Australians,  a  vigorous  branch  of  the 
Empire,  and  in  the  only  way  proper  to  an  aver- 
agely  manly  people. 

Mr.  Seddon,  we  see,  estimates  for  a  complete 
navy,  which  we  do  not  want  any  more  than  a 
complete  crown  or  throne  or  kingdom,  and  as- 
sumes we  must,  of  ourselves,  undertake  the  whole 
weight  and  cost  of  the  Empire's  sea-defence  in 
these  waters.  This  is  presumably  because  the 
Idea  of  Australian  ships — one  or  two  or  three  or 
six,  or  whatever  we  can  raise  as  a  part  of  the 
British  fleet  in  these  seas,  i.e.,  under  the  command 
of  the  Admiral  on  the  station — is  objected  to  by 
the  Admiralty;  and  that  once  we  (of  Australia) 
manned  ships,  the  Royal  Navy  would  gather  up 
its  skirts  and  leave  us  to  be  eaten  up.  Why  this 
determined  exclusiveness  towards  Australia? 
There  can  be  but  two  reasons  for  the  Admiralty 
objections,  other  than  mere  prejudice:  Firstly,  if 
the  ships  are  inefficient  and  worthless;  or,  sec- 
ondly, if  command  and  control  over  them  are  not 
complete.  The  first,  I  think,  we  may  put  aside— 
we  have  no  fears  as  to  our  competence.  The 
second  is  a  solid  objection,  but  one  which  it  is 
entirely  in  our  hands  to  remove. 

What  Must  be  Made  Clear* 

There  must  be  no  flaw  in  the  Admir- 
al's command.  Ships,  sea  work,  naval  work 
generally,  is  no  child's  game.  Ships  com- 
missioned and  placed  under  the  Admiral 
for  service  should  so  remain  till  paid  off.  They 
must  be  no  play-ground  for  the  fussy,  meddlesome 
gentlemen  in  Parliament— like  that  horror  of  all 
headmasters,  the  fussy  mother  of  a  spoiled  boy 
at  a  public  school.  The  command  and  direction 
of  all  operations,  and  all  the  details  of  defence. 

must  be  in  the  hands  of  the  Commander  of  the 
Fleet.  If  he  cannot  command  and  administer 
his  fleet,  dismiss  him.  A  clear  understanding, 
an  Act  of  Parliament,  if  necessary,  to  that  effect— 
if  our  Legislatures  can  exercise  the  self-denial 
to  refrain  from  meddling— will,  there  is  little  doubt, 
remove  the  great  objection,  and  I  believe,  with 
some  confidence,  the  only  one  to  co-operation — i.e., 
to  common  service  by  Australia  with  the  Empire's 
fleet — ^to  a  fusion  of  forces  so  complete  as,  when 
required,  to  be  one  fleet,  one  organisation.  It 
knocks  the  bottom  out  of  the  latest  New  Zealand 
estimate.  It  would  lead  directly  to  the  attain- 
ment of  the  object  in  view — viz.,  ships  manned 
and  officered,  crews  raised  and  trained  by  Aus- 
tralia—a purpose  to  be  achieved  with  i>atience 
and  work,  within  something  considerably  less  than 
the  period  included  in  the  recent  draft  agreement. 
That  Australia  shall  furnish  and  produce  sea- 
power,  and  not  be  its  mere  purchaser,  will  be  to 
develop  the  most  valuable  race  trait  we  have 
inherited,  if,  to  borrow  a  term  from  our  cousins, 
we  are  to  hold  our  end  up  in  the  Pacific. 

This  development  and  training  will  react  with 
tenfold  benefit  in  the  many  ways  of  special  value 
to  a  sea  people  and  sea  traders,  markedly  in  the 
improvement  of  the  mercantile  marine,  and  all 
the  branches  of  Industry  which  it  feeds  and  Is  fed 
by.  We  shall,  too,  acquire  something  of  that 
sense  of  responsibility  which  to-day  is  one  of  our 
serious  lacks;  and,  lastly  and  sordid  considera- 
tion, we  can  do  all  this  easily  with  the  means 
which  we  can  command,  notwithstanding — we 
say  it  tremblingly — Mr.  Seddon. 

This  is  intended  to  be  the  first  of  a  series  of 
articles  designed,  hopefully  and  modestly,  to  throw 
some  light  on  the  question  of  greatest  Importance 
to  be  considered  by  our  Commonwealth  Parlia- 
ment. It  Is  hoped  that  the  question  of  cost,  ard 
the  wild  and  extravagant  statements  made  for  in- 
terested or  party  or  prejudicial  purposes,  may  be 
made  plainer,  and  Its  ridiculous  fallacies  exploded. 
The  big  statements  of  millions  refer  to  our  pos- 
sible requirements  as  an  independent  nation,  rely- 
ing on  our  own  resources.  They,  as  we  show, 
"have  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the  case,"  and 
in  no  way  concern  us.  We  are  concerned  only 
with  the  cost  of  doing  such  part  of  our  defence 
as  we  are  able,  and  Is  our  due,  as  a  portion  of  the 
Empire — ^to  which  It  Is  our  pride  to  belong, 
and  in  which  we  will  be  no  lagging  burden  and 
care,  but  a  strong  help.  Such  we  can  accom- 
plish well  within  the  amount  which  it  Is  proposed 
to  subsidise  others  to  do,  rather  than  do  ourselves. 
The  persistent  taunts  that  we  will  neither  pay  for 
our  safety,  nor  are  fit  to  undertake  any  share  of  it 
for  ourselves,  must  cease. 



April  20,  ip03. 

Out  Place  in  the  Line* 

Finally,  it  Is  important  to  bear  in  mind  that 
world  conditions  are  changing  with  extraordinary 
rapidity,  markedly  so  those  which  bear  directly  on 
the  world's  naval  problem.  Of  its  realisation  by 
those  In  authority  we  bear  daily.  The  old  order 
is,  Indeed,  changing  In  all  naval  questions.  What 
better  evidence  of  an  awakening  to  actual  facts 
can  we  have  than  the  position  assigned  to  Aus- 
tralia In  the  diagram  on  the  Empire's  defenco 
problem,  which  heads  the  first  of  a  series  of  ar- 
ticles recently  published  with  all  the  support  and 
authority  of  the  "  Times  "  (London) ,  and  discussed 
In  the  House  of  Commons?  Here  we  have  Aus- 
tralia centrally  placed  Immediately  in  rear  of  the 
line  of  the  Empire's  strategic  front — the  only 
white  race  so  placed  by  many  thousands  of  miles. 

Other  instances  we  have  in  the  report  of  Sir 
Edward  Grey's  committee  on  the  Naval  Reserve. 
Australia's  great  strategic  Importance,  and  the 
value     of     our     position     in      the     Pacific,      is 

here  referred  to,  and  clearly  laid  down. 
We  have  another  In  the  great  deputation  that 
waited  on  the  Prime  Minister  of  England,  to  con- 
sider the  question  of  food  supply  in  war,  and,  there 
Is  little  doubt,  must  lead  to  still  greater  naval  ef- 
fort by  the  Mother  Country,  if  she  Is  to  be  safe  In 
war.  With  Naval  Estimates  already  at  the  limit 
of  the  taxpayers'  capacity,  where  is  the  additional 
sea  force,  which  the  Empire  must  acquire  or  die, 
to  be  obtained?  Mere  mention  of  these  great  in- 
fluences and  impelling  forces,  in  contrast  to  the 
recent  draft  agreement  that  so  dwarfs  Australian 
naval  growth,  and  makes  us  a  charge  on  an  Em- 
pire already  over-burdened,  Is  sufficient. 

Future  articles  will  deal  with  the  defence  worth 
of  our  proposed  bargain — or  lack  thereof;  strategi- 
cal conditions  peculiar  to  Australia;  and,  finally, 
a  scheme  of  actual  and  true  co-operation,  for 
getting  most  worth  in  defence  out  of  our  joint 
money,  material,  and  resources — Imperial,  or, 
rather,  Royal  Naval  and  Australian. 

In  the  "  Sunday  at  Home  "  the  Rev.  A.  R.  Buckland 
writes  on  the  late  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  He 
concludes  an  appreciative  review  of  his  life  thus: 
**  With  all  allowance  for  failure,  Frederick  Temple 
still  remains  one  of  the  most  lovable  and  one  of  the 
strongest  figures  in  the  modern  history  of  the  English 

"  Cassell's "  for  March  is  a  very  readable  number. 
Noticed  elsewhere  is  Mr.  Moore's  sketch  of  President 
Roosevelt's  early  days  in  the  West.  Mr.  Ward  Muir 
lets  one  see  what  Monte  Carlo  is  like,  within  and 
without.  Mr.  Holmes  describes  certain  remarkable 
beds,  the  most  remarkable  of  which  is  the  great  Bed 
of  Ware,  now  in  the  Rye  House,  about  twelve  feet 
square,  and  capable  of  accommodating  twenty-four 
persons.  Mr.  Dolman,  L.C.C.,  writes  on  the  training 
of  a  London  fireman.  Mr.  Randal  Roberts  gives 
effective  photographs  of  football  crowus. 

Franciscan  students  will  turn  at  once  in  the  "  Ras- 
segna  Nazionale "  (February  1)  to  Professor  G. 
Grabinski's  important  article  on  recent  Franciscan 
studies.  He  agrees  with  Professor  Mariano  in  de- 
ploring what  he  calls  the  "  subjective  rationalism  of 
M.  Sabatier,"  but  differs  considerably  from  Mariano 
in  the  latter's  estimate  of  the  Franciscan  Order  and 
the  extent  to  which  it  has  been  faithful  to  the  Fran- 
ciscan ideal.  Another  interesting  article  of  an  ex- 
ceptionally good  number  describes  the  friendly  under- 
standing that  exists  between  Governor  Taft  and  Mgr. 
Guidi,  the  new  Apostolic  delegate  to  the  Philippines, 
t>ointing  to  a  speedy  solution  of  the  vexed  religious 
question.  In  its  mid-February  issue  the  "  Rassegna," 
although  distinctly  anti-clerical,  denounces  cremation 
with  extreme  vigour  of  language  as  "  a  barbarian  in- 
stitution, contrary  to  hvunan  nature,  contrary  to 
hygiene,  contrary  to  the  sentiment  of  all  pious  and  re- 
fined  souls,   and    contrary   to   progress   and   to   civili- 

sation." There  is  an  excellent  sketch  of  the  late 
Cardinal  Parocchi,  who  was  for  many  years  among  the 

The  most  noteworthy  article  in  the  "  Deutsche  Re- 
vue "  is  contributed  by  Professor  Vambery.  In  this 
paper  he  gives  full  rein  to  his  Russophobe  feelings. 
He  deals  with  England's  position  in  Asia — ^and  es- 
pecially in  India— in  relation  to  the  other  great  Powers. 
He  prefaces  the  article  with  a  few  general  remarks 
upon  the  universal  envy  which  every  Power  has  for 
a  successful  neighbour,  and  the  determination  which  is* 
inherent  in  each  to  destroy  its  neighbour,  even  if  no 
benefits  accrue  to  itself  thereby.  He  points  out  that 
when  England  began  to  extend  her  Empire  in  India, 
all  the  other  Powers  were  otherwise  engaged,  and  for 
the  moment  took  no  notice,  and  were  even  friendly  to 
the  scheme.  Before  long,  however,  they  woke  up  to 
the  fact,  and  Russia  especially  began  to  press  forward 
her  policy  of  Asia  for  Russia.  Then  follows  the  de- 
scription of  Russia's  movements  to  secure  this  aim. 
Professor  Vambery,  of  course,  puts  the  very  worst 
possible  complexion  on  the  intentions  and  actions  of 
Russia.  It  is  not  worth  while  entering  into  his  views 
on  the  subject.  They  are  held  by  so  many  in  Great 
Britain,  and  have  been  so  often  brought  forward  in 
needless  scares.  The  Professor  then  proceeds  to  prove 
that  France's  aim  in  Indo-China  is  equally  inimical  to 
Great  Britain.  (Jerman  relations  with  England  in  the 
near  East  are  next  dealt  with.  We  are  told  that  al- 
though the  Governments  of  the  two  countries  are 
very  friendly — ^a  secret  treaty  having  even  been  hinted 
at — the  German  people  hate  England  even  more  than 
do  the  Russians.  The  conclusion  of  this  lugubrious  ar- 
ticle will  appear  next  month.  A  rather  interesting 
article  is  that  by  Otto  Gentsch,  chief  post-office  in- 
spector, upon  the  progress  of  wireless  telegraphy— spark 
telegraphy,  as  it  is  called  in  Germany. 

BevitiM  of  Reviews,  J0/4/«i. 




The  Australian  has  invaded  the  realm  of  litera- 
ture with  a  light  heart,  and  with  a  courage  which 
is  almost  astonishing.  It  might  have  been  said 
in  advance  that  the  Australian  would  have  not 
much  taste  for  literature,  and  no  time  at  all  to 
devote  to  it.  He  has — if  not  better,  yet — more  ur- 
gent and  practical  business  to  attend  to  than  the 
task  of  either  writing  books  or  reading  them.  He 
has  a  whole  new  continent  to  occupy  and  civilise. 
He  has  railroads  to  build,  rivers  to  bridge,  cities 
to  create,  territories  as  vast  as  kingdoms  to  bring 
under  the  plough,  or  to  populate  with  flocks  and 
herds.  A  very  youthful  community,  with  an 
estate  so  vast  and  undeveloped  on  its  hands,  might 
be  supposed  to  have  better  things  to  do  than  to 
hammer  out  rhymes,  and  label  them  "  poetry," 
or  write  tales  and  call  them  novels.  Yet  the 
Australian,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  shows  a  quite  sur- 
prising taste  for  books.  He  betakes  himself  to 
literary  pursuits  with  a  smiling  audacity  which 
might  almost  make  a  philosopher  weep,  or  a  cynic 
grin.  He  produces  and  consumes  more  square 
feet — or,  rather,  acres — of  newspapers  per  head 
daily  than  any  other  member  of  the  human  family. 
And  he  has  written  more  verse,  and  produced 
more  volumes — considering  his  extreme  youth — 
than  anyone  in  advance  could  have  believed  to  be 

Australian   Literature* 

And  Australian  literature,  it  may  be  said  in  all 
seriousness,  is  really  of  a  very  respectable  quality. 
The  best  Australian  journals  compare  with  the 
best  papers  of  any  land.  Whether  there  is  any 
real  divine  spark  burning  in  Australian  verse  has 
yet  to  be  proved;  but  the  verse  itse^:  stretches  out 
in  linear  miles;  and  very  good  verse  it  is.  If  it 
nas  chiefly  to  do  with  horses — if  the  cadence  or 
galloping  hoofs  is  to  be  heard  in  about  every  third 
verse  of  Australian  poetry  yet  written — this  's 
hardly  to  be  wondered  at.  The  youthful  Australian 
is  still  at  what  may  be  called  the  horse-riding 
stage.  But  in  any  list  of  minor  poets — let  us  be 
modest  and  say  poets  of  the  fourth  class — drawn 
up  to-day,  at  least  half  a  dozen  Australian  names 
would  have  to  be  included.  And  can  any  meditat- 
ing philosopher  tell  us  what  there  is  in  the  Austra- 
lian mind  that  effloresces  so  diligently,  and  at  so 
many  points,  into  rhyme?  In  the  realm  of  flction, 
too,  Australians  have  already  done  good  work. 
"For  the  Term  of  His  Natural  Life"  and  "Robbery 
Under  Arms  "  are  two  of  the  most  striking  tales 
modem  flction  knows. 

The  Missingf  Gift* 

But  there  is  one  literary  element,  the 
most     precious     of     all,     which     seems     to     be 

absolutely  non-existent  in  the  Australian 
mind.  It  is  the  element  of  humour!  Is 
there  any  other  quality  in  literature  which 
adds  so  much  to  the  happiness  of  mankind, 
or  for  which  the  world  is  willing  to  pay  more? 
What  would  we  not  give  to-day  for  another  Dick- 
ens, a  second  Thackeray,  a  Mark  Twain  redivivust 
Now,  the  Australian  ought,  on  many  grounds,  to 
possess  the  supreme  gift  of  humour.  He  comes 
of  a  humorous  stock.  He  possesses  the  divine 
gift  of  youth,  with  its  lightheartedness,  its  fresh- 
ness of  vision,  its  capacity  for  easy  laughter.  He 
is  delivered  from  the  imprisoning  conventions  of 
the  old  world.  He  is  not  ice-bound  in  habit.  He 
carries  a  lighter  burden  of  care  than  the  rest  of 
the  human  family.  The  humorous  reading  of  life 
ought  for  him  to  be  easy.  Why,  then,  have  we  not 
evolved  at  least  an  Australian  Dooley,  if  not  an 
Australian  Dickens?  We  need  not,  perhaps,  ex- 
pect an  Australian  Thackeray.  Thackeray's  hu- 
mour was  of  what  may  be  called  the  middle-aged 
type.  It  flourished  ingihe  atmosphere  of  a  club. 
No  breath  of  open  air,'^tif  pulse  of  simple  nature, 
stirs  in  it.  But  we  cugi..  to  develope  a  humour  of 
our  own,  with  the  brightness  of  Australian  sun- 
shine in  it,  and  the  freshness  of  Australian  winds. 

A  Melancholy  Pilgftimage. 

Yet  where  shall  the  weary  reader  turn  in  the 
realm  of  Australian  literature  to  flnd  one  gleam 
of  humour?  Not  to  Australian  poetry!  The 
Australian  rhymster  is  incapable  of  a  Joke  in 
verse.  Not  to  Australian  flction!  Is  there  a 
single  humorous  character  an  Australian  novelist 
has  yet  produced?  The  present  writer  knows  of 
none.  He  is  told  that  "  On  Our  Selection,"  by 
rteele  Rudd,  almost  succeeds  in  being  amusing. 
He  has  a  vague  notion,  too,  that  the  author  of 
"  Seven  Little  Australians  "  makes  valiant  efforts 
in  the  direction  of  humour.  But,  then,  he  has 
never  read  one  of  her  books.  He  is  a  tired  Aus- 
tralian already;  why  should  he  run  the  risk  of 
being  still  more  hopelessly  tired?  And— without 
making  any  rude  personal  references — is  there 
any  more  distressing  experience  the  human  mind 
can  know  than  that  of  watching  a  dull  person 
trying  desperately  to  produce  a  joke?  Some  of 
the  most  melancholy  literature  a  long-suffering 
world  has  had  to  endure  is  not  seldom  that  which 
is  labelled  "  humorous."  The  average  funeral 
sermon  is  mere  frisking  gaiety  itself  comi>ared 
with  some  of  the  works  of  "humour"  inflicted  on 
mankind  by  more  or  less  eminent  writers,  whom 
politeness  forbids  us  to  mention. 

But  will  any  reader  of  these  lines  come  to  the 
help  of  a  tired  Australian,  and  tell  him  on  what 



April  20,  1903. 

patch  of  Australian  soil  he  may  find  the  flower  of 
pure  and  unforced  humour  blossoming?  To  that 
spot  he  will  make,  tired  as  he  is,  an  instant  and 
rejoicing  pilgrimage!  Most  of  our  papers,  to 
their  credit,  be  it  said,  make  a  gallant  effort,  once 
a  week,  to  be  entertaining;  and  sometimes  a  tran- 
sient success  rewards  these  efforts.  The  present 
writer  recalls  an  article,  entitled  "  A  Peck  of 
Pickled  Poets,"  which  appeared  many  years  ago 
in  the  "  Queenslander;"  and  the  flavour  of  those 
pickled  poets  lingers  on  the  delighted  palate  still. 
It  was  a  bit  of  humour  as  genuine  as  any  to  be 
found  in  Dickens,  or  Thackeray,  or  Mark  Twain. 
But  who  wrote  it,  and  why  he  never  wrote  any- 
thing else  as  good,  are  questions  to  which  there 
is  no  answer. 

The  '^  Humorous  ^.  Journals. 

We  have  a  whole  section  of  the  Australian  press 
devoted  to  humour;  and,  alas!  the  saddest  forma 
of  literature  extant  are,  as  a  rule,  these  same  hu- 
morous journals.  Such  ancient  jokes;  toothless, 
bald-headed,  rheumatic,  unvenerable!  Such 
leaden  attempts  to  be  sprightly!  Such  contor- 
tions, intended  for  smiles! 

Many  people,  we  suspep*.  will  quote  the  "Bul- 
letin "  as  an  example  of  s  cessful,  deliberate,  and 
Industrious  humour.  A:,  j  it  may  be  frankly  ad- 
mitted that  "  Hop  "  has,  in  caricature,  the  gift  of 
genuine  and  exhaustless  humour.  He  has  more 
than  a  touch  of  satiric  genius.  He  is  worthy 
to  take  his  place  beside  the  delightful  "  F.C.G." 
of  the  "  Westminster  Gazette,"  or  with  E.  T.  Reed, 
or  Bernard  Partridge  of  London  "  Punch."  But! 
then,  "  Hop,"  alas!  is  not  an  Australian.  He  is 
an  American,  borrowed  and  acclimatised.  Whether 
Phil  May  is  an  Australian  the  present  writer  is  too 
tired  to  remember;  but  in  any  case  he  has  emi- 
grated, and  now  flourishes  under  alien  skies. 
Carrington,  in  far-off  days,  made  the  pages  of  Mel- 
bourne "Punch"  gay  with  his  pencil,  and  is  the 
only  caricaturist  who  might  have  vied  with 
"Hop."  But  he  has  visibly  lost  his  gift,  or  for- 
gotten how  to  use  it. 

As  for  the  special  literary  quality  of  the  "Bul- 
letin," it  cannot  be  called  humour,  though  it  not 
seldom  succeeds  in  being  wit— of  the  vitriolic 
sort.  The  "Bulletin"  has  many  literary  gifts;  but 
its  humour  is  of  the  mechanical  sort;  so  mechani- 
cal, indeed,  that  an  age  which  has  produced  one 
machine  to  make  sausages  and  another  to  turn  out 
bricks,  ought  to  be  able  to  invent  a  third  which 
would  produce  "Bulletin"  paragraphs  automati- 
cally. The  "  Bulletin  "  humour  may  be  reduced 
to  a  formula.  It  is  always  personal.  It  consists  in  (1) 
robbing  its  object  of  the  ordinary  conventional  pre- 
fix—just as  Mr.  Morley,  in  his  foolish  days  in- 
sisted on  spelling  "God"  with  a  small  "g-" 
(2)  fixing  a  derisive  label  on  its  victim;  (3) 
supplying      him      with      the      basest      possible 

motives;  (4)  denying  him  the  possession  of  the 
faintest  spark  of  intelligence.  Good  temper  la 
an  essential  element  of  humour;  but  good  temper 
is  certainly  not  to  be  found  in  the  category  of 
literary  virtues  possessed  by  the  "  Bulletin."  it 
permanently  groups  mankind  into  three  classes: 
(1)  rogues,  (2)  fools,  (3)  the  editor  of  the  "  Bul- 
letin"! Now,  this  is  convenient;  but  it  is  hardly 
scientific;   it  even  ends  by  becoming  fatiguing. 

No!  a  tired  Australian  emerges  from  the  columns 
of  the  "  Bulletin "  a  little  more  tired  than  he 
plunged  into  them.  He  finds  there  a  little  wit; 
a  good  deal  of  verbal  smartness;  gleams  of  shrewd 
logic;  the  worst  possible  opinion  about  everybody 
discussed;  but  no  touch  of  humour.  And  if  this 
quality  is  not  to  be  discovered  in  the  "  Bulletin," 
where  else  in  Australian  literature  shall  it  b« 

The  Satire   of   Our   Politics* 

It  would  be  wandering  into  more  serious  realms 
— realms  too  trying  for  the  feet  of  a  tired  Aus- 
tralian— to  say  that  Australian  politics  are  a  final 
and  damning  proof  of  the  entire  absence  of  hu- 
mour in  the  AustrjiVxn  mind.  A  population  of 
four  millions  which  endures — and  even  pays  for — 
fourteen  houses  of  Parliament — leaving  out  the 
two  New  Zealand  Houses— must  be  as  destitute  of 
the  sense  of  humour  as  an  oyster!  And  per- 
haps the  most  active  of  all  our  political  sections, 
the  Labour  Party,  is  the  one  which  is  the  most  de- 
plorably and  visibly  bankrupt  of  humour.  In 
every  Australian  city  the  wail  of  the  unemployed 
is  to  be  heard.  It  has  become  almost  impossible  for 
an  Australian  boy  to  learn  a  trade.  A  handful  of 
people,  sprinkled  on  the  edge  of  an  almost  un- 
known continent,  cannot  find  work  enough  for  its 
hands,  or  food  enough  for  its  stomach.  And  yet, 
for  at  least  a  quarter  of  a  century,  the  Labour 
Party  has  shaped  Australian  politics,  and  has 
toiled  at  the  business  of  making  Australia 
"  a  paradise  for  the  working  man."  And  this  is 
the  sort  of  paradise  they  have  made  for  them- 
selves! Yet  it  never  occurs  to  the  Australian 
working  man  that  his  politics  are  hopelessly  mud- 
dleheaded!  What  an  entire  bankruptcy  of  hu- 
mour this  argues. 

Why   Not   an  Australian   Dooley? 

But,  to  return  to  less  perilous  realms,  why 
should  we  not  produce,  if  not  another  Dickens — 
for  which  we  have  not,  perhaps,  enough  of  the 
Cockney;  or  another  Thackeray— for  which  we 
have  not  enough  of  the  clubman — yet  an  Austra- 
lian Mark  Twain,  or  an  Australian  Dooley  without 
the  dialect?  Mr.  Dooley  proves  that  the  Chicago 
Irishman  keeps,  under  alien  skies,  his  natural 
faculty  for  a  joke,  though  he  fiavours  It  with 
American  irreverence.      But  the  Sydney  or  Mel- 

Review  of  Reoiews,  wM/os.     js  AUSTRALIAN  HUMOUR  EXTINCT? 


bourne  Irishman,  somehow,  loses  both  his  dialect 
and  his  jokes.  Is  it  something  in  the  Australian 
climate,  or  in  Australian  politics,  that  is  fatal 
to  the  sense  of  humour?  Why  is  it  that  when  he 
breathes  the  Australian  air  a  Scotchman  parts 
company  with  his  "  wut,"  an  Englishman  with  his 
humour,  and  an  Irishman  with  his  imagination? 
And  how  is  it  that  the  Australian,  compounded  of 
the  best  elements  of  English  and  Irish  and  Scotch, 
somehow  has  no  gleam  of  the  humour  which  runs 
through  all  three  of  those  varieties  of  the  human 
stock?  Is  Australian  humour  dead,  or  is  it  not 
yet  born:  this  is  what  a  tired  Australian  wants 
to  know? 

Some  Expert  Opinions* 

We  have  invited  the  opinions  of  a  few  experts 
In  Australian  literature  on  the  subject  upon  which 
our  too  emphatic  contributor  writes;  and  these  will 
be  read  with  interest. — Ed.  "  Review  of  Reviews 
for  Australasia." 

What    "  Hop,"    the    Greatest    of    Australian 
Caricaturists,  says: 

•*  Hop,"  of  the  "Bulletin,"  very  courteously  gives 
his  opinion  on  Australian  humour;    his  contribu- 
tion shows  that  there  is  as  much  humour  on  t':..*^ 
point  of  his  pen  as  even  in  the  tip  of  his  inimitable 
pencil.    He  writes: 

"  It  seems  to  me  that  one's  judgment  in  such  a 
matter  as  the  existence  or  otherwise  of  humour 
in  a  national  literature  might  be  subject  to,  or 
influenced  by,  varying  conditions.  The  point  of 
view,  the  frame  of  mind,  the  state  of  health,  the 
working  order  of  the  digestive  organs  of  him  who 
sits  in  judgment— all  or  any  of  these  might  in- 
fluence the  verdict,  or  afford  good  and  suflBcient 
reasons  for  appeal  therefrom.  Before  I  accepted 
anyone's  opinion  as  final  I  should  like  to  know 
where  he  had  been  the  night  before,  was  he  suf- 
fering from  toothache,  gout,  corns,  or  paralysis  of 
the  platysma  myoides  (the  muscle  which  controls 
the  upward  or  downward  action  of  the  angles  of 
the  mouth),  at  the  time  he  wrote  his  article  on 
'  The  Missing  Australian  Humourist.'  I  have 
known  want  of  appreciation  of  humour  to  yield 
to  medical  treatment.  To  make  jokes,  one  must 
be  healthy — and  inspired.  To  see  them  he  must 
be  healthy.  To  criticise  the  same  requires  the 
prescience  of  an  archangel.  For  no  mortal  know- 
eth  what  humour  is  made  of.  Melancholy  has 
been  articulated,  bone  by  bone;  but  the  Burton 
has  not  yet  been  born  to  pick  a  joke  to  pieces,  to 
see  what  is  inside  it.  As  well  attempt  to  dissect 
a  kookaburra  to  find  the  funny-bone!  If  a  man 
is  really  tickled  in  earnest,  he  will  not  have  the 
presence  of  mind  to  analyse  his  sensations  for 

"  I  have  been  tickled  by  Australian  writers,  and, 
speaking  personally,  I  do  not  recognise  that  hu- 
mour is  the  missing  link  in  our  national  litera- 
ture. But  whether  any  such  thing  as  a  national 
humour — a  humour  that  is  racy  of  the  soil — exist! 
here,  is  open  to  question.  Australian  humour, 
like  an  Australian  Navy  and  Imperial  Federation, 
is,  at  present,  very  much  *  in  the  air.'  Do  not 
understand  me  as  saying  that  our  people  are  want- 
ing in  appreciation  of  humour.  On  the  contrary, 
they  are  as  keen  in  their  relish  of  a  good  joke  .ig 
they  are  quick  to  recognise  any  other  good  thing; 
but  at  present  they  are  content  to  buy  their  jokes 
as  they  do  their  shoelaces,  their  locomotives  and 
their  cutlery — in  the  cheapest  market.  In  other 
words,  the  formula  (if  I  may  use  the  word)  of  our 
jokes  is  based  upon  imported  models,  and  net 
quite  indigenous.  A  national  humour!  Why, 
we  are  yet  far  from  being  a  nation.  We  are  still 
fearfully  and  wonderfully  English,  and  our  ideals 
(humorous  included)  are  based  on  somebody  else's 
Glorious  Past.  It  is  hardly  surprising,  then,  that 
some  of  our  ideals  are  a  misfit.  We  encase  our 
obstinate  Anglo-Saxon  heads  in  a  section  of  pol- 
ished stove-pipe,  in  torrid  climes,  because,  syn- 
chronously, other  Anglo-Saxons  wear  the  same 
head-gear  in  higher  latitudes.  We  turn  up  our 
trousers  at  the  ankles  when  the  cable  tells  us 
that  it  is  raining  in  London.  Again,  our  Par- 
liaments are  modelled,  more  or  less,  after  that  (f 
Great  Britain,  and  the  debates  of  the  former  are 
a  mimicry  of  the  '  Commons,'  and  regulated  by  a 
Speaker  in  a  full-bottomed  wig,  who  looks  afe 
much  like  Mr.  Pitt  as  he  can  (wig  and  weather 
permitting),  and  settles  points  of  order  or  disor"^r 
*  according  to  May.'  The  average  '  Colonial '  Pu/- 
liament,  like  the  wig,  is  a  misfit.  Blame  not, 
then,  the  '  Colonial '  joker  of  jokes  if  his  quips 
and  quiddities  savour  of  Fleet  Street,  or  if  the  local 
cartoonist,  when  he  is  told  that  his  pictorial  sat- 
ires are  '  quite  in  the  spirit  of  "  Punch,"  '  blushe* 
a  gratified  blush. 

"  Humour  we  have,  both  in  pen  and  pencil,  bui 
not  a  strictly  national  variety  as  yet.  And  the 
reason  Is  not  far  to  seek.  Humour  thrives  best 
under  hard  conditions,  a  fact  well  understood  by 
Chas.  Dickens  when  he  drew  the  character  of 
Mark  Tapley.  The  cheerful  image  stands  out 
best  against  a  dark  background.  No  doubt  the 
so-called  American  humour  first  took  root  in  the 
shadow  of  the  gloomy  temple  of  Calvinism  which 
the  Pilgrim  Fathers  reared  upon  Plymouth  Rock, 
and,  strangely  enough,  some  of  Its  greatest  ex- 
ponents sprang  from  that  austere  race.  The 
genial  Autocrat  of  the  Breakfast-table  lived  and 
laboured  and  died  almost  within  the  sound  of  the 
'  waves  '  that  '  dashed  high  '  on  the  '  stern  and 
rock-bound  coast '  where  the  '  Mayflower '  landed 



April  20y  1^03. 

its  passengers.  '  Mark  Twain '  has  done  his  best 
work  at  his  home  in  Connecticut,  whose  pastures 
are  composed  mostly  of  cobble-stones,  and  where 
the  cattle  wear  steel-pointed  noses. 

"  It  would  seem,  conversely,  that  life  under  ea^y 
and  pleasant  conditions  is  not  favourable  to  the 
development  of  a  national  humour,  and  it  may  be 
that,  up  to  now,  we  have  had  too  royal  a  time 
of  it.  Perhaps  another  seven  years'  df^'^srht,  a 
few  more  bank  failures,  a  civil  war  or  so,  a  Rus- 
sian or  a  Chinese  invasion,  combined  with  an  earth- 
quake or  two,  would  bring  us  to  regard  life  as  a 
good  joke.  When  the  time  comes  for  Australia 
to  take  her  place  among  the  nations  thstt  make 
history — and  jokes — when  she  shall  come  to  pos- 
sess a  humour  that  is  racy  of  the  soil,  its  high 
priests  shall  spring  from  that  aoil,  and  sit  at  their 
own  feet.  A  land  that  can  boast  of  the  only  bird 
that  laughs  naturally  need  not  despair.  The 
kookaburra  is  by  no  means  a  bird  of  evil  omen, 
and  if  we  take  this  hint  from  nature  we  may 
yet  live  to  laugh  at  jokes  of  our  own  manufac- 
ture, and  keep  the  money — and  the  humour — in 
the  country." 

Some  profane  persons  may  doubt  whether 
newspapers  are  literature.  Without,  however,  dis- 
cussing that  delicate  point,  the  head  of  a  great 
Australian  journal  must  be  expected  to  have  some 
competent  knowledge  of  Australian  literature.  One 
of  the  most  experienced  and  successful  of  Austra- 
lian journalists  is  Sir  Langdon  Bonython,  and  his 
opinion  was  invited  on  the  subject  of  Australian 
humour.  Sir  Langdon  Bonython  says:  "Yes,  on 
consideration,  I  believe  it  is  quite  true  that  there 
is  a  lack  of  humour  in  Australian  writers.  I  can- 
not recall  one  that  possesses  that  priceless  gift  in 
any  marked  degree.  I  grant,  too,  that  the  absence 
is  curious,  and  certainly  not  capable  of  easy  and 
offhand  explanation.  The  absence  of  humour,  too, 
is  remarkable  amongst  our  public  speakers. 
Where  a  public  speaker  has  a  distinct  gift  of  hu- 
mour, as  in  the  case  of  the  Hon.  G.  H.  Reid,  or  the 
Hon.  J.  G.  Jenkins,  the  Premier  of  South  Aus- 
tralia, these  are  not  of  Australian  stock,  one  being 
a  Scotchman  and  the  other  an  American.  Perhaps 
humour,  both  in  Australian  literature  and  Austra- 
lian poetry,  may  emerge  in  time;  but  at  present  it 
is  practically  non-existent,  and  I  am  quite  unable 
to  offer  any  theory  which  may  explain  that  dis- 
tressing fact." 

Mr.  H.  G.  Turner,  of  Melbourne,  whose  knowl- 
edge of  Australian  literature  is  unrivalled,  says: 

"  Your  quest  for  the  missing  Australian  humour- 
ist crossed  my  path  here,  where  I  am  rusticating 
away  from  my  library.  I  own  some  250  volumes 
of  Australian  fiction  and  verse,  and    under  other 

circumstances  might  have  delved  in  that  mine  for 
exhibition   specimens,    probably   without   suitable 
recompense.      Speaking,  therefore,  from  the  gen- 
eral impression  left  by  much  reading,  I  would  day 
that  Australia  has  not  produced  any  writer  entitled 
to  take  a  leading  rank  as  a  humourist,  in  the  high- 
est sense  of  that  much  misused  word.      Of  rollick- 
ing, riotous,  reckless  fun  we  have  abundant  ex- 
ponents, both  in  volume  and  in  broadsheet;   and 
Young  Australia  has  been  so  schooled  to  laugh  at 
squalid  makeshifts  that  their  ridiculous  presenta- 
tion, in  an  illustrated  volume,  seems  to  reach  tne 
perfection   of   humour.       This   is   because   Young 
Australia  does  not  know  that  biting  satire,  cynical 
contempt  of  the  characters   dealt   with,   and   too 
often  an  openly  defiant  disregard  of  the  decencies 
of   social   life   is   a  very   different  thing   to   that 
humour  which  has  been  aptly  called  '  the  salt  of 
life ' — humour  that  laughs  with  the  people  it  deals 
with,  not  at  them;  that  leaves  no  rancour,  and  is 
ever  called  up  with  a  smile.      Most  of  our  comic 
scribes   have   drawn   their  inspiration    from    the 
Rabelaisian  school,  enlivened  with  a  little  up-to- 
date  patter  of  recent  Western  American  scribes, 
and  a  personal  cynical  bitterness    born  of  uncon- 
genial   surroundings.       Perhaps   the   nearest    ap- 
proach to  a  humourist  that  we  have  had  was  the 
man  whose  verdict  on  the    '  weird  melancholy ' 
of  Australian  surroundings  is  so  widely  quoted— 
Marcus  Clarke.      In  some  of  his  short  stories,  such 
as    '  Holiday  Peak,'    and  others,  there  is  a  refine- 
ment  of   humour   quite   exceptional,    and   in   the 
musings  of  the    '  Peripatetic  Philosopher.'    he   is 
never  coarse,  though  too  obviously  cynical.      But 
the  fact  remains  that  the  kindly,  genial  humour  of 
the  gentle  '  Elia,'  the  wise  witticism  of  the  dear 
old  Autocrat  of  the  Breakfast-table,  and  the  deli- 
cately refined  imagery  which  often  surrounds  the 
humour  of  Robert  Louis   Stevenson,   have  found 
no  followers  or  imitators  in  the  land  of  our  adop- 
tion.     Seeing     what    strong    meat    is    furnished 
weekly  for  the  Australian  palate  by  a  so-called 
comic  press,   I   fear  that   anyone   bold  enough  to 
model  his  style  on  the  names  mentioned  would 
be  derided  as  *  namby-pamby.'  " 

Mr.  A.  G.  Melville,  speaking  as  a  publisher,  says: 
"  I  would  say  that  humour  is  not  so  much  a 
missing  element  as  one  that  will  in  time  make 
itself  more  apparent.  So  far,  Australians  have 
treated  literature  from  the  more  serious  aspect, 
yet  in  more  recent  days  Lawson  in.  his  'While 
the  Billy  Boils,'  Davis  in  his  '  On  Our  Selection,' 
and  'Banjo'  Paterson  in  his  *  Billy  Magee,'  show 
that  the  elements  of  humour  are  not  wanting. 
The  graver  and  abiding  humour  of  the  great 
English  writers  will  no  doubt  appear  in  Auatralla 
later  on." 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/k/OS. 




Conan  Doyle  is  giving,  in  the  "Strand  Maga- 
zine," some  new  exploits  by  Brigadier  Gerard. 
They  make  very  excellent  reading,  of  course;  but 
in  the  February  number  he  gives  a  picture  of 
Waterloo,  as  seen  through  a  Frenchman's  eyes, 
which  is  brilliant  and  impressive  in  the  highest 
degree.      Says  Brigadier  Gerard: 

"  A  sight  lay  before  me  which  held  me  fast,  as 
though  I  had  been  turned  into  some  noble  eques- 
trian statue.      I  could  not  move,  I  could  scarce 
breathe,  as  I  gazed  upon  it.      There  was  a  mound 
over  which  my  path  lay,  and  as  I  came  out  on 
the  top  of  it  I  looked  down  the  long,  shallow  val- 
ley of  Waterloo.       I  had  left  it  with  two  great 
armies  on  either  side,  and  a  clear  field  between 
them.      Now  there  were  but  long,  ragged  fringes 
of  broken  and  exhausted  regiments  upon  the  two 
ridges,  but  a  real  army  of  dead  and  wounded  lay 
between.     For  two  miles  in  length  and  half  a  mile 
across  the  ground  was  strewed  and  heaped  with 
them.       But  slaughter  was  no  new  sight  to  me 
and  it  was  not  that  which  held  me  spellbound.    It 
was  that  up  the  long  slope  of  the  British  position 
was  moving  a  walking  forest — black,  tossing,  wav- 
ing, unbroken.       Did  I   not  know  the  bearskins 
of  the  Guard?      And  did  I  not  also  know,  did  not 
my  soldier's  instinct  tell  me,  that  it  was  the  last 
reserve  of  France;  that  the  Emperor,  like  a  des- 
perate  gamester,   was   staking   all   upon   his   last 
card?      Up  they  went  and  up — grand,  solid,  un- 
breakable, scourged  with  musketry,  riddled  with 
grape,   flowing   onwards   in   a  black,   heavy  tide, 
which  lapped  over  the  British  batteries.       With 
my  glass  I  could  see  the  English  gunners  throw 
themselves  under  their  pieces,  or  run  to  the  rear. 
On  rolled  the  crest  of  the  bearskins,  and  then, 
with  a  crash  which  was  swept  across  to  my  ears, 
they  met  the  British  infantry.      A  minute  passed, 
and  another,  and  another.      My  heart  was  In  my 
mouth.      They  swayed  back  and  forwards;   they 
no    longer    advanced;     they    were    held.      Great 
Heaven!  was  it  possible  that  they  were  breaking? 
One  black  dot  ran  down  the  hill,  then  two,  then 
four,  then  ten,  then  a  great,  scattered,  struggling 
mass,  halting,  breaking,  halting,  and  at  last  shred- 
ding out  and  rushing  madly  downwards.       *  The 
Guard  is  beaten!     The  Guard  is  beaten!'      From 
all  around  me  I  heard  the  cry.      Along  the  whole 
line  the  infantry  turned  their  faces,  and  the  gun- 
ners flinched  from  their  guns. 

"'The  Old  Guard  is  beaten!       The  Guard  re- 
treats!'      An  officer  witn  a  livid  face  passed  me 

yelling  out  these  words  of  woe.  '  Save  yourselves! 
Save  yourselves!  You  are  betrayed!'  cried  an- 
other. 'Save  yourselves!  Save  yourselves!' 
Men  were  rushing  madly  to  the  rear,  blundering 
and  jumping  like  frightened  sheep.  Cries  and 
screams  rose  from  all  around  me.  And  at  that  mo- 
ment, as  I  looked  at  the  British  position,  I  saw 
what  I  can  never  forget.  A  single  horseman  stood 
out  black  and  clear  upon  the  ridge  against  the  last 
red  angry  glow  of  the  setting  sun.  So  dark,  so 
motionless  against  that  grim  light,  he  might  have 
been  the  very  spirit  of  Battle  brooding  over  that 
terrible  valley.  As  I  gazed  he  raised  his  hat  high 
in  the  air,  and  at  the  signal,  with  a  low,  deep 
roar  like  a  breaking  wave,  the  whole  British  Army 
flooded  over  their  ridge,  and  came  rolling  down 
into  the  valley.  Long  steel-fringed  lines  of  red 
and  blue,  sweeping  waves  of  cavalry,  horse  bat- 
teries rattling  and  bounding — down  they  came  on 
to  our  crumbling  ranks.  It  was  OTtr.  A  yell  of 
agony,  the  agony  of  brave  men  who  see  no  hope, 
rose  from  one  flank  to  the  other,  and  in  an  in- 
stant the  whole  of  that  noble  army  was  swept 
in  a  wild,  terror-stricken  crowd  from  the  field. 
Even  now,  dear  friends,  I  cannot,  as  you  see,  speak 
of  that  dreadful  moment  with  a  dry  eye  or  with  a 
steady  voice. 

"At  first  I  was  carried  away  in  that  wild  rush,, 
whirled  off  like  a  straw  in  a  flooded  gutter.    But 
suddenly,    what     should     I     see     amongst     the 
mixed      regiments      in      front      of      me      but    a 
group  of  stern  horsemen,  in  silver  and  grey,  with 
a  broken  and  tattered  standard  held  aloft  in  the 
heart  of  them!      Not  all  the  might  of  England  and 
of  Prussia  could  break  the  Hussars  of  Conflans, 
But  when  I  joined  them  it  made  my  heart  bleed 
to  see  them.      The  major,  seven  captains,  and  five 
hundred  men  were  left  upon  the  field.      Young 
Captain  Sabbatier  was  in  command,  and  when  I 
asked  him  where  were  the  five  missing  squadrons, 
he  pointed  back  and  answered:  'You  will  find  them 
round  one  of  those  British  squares.'      Men  and 
horses  were  at  their  last  gasp,  caked  with  sweat 
and  dirt,  their  black  tongues  hanging  out  from 
their  lips;  but  it  made  me  thrill  with  fride  to  see 
how  that   shattered  remnant  still  rode,  knee  to 
kuee.  with  every  man,  from  the  boy  trumpeter  to 
thto  farrier-sergeant,   in    his    own    proper    place. 
Would  that  I  could  have  brought  them  on  with  me 
as  an  etcort  for  the  Emperor!       In  the  heart  of 
the  Hussars  of  Confians  he  would  be  safe  Indeed. 
But  the  horses  were  too  spent  to  trot.       I  left 



April  20,  1907;. 

them  behind  me,  with  orders  to  rally  upon  the 
farmhouse  of  St.  Aunay,  where  we  had  camped 
two  nights  before.  For  my  own  part,  I  forced  my 
horse  through  the  throng  in  search  of  the  Em- 

"  There  were  things  which  I  saw  then,  as  1 
pressed  through  that  dreadful  crowd,  which  can 
never  be  banished  from  my  mind.  In  evil  dreams 
there  comes  back  to  me  the  memory  of  that  flow- 
ing stream  of  staring,  screaming  faces,  upon 
which  I  looked  down.  It  was  a  nightmare.  In 
victory  one  does  not  understand  the  horror  of  war. 
It  is  only  in  the  cold  chill  of  defeat  that  it  is 
brought  home  to  you.  I  remember  an  old  Grena- 
dier of  the  Guard  lying  at  the  side  of  the  road 
with  his  broken  leg  doubled  at  a  right  angle. 
'  Comrades,  comrades,  keep  ofC  my  leg! '  he  cried, 
but  they  tripped  and  stumbled  over  him  all  the 
same.  In  front  of  me  rode  a  Lancer  officer  with- 
out his  coat.  His  arm  had  just  been  taken  off 
in  the  ambulance.  The  bandages  had  fallen.  It 
was  horrible.  Two  gunners  tried  to  drive  through 
with  their  gun.  A  Chasseur  raised  his  musket 
and  shot  one  of  them  through  the  head.  I  saw  a 
major  of  the  Cuirassiers  draw  his  two  holster  pis- 
tols and  shoot  first  his  horse  and  then  himself. 
Beside  the  road  a  man  in  a  blue  coat  was  raging 
and  raving  like  a  madman.  His  face  was  black 
with  powder,  his  clothes  were  torn,  one  epaulette 
was  gone,  the  other  hung  dangling  over  his  breast. 
Only  when  I  came  close  to  him  did  I  recognise  that 
it  was  Marshal  Ney.  He  howled  at  the  flying 
troops  and  his  voice  was  hardly  human.  Then 
he  raised  the  stump  of  his  sword — it  was  broken 
three  inches  from  the  hilt.  "  Come  and  see  how 
a  Marshal  of  France  can  die!"  he  cried.  Gladly 
would  I  have  gone  with  him,  but  my  duty  lay  else- 
where. He  did  not,  as  you  know,  find  the  death 
he  sought,  but  he  met  it  a  few  weeks  later,  in 
cold  blood,  at  the  hands  of  his  enemies. 

"  There  is  an  old  proverb  that  in  attack  the 
French  are  more  than  men,  in  defeat  they  are  less 
than  women.  I  knew  that  it  was  true  that  day. 
But  even  in  that  rout  I  saw  things  which  I  can 
tell  with  pride.  Through  the  fields  which  skirt 
the  road  moved  Cambronne's  three  reserve  bat- 
talions of  the  Guard,  the  cream  of  our  army.  They 
walked  slowly  in  square,  their  colours  waving 
over  the  sombre  line  of  the  bearskins.  All  round 
them  raged  the  English  cavalry  and  the  black 
Lancers  of  Brunswick,  wave  after  wave  thunder- 
ing up,  breaking  with  a  crash,  and  recoiling  in 
ruin.  When  last  I  saw  them  the  English  guns, 
six  at  a  time,  were  smashing  grape-shot  through 
their  ranks  and  the  English  infantry  were  closing 
In  upon  three  sides  and  pouring  volleys  into  them; 
but   still,    like   a   not)le   lion   with    fierce   hounds 

clinging  to  its  flanks,  the  glorious  remnant  of 
the  Guard,  marching  slowly,  halting,  closing  up, 
dressing,  moved  majestically  from  their  last  battle. 
Behind  them  the  Guard's  battery  of  twelve-pound- 
ers was  drawn  up  upon  the  ridge.  Ev->ry  gunne}' 
was  in  his  place,  but  no  gun  fired.  '  WL/  do 
you  not  fire?'  I  asked  the  colonel  as  I  passed. 
'  Our  powder  is  finished.'  '  Then  why  not  re- 
tire?' '  Our  appearance  may  hold  them  back  for 
a  little.  We  must  give  the  Umperor  time  to  es- 
cape.'     Such  were  the  soldiers  of  France. 

"  Behind  this  screen  of  brave  men  the  others 
took  their  breath,  and  then  went  on  in  less  desper- 
ate fashion.  They  had  broken  away  from  the 
road,  and  all  over  the  countryside  in  the  twilight 
I  could  see  the  timid,  scattered,  frightened  crowd 
who  ten  hours  before  had  formed  the  finest  army 
that  ever  went  down  to  battle.  I  with  my 
splendid  mare  was  soon  able  to  get  clear  of  the 
throng,  and  just  after  I  passed  Genappe  I  overtook 
the  Emperor  with  the  remains  of  his  Staff.  Soult 
was  with  him  still,  and  so  was  Drouot,  Lobau,  and 
Bertrand,  with  five  Chasseurs  of  the  Guard,  their 
horses  hardly  able  to  move.  The  night  was  fall- 
ing, and  the  Emperor's  haggard  face  gleamed 
white  through  the  gloom  as  he  turned  it  towards 

"  *  Who  is  that?'  he  asked. 

"  *  It  is  Colonel  Gerard,'  said  Soult. 

"  '  Have  you  seen  Marshal  Grouchy?' 

"  '  No,  Sire.      The  Prussians  were  between." 

"  '  It  does  not  matter.  Nothing  matters  now. 
Soult,  I  will  go  back.' 

"  He  tried  to  turn  his  horse,  but  Bertrand  seized 
his  bridle.  'Ah,  Sire,'  said  Soult,  '  the  enemy  has 
had  good  fortune  enough  already.'  They  forced 
him  on  among  them.  He  rode  in  silence  with 
his  chin  upon  his  breast,  the  greatest  and  the  sad- 
dest of  men.  Far  away  behind  us  those  remorse- 
less guns  were  still  roaring.  Sometimes  out  of 
the  darkness  would  come  shrieks  and  screams  and 
the  low  thunder  of  galloping  hoofs.  At  the  sound 
we  would  spur  our  horses  and  hasten  onwards 
through  the  scattered  troops.  At  last,  after  rid- 
ing all  night  in  the  clear  moonlight,  we  found  that 
we  had  left  both  pursued  and  pursuers  behind. 
By  the  time  we  passed  over  the  bridge  at  Charlerol 
the  dawn  was  breaking.  What  a  company  of 
spectres  we  looked  in  that  cold,  clear,  searching 
light,  the  Emperor  with  his  face  of  wax,  Soult 
blotched  with  powder,  Lobau  dabbled  with  blood! 
But  we  rode  more  easily  now,  and  had  ceased  to 
glance  over  our  shoulders,  for  Waterloo  was  more 
than  thirty  miles  behind  us.  One  of  the  Emper- 
or's carriages  had  been  picked  up  at  Charlerol, 
and  we  halted  now  on  the  other  side  of  the  Sam- 
bre.  and  dismounted  from  our  horses." 

Review  of  Reviews,  tO/i/OS. 



BY    W.    T.    STEAD. 


HER    GATES-'^ 

**  It  cannot  be  denied  that  the  outside  air  and  framework  of  London  is  harsh,  cruel,  and  repulsive." — De  Quincey. 

London  is  the  biggest  conglomeration  of  houses 
the  world  has  ever  seen.  For  mere  hugeness, 
London  is  the  giant  of  this  Barnum  show  of  a 
world.  Like  most  giants,  she  suffers  from  her 
monstrosity.  She  is  a  province  covered  with 
houses,  it  is  true;  but  is  she  a  city?  She  is  a 
conglomerate  of  twenty-seven  boroughs  and  a 
couple  of  cities;  but  is  she  an  organism?  Muni- 
cipally and  educationally,  London  is  becoming 
organic.  But  socially  she  is  still  inorganic.  Like 
the  earth  in  the  first  chapter  of  Genesis,  social 
London  is  without  form,  and  void,  and  darkness 
is  upon  the  face  of  the  deep. 

What  poem,  not  even  excepting  Wordsworth's 
lovely  sonnet  on  Westminster  Bridge,  has  done  for 
London  what  Byron — to  take  only  one  example — 
did  for  Rome?— 

O  Rome,  my  country,  city  of  the  soul. 
Lone  mother  of  dead  Empires. 

The  Step-Mothef  City* 

What  poet  has  embodied  in  his  verse  a  living 
conception  of  London,  that  cold  step-mother  of  an 
Imperial  race?  What  painter  has  given  us  the 
soul  of  the  great  city  on  canvas?  What  sculptor 
has  ventured  to  portray  London  in  marble  or  in 
bronze?  Parisian  artists  revel  in  giving  form 
and  shape  and  substance  to  their  conception  of 
the  French  capital.  Round  the  Place  de  la  Con- 
corde sit  on  thrones  the  sculptured  eflBgies  of  the 
great  cities  of  France;  but  who  has  ever  seen  a 
statue  symbolical  or  emblematic  of  London?  There 
is  no  such  thing.  The  monster  on  the  Thames  is 
shapeless,  formless,  even  sexless.  For  who  is 
there  who  can  say  with  authority  whether  Lon- 
don be  a  he,  a  she,  or  an  it? 

London,  the  capital  of  the  Empire  on  which 
the  sun  never  sets,  the  financial  centre  of  the 
world,  and  the  key  of  India,  is,  like  Jerusalem  of 
old,  the  city  to  which  the  tribes  go  up.  It  is  not 
a  holy  city,  like  Mecca.  But  it  is  the  pilgrim 
shrine  of  the  English-speaking  world.  The  seat 
of  Government  and  the  mart  of  commerce,  it  Is 
also  the  centre  of  our  art,  our  music,  and  our  lit- 
erature. Here  are  the  courts  where  justice  Is  ad- 
ministered in  the  last  resort  to  one-fourth  of  the 
human  race,  and  hither,  despite  its  ill-dredged 
river  and  mismanaged  port,  come  the  ships  from 

all  the  Seven  Seas.  It  is  the  greatest  of  all  world 
centres.  Yet  it  is  itself  without  a  centre,  appar- 
ently without  a  heart,  and  to  the  stranger  with- 
in its  gates  it  is  as  stony-hearted  a  step-mother  as 
was  Oxford  Street  in  the  days  when  De  Quincey 
declaimed  against  it  for  "  listening  to  the  sighs  of 
orphans  and  drinking  the  tears  of  children." 

London  is  splendidly  equipped  for  the  purpose 
of  giving  hospitality  to  all  her  visitors.  "  You 
can  find  everything  In  London  if  you  only  know 
where  to  look,"  was  the  verdict  of  one  whose  pur- 
chases were  more  varied  than  those  of  Mr.  Pier- 
pout  Morgan.  There  are  more  well-appointed  re- 
sidence.'^ in  London  and  in  the  suburbs,  where  gen- 
erous hospitality  could  be  given  without  conscious 
sense  of  strain  to  our  kith  and  kin  from  beyond 
the  sea,  than  in  any  other  city  in  the  world.  And 
never  before,  at  any  period  in  our  history,  were 
there  so  many  occupants  of  these  houses  so  sen- 
sible of  the  obligation  to  show  hospitality  to  stran- 
gers from  over  the  sea,  especially  to  those  who 
come  to  do  reverence  to  the  august  shrines  of  our 
colonising  race.  Never  were  there  more  resources 
available  for  hospitality,  never  was  there  so  much 
keen  appreciation  of  its  importance  as  a  factor 
in  the  making  and  the  keeping  of  Empire. 

The  Charm  of  London* 
Within  the  four-mile  radius  from  Charing  Cross 
are  massed  the  accumulated  treasures  of  many 
generations  of  scholars,  antiquaries,  artists,  ex- 
plorers, and  men  of  science.  In  the  British  Mu- 
seum is  hoarded  the  loot  of  vanished  civilisations, 
side  by  side  with  the  latest  products  of  contem- 
porary genius.  In  the  National  Gallery  the  poor- 
est citizen  can  gaze  at  leisure  upon  the  master 
pieces  of  the  masters  of  every  school  of  art.  From 
the  walls  of  the  National  Portrait  Gallery  look 
down  the  most  authentic  pictures  of  the  men  and 
women  whose  valour  and  whose  piety,  whose 
genius  and  whose  sagacity,  have  been  the  precious 
material  out  of  which  this  realm  of  England  has 
been  fashioned.  In  the  Natural  History  Museum 
is  the  most  complete  collection  of  all  the  creatures 
which  Inhabit  this  planet.  Earth  and  air  and  sea 
have  been  scoured  to  bring  together  representa- 
tives of  all  these  Innumerable  tribes  or  species  of 
the  subjects  of  Man  over  whom  he  has  dominion, 
but  of  whose  very  existence  the  most  of  us  are 



April  20,  190^. 

unaware.  In  South  Kensington  are  stored  up  the 
best  products  of  human  skill,  the  finest  specimens 
of  the  marvellous  ingenuity  and  tireless  industry 
of  the  human  race.  In  Piccadilly,  the  book  of 
the  rocks,  whereon  is  inscribed,  as  by  the  finger  of 
God,  the  indelible  history  of  the  world,  is  open  for 
all  to  read.  Everywhere  in  lavish  profusion  are 
heaped  together  the  treasures  of  art  and  of  science, 
the  choicest  handiwork  of  the  craftsman,  the  most 
glorious  achievements  of  human  genius. 

Nor  Ti"it  only  in  these  storehouses  of  treasures 
for  which  the  world  has  been  ransacked  that  Lon- 
don is  rich.  More  attractive  than  museum  or 
picture  gallery  are  the  great  buildings  in  and 
around  which  cluster  the  romantic  and  tragic  as- 
sociations of  a  thousand  years  of  history.  The 
Tower,  with  its  dungeons,  in  the  East;  the  great 
hall  of  Westminster  in  the  West;  St.  Paul's  in  the 
City,  and  the  august  temple  of  reconciliation 
and  of  peace  where  our  kings  are  crowned  and  our 
heroes  are  laid  to  rest — these  possess  a  fascina- 
tion which  naught  but  age  can  give,  and  which 
time  enhances  rather  than  impairs.  London  is 
full  of  places  hallowed  in  history  or  in  song.  The 
labyrinthine  maze  of  her  streets  is  like  a  vast  pa- 
limpsest of  stone  on  which  scores  of  generations 
have  written  the  story  of  the  comedy  and  of  the 
tragedy  of  their  lives.  Opposite  this  grey  build- 
ing was  smitten  off  the  head  of  a  faithless  and 
perjured  king.  Here  in  the  Temple  Gardens  were 
plucked  the  Red  and  White  Roses  which  became 
the  badges  of  York  and  Lancaster  in  the  bloodiest 
of  our  Civil  Wars.  There  once  blazed  the  fires  of 
Smithfield;  here  stood  the  pillory  in  which  the  pa- 
triot and  the  prostitute  were  alike  exposed  to  the 
gibes  and  insults  of  the  mob;  and  not  so  far  away 
the  ruins  of  the  prison  whose  name  is  for  ever 
radiant  with  the  saintly  glory  of  the  love  and  com- 
passion of  Elizabeth  Fry.  From  this  inn  Chau- 
cer's pilgrims  started  on  their  immortal  joum3y 
to  Canterbury.  Near  by,  one  William  Shakespeare 
superintended  the  performance  of  his  own  plays. 

But  to  the  most  of  those  who  come  up  to  town 
the  living  dog  is  preferred  to  the  dead  lion,  and 
they  are  apt  to  be  more  interested  in  the  mansions 
of  the  millionaires  who  rule  the  Rand  from  Park 
Lane  than  in  the  tombs  of  the  Crusaders  who  rode 
steel-clad  across  Europe  to  wrest  the  Holy  Sepul- 
chre from  the  Infidel.  To  them  London  is  in- 
tensely alive.  Beneath  her  smoke  canopy  dwell 
all  the  men  whose  names  have  been  familiar  to 
the  colonist  or  to  the  provincial  since  his  child- 
hood. From  his  distant  home  they  seemed  to 
dwell  afar  off  as  gods  upon  some  sky-piercing 
Olympus.  But  when  he  comes  to  town  he  jostles 
with  his  demigods  in  the  street.  He  may  sit  next 
to  the  Commander-in-Chief  In  church,  and  listen 
to  the  sermon  of  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

Mr.  Balfour  may  whiz  past  him  in  his  motor-car, 
aa  he  stands  gaping  at  Mr.  Chamberlain.  That 
was  Mr.  Gladstone's  house.  Lord  Salisbury  lives 
in  that  street,  and  there  is  Lord  Rosebery's  man- 
sion cheek  by  Jowl  with  that  of  Alfred  Harms- 
worth  in  Berkeley  Square.  The  Horse  Guards  sit 
motionless  at  the  gates  of  Whitehall;  the  Lord 
Mayor's  coach,  with  its  quaintly  liveried  foot- 
men, drives  past  our  windows  down  the  Embank- 
ment; to  the  merry  marching  music  of  fife  and 
drum  step  out  the  British  Grenadiers;  Dukes  and 
Duchesses,  popular  novelists  and  pretty  actresses, 
famous  barristers  and  eminent  divines,  whom  they 
had  read  about  all  their  lives,  as  we  read  about 
Richard  the  Lion  Heart,  and  John  Hampden,  sud- 
denly take  life  before  their  eyes,  and  stepping 
down  from  their  pedestals  mingle  with  us  as  men 
among  men.  We  see  Mr.  Balfour  watching  the 
Lord  Mayor's  Show  from  the  vantage  ground  of  a 
coster's  barrow,  or  we  meet  Mr.  Morley  walking 
sedately  down  Pall  Mall  to  eat  a  modest  chop  at 
the  Athenaeum. 

The  amusements  of  London  are  more  univer- 
sally attractive  even  than  its  celebrities.  London 
has  not  the  Roman  Colosseum.  But  it  has  the 
Hippodrome.  The  Wild  West  attracts  its  thou- 
sands to  Olympia.  Earl's  Court  is  a  popular  Ely- 
sium, and  the  Crystal  Palace  a  dream  of  fairyland 
come  true.  The  Zoological  Gardens  are  a  micro- 
cosm of  the  whole  world  of  animated  nature,  and 
the  Gardens  at  Kew  are  famous  throughout  the 

None  of  these  attractions — no,  not  all  of  them 
put  together — equal  the  charm  of  the  crowded 
streets,  the  brilliant  shops,  the  whole  palpitating 
life  of  the  myriad  denizens  of  the  busy  hive  of 
men  unveiled  before  the  eyes  of  the  onlooker. 

A  Stony  Solitude* 

And  yet,  and  yet,  with  all  these  accumulated 
glories  and  charms  to  interest,  to  excite,  to  thrill 
and  to  amuse,  London  is  to  thousands  of  her  visi- 
tors a  stony  wilderness,  dreary  and  forbidding,  the 
memory  of  which,  in  after  years,  is  as  a  night- 
mare. For  the  heart  of  man  and  of  woman  re- 
coils from  solitude,  and  nowhere  is  mortal  so 
much  alone  as  in  the  heart  of  a  great  city  in  which 
he  does  not  know  a  single  friend. 

The  simple  fact  of  the  matter  is  that  London  is 
to  the  strangers  within  her  gates  an  absentee  hos- 
tess. When  they  arrive  there  is  none  to  bid 
them  welcome.  When  they  depart  there  is  none 
to  bid  them  God-speed.  There  is  no  one  who 
is  charged  with  that  first  duty  of  a  hostess— to 
make  her  guests  feel  at  home,  to  show  them  aboat 
the  premises,  and  to  introduce  them  to  the  other 
guests,  or  to  the  members  of  the  household.  And 
as  a  result,  every  year  there  arrive  thousands  of 

RevietD  of  ReiHews,  iO/i/OS. 



men  and  women  with  their  hearts  yearning  for 
sympathy,  and  their  minds  full  of  memories  of  the 
old  home  and  the  motherland,  who  depart  shaking 
her  dust  from  off  their  feet  in  disappointment 
and  disgust.  Motherland,  indeed!  Nay,  only 
a  stony-hearted  step-mother!  Never  again!  And 
so,  one  by  one,  are  severed  these  invisible  silken 
links  of  sentiment,  which  are  more  potent  than 
ironclads  or  army  corps  to  hold  the  Empire  to- 
gether, to  knit  the  race  into  one  great  family, 
whose  members  encompass  the  earth,  but  who  in 
thought  ever  gather  round  the  common  hearth- 
stone of  their  ancestors.  This  need  not  be  so. 
This  ought  not  to  be  so.  And,  thank  God,  there 
are  signs  not  a  few  that  it  is  not  going  to  be  so 
much  longer! 

The  Comingf  of  the  Hostess* 

In  Coronation  year,  almost  for  the  first  time  in 
our  history,  there  was  visible  some  widespread 
awakening  to  the  duties  of  hospitality  on  the  part 
of  the  citizens  of  London  to  the  strangers  with- 
in our  gates.  It  is  true  that  the  arrangements 
were  imperfect,  spasmodic,  and  inadequate.  But 
it  is  the  first  step  that  counts,  and  it  was  a  great 
thing  to  have  made  a  beginning.  The  efforts  to 
make  our  Colonial  contingents  feel  at  home  were 
very  successful.  Thanks  largely  to  the  efforts  of 
Miss  Brooke  Hunt  and  other  public-spirited  la-* 
dies,  a  club  was  provided,  wherein  our  Colonials 
in  uniform  could  feel  at  home,  where  they  could 
meet  their  friends,  enjoy  games,  read  the  papers, 
and  receive  invitations  from  those  who  were  de- 
sirous of  showing  them  hospitality.  Besides  this 
organised  effort  for  a  special  class  there  was  a 
great  deal  of  spontaneous  private  hospitality  on 
the  part  of  residents  in  London  and  in  the  suburbs. 
Colonials  and  others  were  invited  to  spend  the 
week-end  with  hosts  to  whom  they  needed  no 
other  introduction  than  the  fact  that  they  were 
our  kith  and  kin,  in  London  alone  and  friendless, 
at  a  period  of  great  national  rejoicing.  There 
were  also  dinners  and  lunches,  receptions  and 
garden-parties,  not  confined,  as  in  ordinary  times, 
to  personal  friends  and  acquaintances,  but  to 
which  the  stranger  within  our  gates  was  made 
heartily  welcome.  All  this  was  good.  Good  in 
itself,  but  better  still  as  a  prophecy  of  things  to 
come.  For  what  was  done  sporadically  and  fit- 
fully at  a  time  of  national  festivity,  will  hereafter 
be  done  systematically  at  all  times.  The  begin- 
nings may  be  humble,  but  the  progress  will  be 
steady  and  continuous,  until  the  happy  day  will 
dawn  when  every  stranger  within  our  gates  will 
be  sure  of  a  hearty  welcome,  and  London,  from 
being  the  churlish  step-mother,  will  be  known  as 
the  most  hospitable  of  hostesses  in  the  whole  wide 

At  present  that  ideal  is  a  long  way  off;  but 
we  are  groping  towards  it.  There  are  various 
clubs  being  organised  for  the  purpose  of  carrying 
on  this  work,  and  there  are  several  organisations 
which  have  for  some  time  been  busy  in  this  direc- 
tion. I  will  take  these  various  agencies  in  their 

There  are  the  offices  of  the  various  Agents- 
General.  Some  of  these  are  very  good  from  this 
point  of  view,  others  not  so  good.  The  best 
Agents-General  do  their  utmost  to  make  visitors 
from  their  respective  colonies  comfortable  in  Lon- 
don. They  supply  them  with  information  as  to 
where  they  can  find  other  Colonists;  they  provide 
a  reception-room  with  books  and  papers;  they 
have  a  poste  restante  for  their  own  people;  they 
act  as  "  Inquire  Withins  "  incarnate,  and  where 
they  can  they  introduce  these  Colonists  to  hos- 
pitable homes.  But  although  all  this  is  admir- 
able, it  is  not  hospitality  shown  by  the  Mother- 
land to  her  children  from  over  sea.  It  is  an  or- 
ganisation created  by  the  Colonists  themselves, 
at  their  own  cost,  and  out  of  their  own  resources 
to  help  their  own  people  to  find  their  way  about 
London  with  ease.  Much  the  same  remark  may  be 
made  about  the  various  Colonial  clubs  and  insti- 
tutes. First  of  these  is  the  Royal  Colonial  Insti- 
tute; but  this  institution  exists  for  the  benefit 
of  its  own  members.  To  join  it  one  must  pay  an 
entrance  fee  and  an  annual  subscription.  This  is 
all  right,  but  it  stamps  the  character  of  the  Insti- 
tute as  a  self-helping  organisation  for  the  con- 
venience of  its  own  members.  It  does  not  profess 
to  be,  and  from  its  constitution  it  cannot  under- 
take the  duties  of  organising  or  dispensing  the 
hospitality  of  London. 

The  Colonial  Club,  which  is  about  to  shift  to 
more  commodious  premises — at  present  occupied 
by  the  Chess  Club — is  exclusively  confined  to  Co- 
lonials. Only  those  who  are  Colonial  born,  or 
who  have  solid  interests  in  the  Colonies  can  be- 
come members.  The  annual  subscription  is  £3 
3s.  Distinguished  Colonial  visitors  are  admitted 
as  honorary  members  for  three  months.  After 
that  time  they  pay  a  nominal  fee  of  half-a-guinea. 
It  was  in  the  rooms  of  this  club  that  the  Aus- 
tralian Commonwealth  Bill  was  drafted.  The 
club,  which  has  now  over  seven  hundred  members, 
gives  farewell  dinners  to  newly-appointed  Gover- 
nors on  their  departure,  and  does  a  good  work  in 
helping  to  make  Colonists  feel  at  home  in  London. 
But  it  does  not  aspire  to  be  more  than  a  Colonial 
Club  for  Colonials  in  London. 

The  Victorian   League,   which   was   founded   in 

1901,  and  which  first  became  generally  known  m 

1902,  Is  more  like  the  kind  of  institution  that  is 
wanted.  Some  public-spirited  ladies  from  the 
Antipodes  last  month  started  an  Australasian  Club 



April  20,  1^03. 

In  Bond  Street.  All  these  are  good,  and  will  fa- 
cilitate the  working  of  the  Social  Centre  which 
London  will  in  the  future  evolve.  But  they 
do  not  even  profess  to  be  such  a  centre. 

The  office  of  the  Victoria  League  is  at  Dacre 
House,  Victoria  Street,  Westminster.  The  Coun- 
tess of  Jersey  is  its  president.  Lady  Tweedmouth 
its  vice-president;  Mrs.  Alfred  Lyttelton  is  hon. 
secretary.  The  league  is  busied  with  a  good  deal 
of  work  foreign  to  this  article.  Bui  Its  entertain- 
ment sub-committee,  of  which  Lady  Frances  Bal- 
four is  the  hon.  sec,  is  doing  just  the  kind  of 
work  for  which  I  am  pleading  in  this  article.  In 
the  report  issued  July  last  year  they  say: 

Many  people  in  England  desire  to  mark  their  grati- 
tude for  the  generous  kospitality  extended  to  them 
when  visiting  any  of  the  Colonies  by  showing  a  like 
hospitality  to  visitors  to  this  country.  The  work  of 
this  committee  has  been  crowned  with  the  most  grati- 
fying success.  A  large  number  of  people  have  shown 
real  eagerness  in  entertaining,  and  have  spared  no 
trouble  to  make  their  parties  agreeable.  That  they 
have  succeeded  in  pleasing  our  visitors  from  the 
Colonies  there  is  abundant  testimony.  Numbers  of 
letters  of  thanks  have  been  received  in  the  office,  and 
many  spoken  and  written  words  of  appreciation 
offered  to  different  members  of  the  committee.  The 
only  difficulty  lay  in  the  numbers,  for,  although  the 
committee  kept  strictly  to  the  plan  of  inviting  those 
only  who  had  been  introduced  to  them  by  letters  from 
personal  friends,  there  were  something  over  1,100 
visitors  recommended  in  this  way.  The  committee 
may  congratulate  themselves,  notwithstanding,  »n 
having  preserved  the  personal  character  of  the  hos- 
pitality offered  through  their  medium.  The  com- 
mittee consists  of: 

The  Lady  Brassey. 

The  Lady  Edward  Cecil. 

Mrs.  H.  Chamberlain. 

Viscountess  Cranborne. 

Lady  Dawkins. 

Mrs.  Laurence  Drummond. 

Lady  Duff. 

The  Countess  of  Jersey 

Hon.  Mrs,  Alfred  Lyttelton. 
The  Duchess  of  Marlborough. 
Lady  Ommanney. 
The  Lady  William  Seymour." 

A  Dream  that  May  G>me  True. 

What  is  wanted  is  the  creation  of  a  Social  Cen- 
tre in  London,  an  institution  which  would  be  to  all 
the  strangers  within  our  gates  what  the  hostess  of 
a  country  house  is  to  her  guests,  or,  if  you  like, 
what  a  good  head  waiter  is  to  those  who  stay  in 
a  first-class  hotel.  This  is  no  new  idea  with  me. 
Many  a  time  have  I  discussed  it  with  Cecil  Rhodes 
and  Lady  Warwick.  It  was  one  of  the  first 
and  most  indispensable  things  to  which  were  to 
be  devoted  some  of  the  Rhodes  millions.  Mr. 
Rhodes,  who  ever  took  a  large  view  of  things, 
used  to  say  that  »ome  time  he  would  try  to  se- 
cure Dorchester  House  as  the  centre  of  Imperial 

hospitality  in  town,  and  rent  Warwick  or  some 
other  famous  castle  nearer  London  in  order  to 
afford  Colonials  and  Americans  an  opportunity  of 
experiencing  something  of  the  charm  and  romance 
of  a  sojourn  in  some  great  historic  pile,  not  ab 
tourists  but  as  welcome  guests. 

Mr.  Rhodes,  alas!  is  no  more  with  us,  and  his 
millions  are  allocated  to  other  purposes.  But  the 
conception  is  so  sound  and  the  need  so  great  that 
I  do  not  despair  of  finding  some  millionaire  who 
will  rear  for  himself  a  monument  more  lasting 
than  eternal  brass  by  supplying  the  necessary 
funds  for  founding  and  endowing  the  institution 
which  would  make  the  hospitality  of  London  fa- 
mous throughout  the  world. 

And  this  is  how  Iftiave  dreamed  it  might  be  accom- 
plished. In  the  neighbourhood  of  Charing  Cross 
stands — in  my  vision  of  the  days  to  come — a 
stately  building  dedicated  to  the  Service  of  the 
Stranger  within  our  Gates.  It  is  the  seat  of  the 
organised  hospitality  of  London.  The  ground  floor 
would  be  let  as  a  restaurant  on  a  scale  at  present 
unknown  in  the  world.  It  would  be  an  interna- 
tional restaurant  and  cafe,  where  every  nation- 
ality within  our  gates  would  find  its  national 
dishes  served  by  its  compatriots.  A  spacious  stair- 
case would  lead  the  stranger  to  the  receptioa- 
rooms  and  offices  on  the  first  fioor.  The  doors 
would  be  open  night  and  day,  weekday  and  Sun- 
day, all  the  year  round.  The  janitors,  chosen  for 
their  courtesy  and  pleasant  demeanour,  would  re- 
ceive each  stranger  as  if  he  were  an  invited  guest. 
Within,  a  hostess  selected  for  her  sympathetic  and 
intuitive  tact  would  welcome  the  visitor  with  cor- 
diality, and  when  he  left  bid  him  a  kindly  God- 
speed. From  her  presence,  nimble  pages  would 
conduct  the  visitor  to  the  registration  bureau, 
where  he  would  enter  particulars  as  to  his  name, 
home  address,  London  address,  state  the  probabls 
duration  of  his  stay,  and  enter  particulars  as  to 
the  object  of  his  visit,  and  whether  or  not  he 
wished  for  introductions  to  English  homes.  He 
would  find  his  letters  at  the  Poste  Restante  with- 
out having  to  go  to  St.  Martin's-le-Grand.  At 
the  central  bureau  polyglot  secretaries  would  take 
pleasure  in  acting  as  living  incarnations  of  "  In- 
quire Within  about  Everything."  Round  this 
would  be  grouped  sections  devoted  to  facilitating 
the  stranger's  quest  for  lodgings  and  hotels,  to 
furnishing  him  with  all  available  information  as 
to  trains  and  steamers,  and  to  directing  him  as  to 
how  to  make  the  best  use  of  his  time,  either  in 
pursuit  of  pleasure  or  the  despatch  of  business* 
Colonists  would  find  directories  of  all  those  from 
their  particular  colony  resident  in  London,  and 
the  German,  French,  or  other  European  would  find 
affable  and  intelligent  clerks  able  to  place  at  their 
disposal  the  fullest  procurable  lists  of  addresses  of 


Review  of  Reviews,  20/4/OS. 



their  compatriots  in  London.  Everything  that  a 
stranger  could  desire  to  make  him  free  of  the  re- 
sources of  the  city  would  be  at  his  elbow.  Whether 
he  wished  to  book  seats  for  the  theatre,  to  buy 
tickets  for  a  tour  round  the  world,  or  to  pur- 
chase a  guide-book,  he  would  not  need  to  leave  the 
building.  Members  of  the  staff,  whether  ladies 
or  gentlemen,  would  be  delighted  to  place  them- 
selves at  his  disposition,  and  to  discharge  all  the 
duties  of  hospitality  as  if  they  were  the  hosts  and 
hostesses  of  welcome  guests. 

On  the  second  floor  the  visitor  would  find  a  spa- 
cious reading-room  and  library  full  of  cosy  cor- 
ners and  pleasant  windows.  On  the  tables  would 
lie  all  the  best  papers  and  periodicals  of  the  world. 
On  the  shelves  would  be  all  the  best  books  and 
portfolios  of  pictures  that  exist  to  describe  and 
illustrate  the  antiquities,  the  museums,  the  pic- 
ture galleries,  and  the  objects  of  interest  in  Lon- 
don and  in  Britain.  Intelligent  and  courteous  li- 
brarians would  deem  it  a  pleasure  to  procure 
whatever  book  or  picture  was  sought  upon  their 
shelves.  Around  the  reading-room  would  be 
grouped  drawing-rooms,  conversation-rooms,  smok- 
ing-rooms, and  all  the  conveniences  of  a  first- 
class  club. 

On  the  third  floor,  which,  like  the  others,  would 
be  reached  by  a  lift  starting  on  t'iS  flrst  floor,  he 
would  flnd  all  the  organisation  foi-  the  facilitation 
of  social  intercourse  for  rendering  accessible  all 
the  best  that  London  has  to  ofl!er  her  visitors. 
There  would  be  made  up  every  day  lists  of  those 
who  wished  to  be  conducted  by  competent  ciceroni 
to  the  museums,  art  galleries,  historic  edifices,  etc., 
of  the  metropolis.  At  present,  with  the  exception 
of  a  few — not  above  a  dozen  annually — pilgrim- 
ages conducted  by  the  Positivists,  there  are  liter- 
ally no  organised  attempts  to  make  the  treasures 
of  our  galleries  and  museums  intelligible  to  the 
visitor.  Every  day  parties,  conducted  by  lectur- 
ers, specially  trained  for  the  service,  would  start 
for  the  Abbey,  for  St.  Paul's,  and  for  the  Tower. 
Every  day  parties  would  be  made  up  for  the  Bri- 
tish Museum,  for  South  Kensington,  for  the  Na- 
tional Gallery,  the  National  Portrait  Gallery,  the 
Tate  Gallery,  etc.  Arrangements  would  be  made 
for  facilitating  visits  to  the  Houses  of  Parliament, 
and  perhaps,  in  the  case  of  some,  for  securing  in- 
vitations to  tea  on  the  Terrace. 

Here  were  a  dozen  telephone  closets  free  to  all 
visitors,  for   communicating  with   subscribers   in 

any  part  of  London.  Another  section  was  de- 
voted to  Hospitality,  where  a  competent  staff  was 
constantly  busy  in  arranging  that  no  stranger  in 
London  should  find  him  or  her  self  without  in- 
vitation to  the  home  of  some  of  the  citizens.  In- 
vitations to  lunch,  to  tea,  to  dinner,  and  to  break- 
fast, to  "at  homes,"  receptions,  dances,  picnics 
were  filled  in  and  issued  with  care  and  discrimina- 
tion. Where,  from  any  reason,  private  hospital- 
ity failed,  public  receptions  were  organised,  in 
public  buildings,  where  all  sorts  and  conditions  of 
men  and  women  met  together  for  social  inter- 
course. This  department  had  succeeded  at  last 
in  converting  the  Imperial  Institute  into  a  great 
social  centre.  Wealthy  citizens  vied  with  each 
other  in  undertaking  the  expense  of  providing 
these  entertainments,  where  all  classes,  from 
Royal  Dukes  to  poor  tutors  and  struggling  mu- 
sicians, met  on  a  footing  of  perfect  equality.  None 
were  overcrowded.  The  reception  was  never  al- 
lowed to  degenerate  into  a  mob.  All  who  accep- 
ted invitations  understood  that  they  were  expec- 
ted to  enter  into  conversation  with  any  other 
guests  without  the  formality  of  an  introduction. 
It  was  the  democratisation  of  social  intercourse. 

On  the  fourth  floor  the  Correspondence  Club 
demanded  the  constant  activity  of  a  large  staff  of 
despatching  clerks.  Every  week  thousands  'it 
letters  were  received  and  despatched  to  member* 
who  preferred  to  make  acquaintances  in  the  flrst 
Instance  behind  the  mask  of  anonymity.  A  co- 
pious but  strictly  private  dossier  of  all  the  mem- 
bers was  kept,  so  that  the  Conductor  could  with 
the  utmost  facility  discover  and  pair  correspon- 
dents who  were  unable  to  make  their  own  selec- 

But  it  is  unnecessary  to  elaborate  in  more  de- 
tail the  many  ways  in  which  such  an  institution 
could  minister  to  the  wants  of  the  stranger  with- 
in our  gates.  With  careful  and  intelligent  or- 
ganisation and  adequate  funds  the  Social  Centre 
would  from  the  very  flrst  effect  a  marvellous 
change.  The  Step-mother  City  would  disappear, 
and  in  its  place  would  stand  the  gracious  and  hos- 
pitable hostess,  who  by  the  co-operative  effort  of 
hospitable  cltize»s  would  be  able  to  remove  the 
reproach  of  churlish  inhospitallty  and  secure  to  all 
the  lonely  and  friendless  and  strangers  In  our 
midst  the  blessing  of  an  open  door  Into  an  English, 



April  20,  IP03. 


A  Scientific  Demonstration  of  the 
Existence  of  the  SouL* 

The  magnum  opus  of  Mr.  Myers  is  before  us  at 
last.  Nearly  thirty  years  devoted  with  single- 
souled  earnestness  to  the  investigation  by  scien- 
tific methods  of  the  greatest  of  all  the  problems 
which  confront  mankind  have  had  the  welcome 
result  of  establishing  on  sure  foundations  the 
truth  of  the  oldest  of  all  faiths— the  existence  of 
the  soul  after  death.  The  transcendent  import- 
ance of  the  conclusions  set  out  in  these  fourteen 
hundred  closely  printed  pages  need  not  be  insisted 
upon.      As  Mr.  Myers  himself  says: 

"They  affect  every  belief,  every  faculty,  every  hope 
and  aim  of  man,  and  they  affect  him  the  more  inti- 
mately as  his  interests  grow  more  profound.  Whatever 
meaning  be  applied  to  ethics,  to  philosophy,  to  religion, 
the  concern  of  all  these  is  here."— Vol.  I.,  p.  33. 

Without  further  preface  I  will  condense  and 
extract,  by  the  kind  permission  of  Messrs.  Liong- 
man,  Green  &  Co.,  as  copiously  as  the  limits  of  my 
space  will  permit,  the  contents  of  this  book,  which 
Is  not  merely  the  book  of  the  month,  or  the  book 
of  the  year,  but  may  well  deserve  to  be  considered 
the  book  of  our  time.  I  will,  as  far  as  it  is  pos- 
sible, use  Mr.  Myers'  own  words,  merely  extracting 
and  recombining  his  sentences  with  due  reference 
to  the  numbered  paragraph  from  which  the  ex- 
tract is  taken. 

The  Aim  of  the  Book. 

"  In  about  1873 — ^at  the  crest  of  perhaps  the  high- 
est wave  of  materialism  which  has  ever  swept  over 
these  shores — it  became  the  conviction  of  a  small 
group  of  Cambridge  friends  that  the  deep  ques- 
tions thus  at  issue  must  be  fought  out  in  a  way 
more  thorough  than  the  champions  either  of  re- 
ligion or  materialism  had  yet  suggested.  To  my- 
self, at  least,  it  seemed  that  if  anything  were 
knowable  about  the  unseen  world,  that  knowledge 
must  be  discovered  by  no  analysis  of  tradition  and 
by  no  manipulation  of  metaphysics,  but  simply  by 
experiment  and  observation,  simply  by  the  appli- 
cation to  phenomena  within  us  and  around  us  of 
precisely  the  same  methods  of  deliberate,  dispas- 
sionate, exact  inquiry  which  have  built  up  our 
actual  knowledge  of  the  world  which  we  touch  and 
handle.  We  determined  to  institute  an  inquiry, 
resting  upon  objective  facts  actually  observable, 
upon  experiments  which  we  can  repeat  to-day,  and 

•"  Human  Personality  and  Its  Survival  of  Bodily  Death." 
By  Frederic  W.  H.  Myers.  In  two  volumes,  pp.  700  and 
€60.       (Longmans,   42s.   net.) 

which  we  may  hope  to  carry  further  to-morrow — 
an  inquiry  based  on  the  presumption  that  if  a 
spiritual  world  exists,  and  if  that  world  has  at 
any  epoch  been  manifest  or  even  discoverable, 
then  it  ought  to  be  manifest  or  discoverable  now 
(para.  107). 

"  My  one  contention  is  that  in  the  discussion  of 
the  deeper  problems  of  man's  nature  and  destiny, 
there  ought  to  be  exactly  the  same  openness  of 
mind,  exactly  the  same  diligence  in  the  search  for 
objective  evidence  of  any  kind,  exactly  the  same 
critical  analysis  of  results  as  is  habitually  shown, 
for  instance,  in  the  discussion  of  the  nature  and 
destiny  of  the  planet  upon  which  man  now  moves 
(p.  101).  Yet  it  is  strictly  true  to  say  that  mai. 
has  never  yet  applied  to  the  problems  which  most 
profoundly  concern  him  those  methods  of  inquiry 
which,  in  attacking  all  other  problems,  he  has 
found  the  most  efficacious.  The  method  of  mod- 
ern science — that  process  which  consists  in  an  in- 
terrogation of  Nature  entirely  dispassionate,  pci 
tient,  systematic;  such  careful  experiment  and  cu- 
mulative record  as  can  often  elicit  from  her  slight- 
est indications  her  deepest  truths — this  method  has 
never  yet  been  applied  to  the  all-important  pro- 
blem of  the  existence,  the  powers,  the  destiny 
of  the  human  soul  (p.  100).  Even  among  Chris- 
tians, whether  from  apathy  or  from  fear,  no  one 
has  made  any  serious  attempt  to  connect  and  cor- 
relate their  belief  with  the  general  scheme  of  be- 
lief for  which  science  already  vouches.  They 
have  not  sought  for  fresh  corroborative  instances, 
for  analogies,  for  explanations;  rather,  they  have 
kept  their  convictions  on  these  fundamental  mat 
ters  in  a  separate  and  sealed  compartment  of  their 
minds — a  compartment  consecrated  to  religion  or 
to  superstition,  but  not  to  observation  or  to  ex- 
periment. It  is  my  object  in  the  present  work 
to  do  what  can  be  done  to  break  down  that  ar- 
tificial wall  of  demarcation  which  has  thus  far 
excluded  from  scientific  treatment  precisely  the 
problems  which  stand  in  most  need  of  all  the  aids 
to  discovery  which  such  treatment  can  afford  (p. 
101).  In  carrying  out  this  design,  I  also  attack 
critically  the  belief  that  all,  or  almost  all,  super- 
normal phenomena  are  due  to  the  action  of  tht» 
spirits  of  the  dead.  By  far  the  larger  proportion 
as  I  hold,  are  due  to  the  action  of  the  still  em- 
bodied spirit  of  the  agent  or  i)ercipient  himself  " 
(p.  106). 

Such   being   his   aims   and   methods,    what   are 
the  conclusions  at  which  he  has  arrived? 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/4/03.  SOME  BOOKS   OF   THE  MONTH. 


The  Problem  of  Human  Personality. 
"  I  begin  by  stating  briefly  the  two  views  of 
human  personality,  viz.,  the  old-fashioned,  com- 
mon-sense view  that  my  personal  identity  im- 
plies continued  existence  and  conscious  unity  of 
the  self,  and  the  newer  view  of  experimental  psy- 
chology that  there  is  no  unity  of  personality,  no 
entity,  no  soul — in  short,  nothing  but  a  mere 
co-ordination  of  a  certain  number  of  states  having 
as  their  sole  common  basis  the  vague  feeling  of  the 
body  (pars.  109-110).  I  believe  that  certain 
fresh  evidence  can  now  be  adduced  which  closes 
the  immediate  controversy  by  a  judgment  more 
decisively  in  favour  of  both  parties  than  either 
could  have  expected.  All  that  the  co-ordinators 
say  in  their  analysis  of  the  Self  into  its  constitu- 
ent elements  must  be  unreservedly  conceded.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  new  evidence  affords  the  parti- 
sans of  the  unity  of  the  Ego,  for  the  first  time, 
with  the  strongest  presumptive  proof  that  the  Ego 
can  and  does  survive  the  crowning  disintegration 
of  bodily  death.  It  is  an  unhoped-for  ratification 
of  their  highest  dream  (p.  111). 

The  Conscious  and  the  Unconscious  Self. 

"  The  conscious  self  of  each  of  us  does  not  com- 
prise the  whole  of  the  consciousness  of  the  faculty 
within  us.  There  exists  a  more  comprehensive 
consciousness,  a  profounder  faculty,  which  for  the 
most  part  remains  potential  only  so  far  as  regards 
the  life  of  earth,  but  from  which  the  consciousness 
and  the  faculty  of  earth  life  are  mere  selections, 
and  which  reasserts  itself  in  its  plenitude  after 
the  liberating  change  of  death  (p.  111).  I  con- 
ceive that  no  Self  of  which  we  can  here  have  cog- 
pisance  is  in  reality  more  than  a  fragment  of  a 
larger  Self,  revealed  in  a  fashion  at  once  shifting 
and  limited  through  an  organism  not  so  framed  as 
to  afford  a  full  manifestation  (p.  112).  Our  con- 
sciousness at  any  given  stage  of  our  evolution  is 
but  the  phosphorescent  ripple  on  an  unsounded 
sea  (p.  115). 

A  Helpful  Analogy. 

"I  compare  man's  gradual  progress  in  self- 
knowledge  to  his  gradual  decipherment  of  the  na- 
ture and  meaning  of  the  sunshine  which  reaches 
him  as  light  and  heat  indiscernibly  intermingled. 
Optical  analysis  splits  up  the  white  ray  into  the 
various  coloured  rays  which  compose  it.  The 
limits  of  our  spectrum  do  not  inhere  in  the  sun 
that  shines,  but  in  the  eye  that  marks  his  shining. 
Beyond  each  end  of  that  prismatic  ribbon  are  ether 
waves,  of  which  our  retina  takes  no  cognisance. 
Beyond  the  red  end  come  waves  whose  potency  we 
still  recognise,  but  as  heat  and  as  light.  Beyond 
the  violet  end  are  waves  still  more  mysterious, 
whose  very  existence  man  for  ages  never  sus- 
pected, and  whose  intimate  potencies  are  stin  but 

obscurely  known.  Even  thus,  I  venture  to  affirm, 
beyond  each  end  of  our  conscious  spectrum  ex- 
tends a  range  of  faculty  and  perception  exceed- 
ing the  known  range  but  as  yet  indistinctly 
guessed.  The  phenomena  cited  in  this  work  carry 
us,  one  may  say,  as  far  onwards  as  fluorescence 
carries  us  beyond  the  violet  end.  The  X  rays 
of  the  psychical  spectrum  remain  for  a  later  age 
to  discover  (p.  117). 


"  I  doubt  whether  we  can  say  of  telepathy  any- 
thing more  definite  than  this:  *  Life  has  the  power 
of  manifesting  itself  to  Life'  (p.  634).  We  see 
that  telepathy — the  communication  of  impressions 
of  any  kind  from  one  mind  to  another,  indepen- 
dently of  the  recognised  channels  of  sense — may 
act  upon  each  definite  type  of  sensation  in  turn, 
or  may  generate  vague  impressions  not  referable 
to  any  special  organ  of  sense.  The  hypnotic 
trance  assists,  but  is  not  essential  to  its  action. 
There  is  a  fairly  continuous  transition  from  spon- 
taneous to  experimental  telepathy  (p.  631).  I  can- 
not accept  Sir  W.  Crookes'  suggestion  that  tele- 
pathy is  due  to  brain  waves;  it  does  not  fit  the 
facts  (p.  633).  The  evidence  has  led  me  to  a 
different  treatment  of  veridical  phantasms.  In- 
stead of  starting  from  a  root  conception  of  a  tele- 
pathic impulse  merely  passing  from  mind  to  mmd, 
I  now  start  from  a  root  conception  of  the  dissoci- 
ability  of  the  Self,  of  the  possibility  that  different 
fractions  of  the  personality  can  act  so  far  in- 
dependently of  each  other  that  the  one  is  not 
conscious  of  the  other's  action  (p.  638). 

"  Telepathy  and  telaasthesia — ^the  perception  of 
distant  thoughts  and  of  distant  scenes  without  the 
agency  of  the  recognised  organs  of  sense — 
those  faculties  suggest  either  incalculable  exten- 
sion of  our  own  mental  powers  or  else  the  influ- 
ence upon  us  of  minds  freer  and  less  trammelled 
than  our  own.  These  faculties  of  distant  communi- 
cation exist  none  the  less,  even  though  we  refer 
them  to  our  own  subliminal  selves.  We  can  in 
that  case  affect  each  other  at  a  distance  telepathi- 
cally;  and  if  our  incarnate  spirits  can  act  thus 
in  at  least  apparent  independence  of  the  fleshly 
body,  the  presumption  is  strong  that  other  spirits 
may  exist  independently  of  the  body,  and  may 
affect  us  in  a  similar  manner  (p.  114).  To  prove 
that  telepathy  implies  a  spiritual  environment 
would  be  at  once  to  lift  our  knowledge  of  the  Cos- 
mos to  a  higher  level.  To  prove  that  man  sur^ 
vives  death  would  also  be  to  transform  and  trans- 
figure the  whole  life  here  below  (p.  124). 

Telepathy  as  Love. 
"  As  we  have  dwelt  successively  on  various  as- 
pects of  telepathy  we  have  gradually  felt  the  con- 
ception enlarged  and  deepened  under  our  study. 



April  20,  1903. 

It  began  as  a  quasi-mechanical  transference  of 
ideas  and  images  from  one  to  anotlier  brain.  Pre- 
sently we  found  it  assuming  a  more  varied  and 
potent  form,  as  though  it  were  the  veritable  in- 
fluence or  invasion  of  a  distant  mind.  Its  action 
was  traced  across  a  gulf  greater  than  any  space 
of  earth  or  ocean,  and  it  bridged  the  interval 
between  spirits  Incarnate  and  discarnate,  between 
the  visible  and  the  invisible  world;  there  seemed 
no  limit  to  the  distance  of  its  operation  or  to  the 
intimacy  of  its  appeal.  Love,  which  (as  Sophocles 
has  it)  rules  '  beasts  and  men  and  gods '  with 
equal  sway,  is  no  matter  of  carnal  impulse  or  of 
emotional  caprice.  Love  is  a  kind  of  exalted 
but  unspecialised  telepathy,  the  simplest  and  most 
universal  expression  of  that  mutual  gravitation 
or  kinship  of  spirits  which  is  the  foundation  of 
the  telepathic  law  (p.  1,004). 

From  Telepathy  to  Spirit  Return. 
"  The  vague  question  of  former  times  as  to  ap- 
paritions at  the  moment  of  death  narrows  down 
to  the  more  precise  question:  Are  these  still  co- 
incidences, is  there  still  evidence  showing  that  a 
phantasm  can  appear  not  only  at  but  after  a  man's 
bodily  death,  and  can  still  indicate  connection  with 
a  persistent  and  individual  life?  To  this  distinct 
question  there  can  now  be  given,  as  I  believe, 
a  distinct  and  affirmative  answer.  When  evidence 
has  been  duly  analysed,  when  alternative  hypothe- 
ses have  been  duly  weighed,  it  seems  to  me  that 
there  is  no  real  break  in  the  appearance  of  veridi- 
cal phantasms  or  in  their  causations  at  the  mo- 
ment of  bodily  death,  but  rather  that  there  is  evi- 
dence that  the  self-same  spirit  is  still  operating, 
and  it  may  be  in  the  self-same  way.  Telepathy 
looks  like  a  law  prevailing  in  the  spiritual  as  well 
as  in  the  material  world.  And  that  it  does  so  pre- 
vail I  now  add  is  proved  by  the  fact  that  those  who 
communicated  telepathically  with  us  in  this  world 
communicate  with  us  telepathically  from  the  other. 
Man,  therefore,  is  not  a  planetary  or  transitory 
being;  he  persists  as  very  man  among  cosmic  and 
eternal  things  (p.  124). 

What  Has  Been  Proved. 
"  I  will  here  briefly  state  what  facts  they  are 
which  our  recorded  apparitions,  intimations,  mes- 
sages of  the  departing  and  departed  have,  to  my 
mind,  actually  proved:  (a)  In  the  first  place,  they 
prove  survival  pure  and  simple;  the  persistence 
of  the  spirit's  life  as  a  structural  law  of  the  uni- 
verse; the  inalienable  heritage  of  each  several 
soul.  (b)  In  the  second  place,  they  prove  that 
between  the  spiritual  and  the  material  worlds  an 
avenue  of  communication  does,  in  fact,  exist;  that 
which  we  call  the  despatch  and  the  receipt  of  tele- 
pathic messages,  or  the  utterance  and  the  answer 
of  prayer  and  supplication.      (c)  In  the  third  place. 

they  prove  that  the  surviving  spirit  retains,  at 
least  in  some  measure,  the  memories  and  the  loves 
of  earth.  Without  this  persistence  of  love  and 
memory  should  we  be  in  truth  the  same?  To 
what  extent  has  any  philosophy  or  any  revela- 
tion assured  us  hereof  till  now?  The  above 
points,  I  think,  are  certain  if  the  apparitions  and 
messages  proceed  in  reality  from  the  sources  which 
they  claim.  On  a  lower  evidential  level  comes 
the  thesis  drawn  from  the  contents  of  the  longer 
messages,  which  contents  may,  of  course,  be  in- 
fluenced in  unknown  degree  by  the  expectation  m 
of  the  recipients  or  by  some  such  infusion  of  ■ 
dream-like  matter  as  I  have  already  mentioned. 
That  thesis  is  as  follows.  I  offer  it  for  what  It 
may  be  worth:  Every  element  of  individual  wis- 
dom, virtue,  love,  develops  in  infinite  evolution  to- 
ward an  ever-highering  hope;  toward  'Him  who  la 
at  once  thine  innermost  Self,  and  thine  ever  unat- 
tainable Desire.' 

The  Possibility  of  Communicating  with  the 

"  Here,  more  than  anywhere,  the  need  of  actual 
experiment  is  felt.  For  experiment  would  mean 
the  enlistment  of  the  departed  in  conscious  and 
willing  co-operation:  and,  in  fact,  such  experiment 
turns  out  to  be  actually  feasible.  There  is  a  pos- 
sibility of  inducing  a  spiritual  hearing,  and  a 
spiritual  picture-seeing  or  reading,  and  also  a 
spiritually-guided  writing  and  speech.  Both  our 
sensory  automatism  and  our  motor  automatism 
may  be  initiated  and  directed  by  intelligence  out- 
side our  own.  Apparitions  may  flash  their  sig- 
nals, automatic  script  will  lay  the  wire.  For, 
however  inchoate  and  ill-controlled  these  written 
messages  may  be,  if  once  they  have  been  received 
at  all  we  can  assign  no  limit  to  their  development 
as  the  expression  of  thought  that  passes  incor- 
poreally  from  mind  to  mind  (p.  125). 

"  Here  we  reach  a  point  which  has  become  with- 
out my  anticipation  and — as  a  matter  of  mere  sci- 
entific policy — even  against  my  will  the  principal 
nodus  of  the  present  work.  This  book,  designed 
originally  to  carry  on  as  continuously  and  coher- 
ently as  possible  the  telepathic  hypothesis,  has 
been  forced  unexpectedly  forward  by  the  sheer 
force  of  evidence  until  it  must  now  dwell  largely 
on  the  extreme  branch  of  the  subject.  For  in 
truth  during  the  last  ten  years  the  centre  of  gra- 
vity of  our  evidence  has  shifted  profoundly.  With 
the  recent  development  of  trance  phenomena  we 
seem  suddenly  to  have  arrived  by. a  kind  of  short 
cut  at  a  direct  solution  of  problems  which  we  had 
till  then  been  approaching  by  difficult  inference 
and  laborious  calculation  of  chances.  What  need 
of  computing  coincidental  death-wraiths — of  ana- 
lysing the  evidential  details  of  post-mortem  ap- 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/Ji/OS. 



paritions — if  here  we  have  the  departed  ready  to 
hear  and  answer  questions  and  to  tell  us  frankly 
of  the  fate  of  souls?  Must  not  our  former  results 
seem  useless  now  in  view  of  this  overwhelming 
proof?  Our  previous  disciplined  search  has  been 
by  no  means  wasted,  but  it  seems  to  me  now  that 
the  evidence  for  communication  with  the  spirits  of 
identified  deceased  persons  through  the  trance 
utterances  and  writings  of  sensitives  apparently 
controlled  by  those  spirits  is  established  beyond 
serious  attack   (p.  126). 

Results  of  This  Truth. 
"  The  reader  who  may  feel  disposed  to  give  his 
adhesion  to  this  culminating  group  of  the  long 
series  of  evidences  which  have  pointed  with  more 
and  more  clearness  to  the  survival  of  human  per- 
sonality and  to  the  possibility  for  men  on  earth 
of  actual  commerce  with  a  world  beyond,  may 
feel,  perhaps,  that  the  desiderium  orbis  catholici, 
the  intimate  and  universal  hojye  of  every  genera- 
tion of  men,  has  never  till  this  day  approached  so 
near  to  fulfilment.  There  has  never  been  so  fair 
a  prospect  for  Life  and  Love  (p.  127).  Assuredly 
this  deepening  response  of  man's  spirit  to  the  Cos- 
mos deepening  round  him  must  be  affected  by  all 
the  signals  which  now  are  glimmering  out  of  night 
to  tell  him  of  his  inmost  nature  and  his  endless 
fate.  Who  can  think  that  either  Science  or  Reve- 
lation has  spoken  as  yet  more  than  a  first  half- 
comprehended  word?  But  if  in  truth  souls  de- 
parted call  to  us,  it  is  to  them  that  we  shall  listen 
most  of  all.  We  shall  weigh  these  undesigned  co- 
incidences, we  shall  analyse  the  congruity  of  their 
message  with  the  facts  which  such  a  message 
should  explain  (p,  128). 

An  Appeal  to  Scientific  Men. 

"  Curiosity,  candour,  care — these  are  the  in- 
tellectual virtues:  disinterested  curiosity,  unselfish 
candour,  unlimiting  care.  These  virtues  have 
grown  up  outside  the  ecclesiastical  pale.  Science, 
not  Religion,  has  fostered  them.  The  remedy 
lies  in  inculcating  the  intellectual  virtues,  in  teach- 
ing the  mass  of  mankind  that  the  maxims  of  the 
modem  savant  are  at  least  as  necessary  to  salva- 
tion as  the  maxims  of  the  medieval  saint.  But 
in  order  to  attract  help,  even  from  scientific  men, 
some  general  view  of  the  moral  upshot  of  all  the 
phenomena  Is  needed  (p.  1,000). 

"  These  discoveries  should  prompt,  as  nothing 
else  could  have  prompted,  towards  the  ultimate 
achievement  of  that  programme  of  scientific  dom- 
inance which  the  '  Instauratio  Magna  '  proclaimed 
for  mankind.  Bacon  left  the  realm  of  '  Divine 
things '  to  Authority  and  Faith.  I  here  urge  that 
that  great  exemption  need  be  no  longer  made.  I 
claim  that  there  now  exists  an  Incipient  method 
of  getting  at  this  Divine  knowledge  also,  with  the 

same  certainty,  the  same  calm  assurance  with 
which  we  make  our  steady  progress  in  the  know- 
ledge of  terrene  things.  The  authority  of  creeds 
and  Churches  will  thus  be  replaced  by  the  author- 
ity of  observation  and  experiment.  The  impulse 
of  faith  will  resolve  itself  into  a  reasoned  and  re- 
solute imagination,  bent  upon  raising  even  higher 
than  now  the  highest  ideal  of  man  (p.  1,001).  The 
time  is  ripe  for  the  study  of  unseen  things  as 
strenuous  and  sincere  as  that  which  science  has 
made  familiar  for  the  problems  of  earth  (p.  1,003). 

The  Rapture  of  Certainty. 
"  I  confess,  indeed,  that  I  have  often  felt  as 
though  this  present  age  were  even  unduly  fa- 
voured, as  though  no  future  revelation  and  calm 
could  equal  the  joy  of  this  great  struggle  from 
doubt  into  certainty,  from  the  materialism  or  ag- 
nosticism which  accompany  the  first  advance  of 
science  into  the  deeper  scientific  conviction  that 
there  is  a  deathless  soul  in  man.  I  can  imagine 
no  other  crisis  of  such  deep  delight.  Endless 
are  the  varieties  of  lofty  joy.  In  the  age  of  Thales 
Greece  knew  the  delight  of  the  first  dim  notion  of 
cosmic  unity  and  law.  In  the  age  of  Christ 
Europe  felt  the  high  authentic  message  from  a 
world  beyond  our  own.  In  our  own  age  we  reach 
the  perception  that  such  messages  may  become 
continuous  and  progressive,  that  between  seen  and 
unseen  there  is  a  channel  and  fairway  which  fu- 
ture generations  may  learn  to  widen  and  to  clarify. 
Nay,  In  the  infinite  Universe  man  may  now  feel, 
for  the  first  time,  at  home.  The  worst  fear  is 
over;  the  true  security  Is  won.  The  worst  fear 
was  the  fear  of  spiritual  extinction  or  spiritual 
solitude;  the  true  security  is  in  the  telepathic  law 
(p.  1,003). 

The  State  of  Souls  After  Death. 

"Firstly,  and  chlefiy,  I  at  least  see  ground  to 
believe  that  their  state  is  one  of  endless  evolu- 
tion in  wisdom  and  in  love.  Their  loves  of  earth 
persist,  and  most  of  all  those  highest  loves  which 
seek  their  outlet  in  adoration  and  work.  Yet 
from  their  step  of  vantage-ground  in  the  uni- 
verse, at  least,  they  see  that  It  is  good.  I  do  not 
mean  that  they  know  either  of  an  end  or  of  an 
explanation  of  evil.  Yet  evil  to  them  seems  les& 
a  terrible  than  a  slavish  thing.  It  is  embodied 
in  no  mighty  potentate;  rather  it  forms  an  iso- 
lating madness  from  which  higher  spirits  strive  to 
free  the  distorted  soul.  There  needs  no  chastl-ae- 
ment  of  fire;  self-knowledge  is  man's  punishment 
and  his  reward;  self-knowledge  and  the  nearness 
or  the  aloofness  of  companion  souls. 

"  In  that  world  love  is  actually  self-preserva- 
tion; the  Communion  of  Saints  not  only  adorns 
but  constitutes  the  Life  Everlasting.  Nay,  from 
the  law  of  telepathy  it  follows  that  that  commun- 



April  20,  190S. 

ion  Is  valid  for  us  here  and  now.  Even  now  the 
love  of  souls  departed  makes  answer  to  our  In- 
vocations; even  now  our  loving  memory — love  is 
itself  a  prayer — supports  and  strengthens  those 
delivered  spirits  upon  their  upward  way.  No 
wonder;  since  we  are  to  them  but  as  fellow- 
travellers  shrouded  in  a  mist.  '  Neither  death 
nor  life,  nor  height  nor  depth,  nor  any  other 
creature'  can  bar  us  from  the  hearth-fire  of  the 
universe,  or  hide  for  more  than  a  moment  the 
inconceivable  oneness  of  souls  (p.  1,010). 

A  Corroboration  of  the  Christian  Faith. 

"  Has  any  world-scheme  yet  been  suggested  so 
profoundly  corroborative  of  the  very  core  of  the 
Christian  revelation?  Jesus  Christ  '  brought  life 
and  immortality  to  light.'  By  His  appearance 
after  bodily  death  He  proved  the  deathlessness  of 
the  spirit.  By  His  character  and  His  teaching 
He  testified  to  the  Fatherhood  of  God.  So  far, 
then,  as  His  unique  message  admitted  of  eviden- 
tial support,  it  is  here  supported.  So  far  as  He 
promised  things  unprovable,  that  promise  is  here 
renewed.  I  venture  now  on  a  bold  saying;  for 
I  predict  that  in  consequence  of  the  new  evidence 
all  reasonable  men,  a  century  hence,  will  believe 
the  Resurrection  of  Christ,  whereas  in  default  of 
the  new  evidence  no  reasonable  men,  a  century 
hence,  would  have  believed  it. 

"  We  have  shown  that  amidst  much  deception 
and  self-deception,  fraud  and  illusion,  veritable 
manifestations  do  reach  us  from  beyond  the  grave. 
The  central  claim  of  Christianity  is  thus  con- 
firmed as  never  before.  If  our  own  friends,  men 
like  ourselves,  can  sometimes  return  to  tell  us  of 
love  and  hope,  a  mightier  Spirit  may  well  have 
used  the  eternal  laws  with  a  more  commanding 
power.  There  is  nothing  to  hinder  the  reverent 
faith  that,  though  we  be  all  '  the  children  of  the 
Most  High,'  He  came  nearer  than  we,  by  some 
space  by  us  immeasurable,  to  that  which  is  in- 
finitely far  (p.  1,010). 

A  Word  to  Christians. 

"To  the  Christian  we  can  apeak  with  a  still 
more  direct  appeal  than  to  scientific  men.  '  You 
believe,'  I  would  say,  *  that  a  spiritual  world  ex- 
ists, and  that  it  acted  on  the  material  world 
two  thousand  years  ago.  Surely  it  is  so  acting 
still!  Nay,  you  believe  that  it  is  so  acting  still; 
for  you  believe  that  prayer  is  heard  and  answered. 
To  believe  that  prayer  is  heard  is  to  believe  in 
telepathy — in  the  direct  influence  of  mind  on  mind. 
To  believe  that  prayer  is  answered  is  to  believe 
that  unembodied  spirit  does  actually  modify  (even 
if  not  storm-cloud  or  plague-germ)  at  least  the 
minds,  and  therefore  the  brains  of  living  men. 
From  that  belief  the  most  advanced  "  physical " 
theories  are  easy  corollaries.' — (Vol.  ii.,  p.  306.) 

The  New  World-Religion. 
"  So  now  also  it  seems  to  me  that  a  growing 
conception  of  the  unity,  the  solidarity,  of  the  hu- 
man race  is  preparing  the  way  for  a  world-religion 
which  expresses  and  rests  upon  that  solidarity, 
which  conceives  it  in  a  fuller,  more  vital  fashion 
than  either  Positivist  or  Catholic  had  ever 
dreamed.  For  the  new  conception  is  neither  of 
benefactors  dead  and  done  for,  inspiring  us  auto- 
matically from  their  dates  in  an  almanac,  nor  of 
shadowy  saints  imagined  to  intercede  for  us  at 
tribunals  more  shadowy  still;  but  rather  of  a  hu- 
man unity,  close-liEked  beneath  an  unknown  sway, 
wherein  every  man  who  hath  been  or  now  is 
makes  a  living  element,  inalienable,  incorporate, 
and  imperishably  co-operant,  and  joint-inheritor 
of  one  infinite  Hope. 

Prayer  to  the  Dead. 

"Not,  then,  with  tears  and  with  lamentations 
should  we  think  of  the  blessed  dead.  Rather,  we 
should  rejoice  with  them  in  their  enfranchisement, 
and  know  that  they  are  still  minded  to  keep  us  as 
sharers  in  their  joy.  It  is  they,  not  we,  who  are 
working  now;  they  are  more  ready  to  hear  than 
we  to  pray;  they  guide  us  as  with  a  cloudy  pillar, 
but  it  is  kindling  into  steadfast  fire.  Nay,  it  may 
be  that  our  response,  our  devotion,  is  a  needful 
element  in  their  ascending  joy,  and  as  God  may 
have  provided  some  better  thing  for  us,  that  they 
without  us  should  not  be  made  perfect. — (Vol.  ii., 
p.  303.) 

"  I  wish  to  show  that  so  far  from  our  needing 
to  suppose  that  an  answer  to  prayer  is  an  inter- 
ruption  of  the  natural  order  of  things,  many  an 
swers  to  prayer  are,  on  the  contrary,  manifest  ex- 
tensions— not  natural  developments — of  perfectly 
familiar  phenomena.  We  already  have  life,  and 
by  disposing  our  spirits  rightly  we  can  get  more 
life.  We  already  have  friends  v/ho  help  us  on 
earth;  those  friends  survive  bodily  death,  and 
are  to  some  extent  able  to  help  us  still.  It  is  for 
us  to  throw  ourselves  into  the  needed  mental 
state — ^to  make  the  heart-felt  and  trustful  appeal. 
To  the  benefit  which  we  may  thus  derive,  no  the- 
oretical limit  can  be  assigned;  it  must  needs  grow 
with  man's  evolution.  For  the  central  fact  of 
that  condition  is  the  ever-increasing  closeness  of 
the  soul's  communion  with  other  souls "  (lb.,  p. 
^14.)  w.  T.  STEAD. 

A  Modern  Froissart/ 

This  is  the  second  volume  of  Mr.  Gould's  "  Frois- 
sart,"  the  first  of  which  appeared  last  year,  and 
which  at  present  is  the  sole  humorous  historical 

*"  F.  C.  G.'s  Frolssart,  1902."      By  F.  Carruthers  Gould,       I 
(T.   Fisher  Unwin,)       112  pp,       3s,   Gd,  a 

Review  of  Reviews,  2o/i/o3.  SOME  BOOKS  OF  THE  MONTH, 



annual  produced  in  the  English  language.  It  was 
a  happy  thought  which  led  Mr.  Gould,  whose  ad- 
mirable cartoons  in  the  "  Westminster  Gazette  " 
have  secured  for  him  an  undisputed  right  to  the 
position  held  for  many  years  by  Sir  John  Tenniel, 
to  write  and  illustrate  the  chronicles  of  our  time 
in  the  quaint  phraseology  of  the  chronicles  of  Sir 








(Remount  Records.) 

John  Froissart.  The  new  volume  is  quite  up 
to  the  high  standard  of  the  first,  and  higher  praise 
it  would  be  impossible  to  give  it.  There  are 
twelve  chapters,  v/hich  enable  him  to  gossip  with 
pleasant  humour  upon  the  leading  incidents  of  the 
year,  from  the  Coronation  to  the  Remount  Com- 
mission. Upon  the  latter  subject  he  is  very 
amusing.  "  I  have  been  informed  the  English 
knights  and  squires  purchased  all  the  animals 
that  were  brought  to  them  that  had  four  legs. 
And  if  it  fortuned  that  they  refused  any  animal 


(Remount  Records.) 



April  20,  IP03. 

because  It  bore  only  three  legs,  then  that  same 
animal  was  brought  to  them  again  at  night  and 
sold.  .  .  .  Among  those  who  murmured  there- 
at was  a  certain  knight,  Sir  Blundell  de  Maple, 
who  had  great  knowledge  of  horses.  Quoth  he, 
'  Marry,  but  they  had  better  have  sent  towel-horses 
to  Africa  than  the  animals  that  they  have  bought 
In  Frankfurt,  and  Buda  Pesth,  and  Judea.'  " 

There  is  an  excellent  chapter,  which  describes 
the  adventures  of  the  New  Zealand  Premier  in 
Africa  and  In  England.  It  is  admirably  illus- 
trated with  cartoons  of  Sir  Dickon  Seddon,  show- 
ing how  he  painted  his  face  in  the  manner  of 
the  men  of  Maoriland,  and  danced  a  war-dance 
to  give  good  countenance  to  the  soldiers.  There 
Is  a  delightful  picture  showing  how  Sir  Dickon 
Seddon  "  demandeth  to  know  if  the  Lord  de  Kit- 
chener hath  need  for  more  mutton  for  the  Eng- 
lish Army  In  Africa,"  with  its  companion  picture, 
showing  how  the  Lord  de  Kitchener  answereth  Sir 
Dickon  Seddon  by  the  summary  process  of  kick- 
ing him  out  of  his  tent,  when  Sir  Dickon  departed 
In  haste.  We  are  further  told  of  the  marvellous 
adventures  of  Sir  Dickon  when  he  rode  to  and 
fro  in  England  in  state,  as  though  he  had  been  a 
Prince,  telling  the  people  everywhere  what  they 
should  do  if  they  desired  to  prosper,  for  he  was 
full  of  marvellous  opinions.  After  Sir  Dickon 
Seddon  journeyed  back  to  Maoriland  across  the 
seas,  this  veracious  chronicler  saith,  "And  there- 
after whatsoever  thing  was  devised  or  done  in 
England  Sir  Dickon  Seddon  would  say,  'Of  a  surety 
this  was  done  on  the  counsel  that  I  gave  to  Sir 
Joseph  de  Birmingham  and  others  in  England.'  " 


(Coronation  Records.) 


Near  by  is  the  account  of  how  a  great  monster, 
called  "  The  Spearpoint  Drorgan,"  came  across  the 
sea  and  sore  affrayed  the  English.  "  Now,  this 
Drorgan  was  as  puissant  on  land  as  on  water,  for 
it  was  both  a  Drorgan  and  a  Sea-Fish,  and  for 
this  reason  it  was  also  called  the  great  combine. 
It  was  a  terrible  monster,  which  seized  all  the 
ships  that  could  not  avoid  it,  yet  It  spouted  out 
streams  of  gold  to  pay  for  them,  so  that  no  man 
received  hurt  or  damage  thereby." 

Of  course,  Joseph's  journey  to  Africa  is  described 
at  length.  Also  the  visit  of  the  Boer  Generals  to 
London.  "  Sir  Joseph  went  to  Uganda  to  see  the 
Lion  and  the  Unicorn,  to  the  end  that  when  he 
returned  back  to  England  he  could  the  more  read- 
ily discourse  about  the  wild  beasts  that  guard  the 
Crown  of  the  Empire,"  and  so  forth  and  so  forth. 
But  no  extracts  from  the  letterpress  can  give  even 
a  faint  idea  of  the  excellence  of  this  book  unless 
it  is  accompanied  by  the  charming  sketches,  which 
in  the  manner  of  medieval  chroniclers  illuminate 
nearly  every  page  with  good-humoured  satire.  As 
usual,  Mr.  Gould  is  best  when  he  is  delineating 
Mr.  Chamberlain,  but  he  is  very  good  with  the  late 
Archbishop,  and  also  with  Mr.  Seddon.  His  pic- 
ture of  Dr.  Clifford  preaching  on  horseback  to 
the  people  Is  also  very  happy. 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/4/OS. 



Zola's  Last  Word/ 

Down  with  the  Roman  Catholic  Church. 

In  this  bulky  novel  we  have  the  last  complete 
work  from  the  pen  of  Emile  Zola.  It  is  the  third 
of  four  which  he  had  planned  to  write.  The 
first  was  "  Fecondite,"  the  second  "Labour,"  the 
third  "  Truth,"  and  the  fourth  "  Justice."  He 
had  begun  "  Justice  "  before  he  died,  but  it  was 
only  a  beginning,  and  we  are  therefore  justified  in 
regarding  "Truth"  as  the  last  word  which  he  had 
to  address  to  the  men  of  his  generation.  The 
story  of  "  Truth "  has  obviously  been  suggested 
by  the  Dreyfus  case.  But  it  is  a  parable  rather 
than  a  narrative.  Dreyfus  was  the  victim  of  mili- 
tarism; Simon,  the  murdered  Jew  in  "  Truth,"  is 
the  victim  of  clericalism.  The  principle,  however, 
of  both  is  the  same.  A  young  and  beautiful  boy, 
the  nephew  of  a  Jewish  teacher  in  a  secular  school, 
of  the  name  of  Simon,  was  found  one  morning 
strangled,  death  having  resulted  from  his  vain  at- 
tempt to  resist  a  felonious  outrage  perpetrated  on 
him  by  a  member  of  one  of  the  religious  orders  of 
the  Church  of  Rome,  who  taught  a  religious  school 
in  opposition  to  the  secular  school  of  which  Simon 
was  the  head.  When  the  body  is  discovered,  two 
other  brothers  of  the  Order  are  present,  who  piok 
up  a  copy  of  a  newspaper  which  had  been  rolled 
up  into  a  ball  and  thrust  into  the  boy's  mouth 
to  prevent  him  crying  out.  Inside  this  ball 
was  a  copy-book  heading  of  the  kind  used  in 

This  copy-book  heading  was  issued  to  the  chil- 
flren  both  in  the  secular  and  in  the  religious 
schools,  and  in  the  corner  was  a  mark '  indicating 
which  school  issued  it.  The  clerical  brother  who 
first  discovered  the  roll  of  paper  and  the  incrimin- 
ating strip  recognised  that  it  bore  in  the  corner  a 
mark  showing  that  it  had  been  issued  in  the  cleri- 
cal school.  He  promptly  tore  this  corner  off  and 
destroyed  it.  Then,  in  order  to  avert  suspicion 
from  themselves,  they  accused  Simon  of  having 
murdered  his  nephew,  and  on  the  strength  of  some 
scrawl  on  another  corner  of  the  copy  head  they 
satisfied  a  jury,  inflamed  by  the  anti-Semite  agi- 
tation, that  it  bore  the  initials  of  Simon.  All  the 
members  of  the  religious  order  conspired  together, 
as  their  military  counterparts  did  in  the  Dreyfus 
case,  in  order  to  secure  the  conviction  of  Simon. 
He  is  convicted  and  sent  to  the  equivalent  of  the 
Devil's  Isle.  There  he  remains  until,  in  the 
course  of  time,  his  innocence  is  completely  de- 

Gorgias,  who  was  the  criminal,  makes  full  con- 
fession, and  shortly  afterwards  meets  with  his  de- 

•"  Truth.' 

By  Bmile  Zola.      Translated  by  E.  A.  Vize- 

serts  at  the  hand  of  an  assassin,  while  a  well- 
aimed  thunderbolt  from  the  sky  delivers  the  world 
from  the  pollution  of  the  presence  of  his  fellow- 

The  importance  of  the  book  lies  in  the  fact 
that  it  is  Zola's  last  word,  and  that  he  has  left 
us,  as  it  were,  his  last  solemn  declaration  of  faith 
that  Gambetta  was  right  when  he  declared,  "  La 
clericalisme,  voila  I'ennemi."  According  to  Zola, 
that  the  whole  nation  could  be  so  carried  away  by 
savage  prejudice  as  to  doom  an  innocent  man  to 
a  living  grave  was  apparently  due  to  the  baleful 
influence  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  The 
following  passage  does  not  need  the  alteration  of 
a  single  word  to  be  printed  as  Zola's  explanation 
of  how  it  was  the  military  conspiracy  against 
Dreyfus  came  so  near  to  be  crowned  with  success: 

How  came  it  that  the  mentality  of  the  masses  was 
no  higher  than  that  of  mere  savages?  Had  not  the 
Republic  reigned  for  thirty  years,  and  had  not  its 
founders  shown  themselves  conscious  of  the  necessities 
of  the  times  by  basing  the  state  edifice  on  scholastic 
laws,  restoring  the  elementary  schools  to  honour  and 
strength,  and  decreeing  that  education  henceforth 
should  be  gratuitous,  compulsory,  and  secular?  .  .  . 
The  people  of  to-day  relapsed  into  the  brutish  degrada- 
tion, the  dementia  of  the  people  of  yesterday,  amidst 
a  sudden  return  of  ancestral  darkness.  What  had 
happened  then?  What  covert  resistance,  what  sub- 
terranean force  was  it  that  had  thus  paralysed  the 
immense  efforts  which  had  been  attempted  to  extricate 
all  the  humble  and  suffering  ones  from  their  slavery 
and  obscurity?  As  Marc  put  this  question  to  himself 
he  at  once  saw  the  enemy  arise — the  enemy,  the  creator 
of  ignorance  and  death — the  Roman  Catholic  Church. 
...  It  was  that  Church  which,  with  the  patient 
tactics  of  a  tenacious  worker,  had  barred  the  roads,  and 
gradually  seized  on  all  those  poor,  dense  minds  which 
others  had  tried  to  wrest  from  her  domination.  .  .  . 
And  all  those  children  were  young  brains  won  over  to 
error,  future  soldiers  for  the  religion  of  spoliation  and 
cruelty  which  reigned  over  the  hateful  society  of  the 

The  concluding  chapters  of  the  book  describe 
Zola's  picture  of  the  millennium  which  is  to  come, 
when  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  has  been  de- 
stroyed. Simon  is  brought  back  from  captivity. 
His  enemies  attempt  in  vain  to  blow  into  a  flame 
the  dying  embers  of  race  fanaticism.  He  attri- 
butes the  change  to  the  fact  that  education  had 
been  entirely  freed  from  Roman  Catholic  influence. 
He  says: 

And  now  that  Rome  was  vanquished,  that  the  con- 
gregations were  disappearing,  that  not  a  Jesuit  would 
soon  be  left  to  obscure  men's  thoughts  and  pervert 
their  actions,  human  reason  was  working  freely.  .  .  . 
The  simple  fact  was  that  the  people,  being  now  edu- 
cated and  free  from  the  errors  of  centuries,  were  be- 
coming capable  of  truth  and  justice. 

One  great  feature  of  the  emancipation  of  the 
human  race  from  the  dominion  of  Rome  is  the 
emancipation  of  women: 



April  20,  190^^. 

Woman,  being  freed  and  raised  to  equality  with  man, 
■vrould  render  the  sexual  struggle  less  bitter,  impart  to 
it  some  calm  dignity.  .  .  .  They  were  emancipated 
from  the  Church;  they  were  no  lonj^er  possessed  by 
base  superstition  and  the  fear  of  hell;  they  no  longer 
feigned  a  false  humility  before  the  priest;  they  were  no 
longer  the  servants  who  prostrated  themselves  before 
men,  the  sex  which  seems  to  acknowledge  its  abjection 
and  which  revenges  itself  for  its  enforced  humility  by 
corrupting   and    disorganising    everything. 

It  Avas  necessary  to  impart  knowledge  to  woman 
before  setting  her  in  her  legitimate  place  as  the  equal 
and  companion  of  man.  That  was  the  first  thing 
necessary,  the  essential  condition  of  human  happiness, 
for  woman  could  only  free  man  after  being  freed  herself. 
As  long  as  she  remained  the  priest's  servant  and  ac- 
complice, and  instrument  of  reaction,  espionage,  and 
warfare  in  the  home,  man  himself  remained  in  chains 
incapable  of  all  virile  and  decisive  action. 

His  last  word  takes  the  form  of  a  triumphant 
pean  over  the  final  discomfiture  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church,  which  with  prophetic  eye  he  sees 
in  the  near  future: 

Rome  had  lost  the  battle;  France  was  saved  from 
death,  from  the  dust  and  ruin  in  which  Catholic  na- 
tions disappear  one  after  the  other.  She  had  been  rid 
of  the  clerical  faction  which  had  chosen  her  territory 
as  its  battlefield,  ravaging  her  fields,  poisoning  her 
people,  striving  to  create  darkness  in  order  to  dominate 
the  world  once  more.  France  was  no  longer  threatened 
with  burial  beneath  the  ashes  of  a  dead  religion;  she  had 
again  become  her  own  mistress,  she  could  go  forward 
to  her  destiny  as  a  liberating  and  justice-dealing  power. 
And  if  she  had  conquered,  it  was  solely  by  the  means 
of  that  primary  education  which  had  extracted  the 
humble,  the  lowly  ones  of  her  country  districts,  from 
the  ignorance  of  slaves,  from  the  deadly  imbecility  in 
which  Roman  Catholicism  had  maintained  them  for 

Sir  Walter  Besant  as  a  Prophet."^ 

"  'As  We  Are  and  As  We  May  Be '  Is,"  s^ys  the 
author  of  the  preface  to  the  book,  "  the  exposition 
of  a  practical  philanthropist's  creed,  and  of  his 
hopes  for  the  progress  of  his  fellow-countrymen. 
Some  of  these  hopes  may  never  ba  realised;  some 
he  had  the  great  happiness  to  see  bear  fruit,  and 
for  the  realisation  of  all  he  spared  no  pains.  The 
personal  service  of  humanity  that  in  these  pages 
he  urges  so  repeatedly  on  others  he  was  himself 
ever  the  first  to  give." 

This  volume  contains  some  of  the  collected  es- 
says of  Walter  Besant;  there  are  twelve  of  them, 
beginning  v/ith  "  The  Endowment  of  the  Daugh- 
ter," and  ending  with  a  paper  on  "  The  Associated 
Life."  Most  of  them  deal  with  social  problems; 
but  there  are  two—"  The  Land  of  Romance  "  and 
"  The  Land  of  Reality  " — which  were  lectures  de- 
livered in  connection  with  his  tour  in  America. 
There  are  three  delightfully  gossipy  papers  about 

the  East  End  of  London.  The  chief  interest  of  the 
book,  however,  lies  in  those  papers  in  which  Sir 
Walter  Besant  ventures  to  forecast  the  future. 

A  Bodeful  Vision  of  What  May  Be. 

In  a  paper  entitled  "  From  Thirteen  to  Seven- 
teen," v/hich  was  written  sixteen  years  ago,  he 
pleads  for  paying  moro  attention  to  the  education 
of  boys  and  girls  after  they  leave  elementary 
schools.   Here  is  a  doleful  forecast  of  what  may  be* 

We  may  readily  conceive  of  a  time  when — our  manu- 
factures ruined  by  superior  foreign  intelligence  and 
skill,  our  railways  earning  no  profit,  our  carry inoj  trade 
lost,  our  agriculture  destroyed  by  foreign  imports,  our 
farms  \^^thout  farmers,  our  houses  without  tenants — 
the  boasted  wealth  of  England  will  have  vanished  like 
a  splendid  dream  of  the  morning,  and  the  children  of 
the  rich  will  have  become  even  as  the  children  of  the 
poor;  all  this  may  be  within  measurable  distance,  and 
may  very  well  happen  before  the  death  of  men  ""vho 
are  now  no  more  than  middle-aged.  Considering  this, 
as  well  as  the  other  points  in  favour  of  the  scheme 
before  us,  it  may  be  owned  that  it  is  best  to  look  after 
the  boys  and  girls  while  it  is  yet  time. 

The  Future  of  the  English-Speaking  Peoples. 

One  more  prophecy  and  I  have  done.  In  his  lec- 
ture entitled  "  The  Land  of  Reality,"  he  concludes 
with  a  vision  of  the  future  of  the  English-speaking 

Before  many  years  the  United  Kingdom  must  in- 
evitably undergo  great  changes:  the  vastness  of  the 
Empire  will  vanish;  Canada,  Australia,  New  Zealand, 
South  Africa  will  fall  away,  and  will  become  inde- 
pendent republics;  what  these  little  islands  will  become 
then  I  know  not. 

Something  better  and  more  stable,  however,  may  yet 
come  to  us,  when  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain 
will  be  allied  in  amity  as  firm  as  that  which  now 
holds  together  those  Federated  States.  The  thing  is 
too  vast,  it  is  too  important  to  be  achieved  in  a  day, 
or  in  a  generation.  But  it  will  come — it  vnll  come;  it 
must  come — it  must  come;  Asia  and  Europe  may  be- 
come Chinese  or  Cossack,  but  our  people  shall  rule 
over  every  other  land,  and  all  the  islands,  and  every 

The  indestructible  fraternity  of  the  whole  En- 
glish-speaking races  was  a  watchword  to  which 
Sir  Walter  Besant  was  ever  faithful.  The  book 
from  which  we  have  given  these  extracts  is  full  of 
admirable  common-sense  and  a  generous  enthu- 
siastic optimism,  which  makes  it  very  pleasant 
reading  when  we  are  inclined  to  sit  in  doleful 
dumps.  Here  at  least  is  a  message  from  a  man 
with  his  feet  planted  upon  the  bed-rock  of  solid 
facts  who  ever  kept  his  eyes  fixed  en  the  stars. 

*"  As  We  Are  and  As  We  May  Be."      By  Walter  Besant. 
(London:  Chatto  &  Windus.)      314  pp.      Gs. 

The  Lord  of  the  Dark  Red  Star.* 

The  Tncarnatfon  of  Satan. 
Mr.   Eugene   Lee-Hamilton,    who    has    hitherto 
only  been  known  as  a  poet,  makes  in  this  volume 

*"  The  Lord  of  the  Dark  Red   Star."      By  Eugene  Lee- 
Hamilton.       (Scott  Publishing  Company.)      296  pp.      63. 

Rnview  of  Reviews,  20/i/03. 



a  very  remarkable  venture  into  the  field  of  histori- 
cal romance.  "  The  Lord  of  the  Dark  Red  Star  " 
is  very  much  more  than  an  historical  romance;  it 
is  a  daring  attempt  to  present  to  the  public  a 
kind  of  diabolical  gospel  of  the  incarnation  of  the 
Lord  of  Hell.  The  hero  is  Ezelin,  the  Imperial 
Vicar  of  Emperor  Frederick  11. ,  who  let  Hell  loose 
and  kept  it  going  in  Northern  Italy.  We  have  the 
whole  thing  here  in  the  compass  of  a  compara- 
tively short  novel.  There  is  the  diabolical  an- 
nunciation, in  which  Adalhita,  who  plays  the  role 
of  the  Virgin  Mary  in  this  black  Gospel,  and  who 
was  so  intensely  evil  that  she  attracted  Satan  from 
hell.  The  scene  in  which  the  Devil  visits  her, 
and  Ezelin  is  begotten,  is  indeed  a  gruesome  hor- 
ror. The  Devil's  bride,  whose  locks  were  like 
black  adders,  and  whose  cheek  was  white  as 
the  death-fed  mushroom,  that  grows  where  murder 
rots.  At  midnight,  nine  months  before  the  birth 
of  Ezelin,  sue  crouched  by  the  open  window  of 
the  castle,  looking  out  into  the  dead  darkness, 
round  which  moon-struck  wolves  had  howled  for 
three  nights.  Down  in  the  castle  moat  nine 
witches  sing  the  nuptial  hymn  of  horror;  as  the 
thunder  growled  ever  louder,  a  vampire  shriek 
stabbed  the  darkness;  while  the  ghouls  were 
prowling  round  the  castle,  and  fleshless  souls  mut- 
tering in  her  ear,  she  heard  her  name  echoed  in  the 
thunder  peal,  and  mighty  wings  sounded  around 
her  like  the  roar  of  a  tempest-churned  sea.  Lord, 
who  art  thou?"  she  cried,  and  the  voice  answered. 
"  I  am  Satan." 

Nine  months  after  this,  Ezelin  was  born,  "  very 
man  of  very  fiend,"  even  as  Christ  was  "  very  God 
of  very  man."  Ezelin  was  Hell's  incarnation. 
In  appearance  he  was  only  a  small,  pale  man,  rid- 
ing upon  a  black  horse;  but  within  that  pale  tene- 
ment dwelt  a  Satanic  soul.  To  him  the  sight  of 
pain  was  like  strong  wine,  and  when  it  meant 
the  spread  of  fear  it  flushed  and  intoxicated  his 
soul.  The  characters  in  the  story  are  very  vividly 
drawn;  the  witch-mother,  the  saint-like  wife,  and 
Fra  Luca  stand  out  with  vivid  distinctness.  So 
also  does  the  second  wife,  who  bore  the  child  de- 
dicated before  his  birth  as  a  sacrifice  to  Satan, 
in  return  for  which  was  promised  lo  Ezelin  the 
crown  of  Northern  Italy.  There  is  no  need  to  tell 
the  whole  story  here,  excepting  to  say  that  Satan 
was  cheated  of  his  grandson  by  a  surreptitious 
baptism  by  Fra  Luca,  and  instead  of  Ezelin  obtain- 
ing the  crown  of  Northern  Italy,  he  was  stabbed 
In  the  back  by  an  assassin  who  did  the  bidding  of 
his  second  wife.  It  is  a  weird  story  of  great  im- 
aginative power,  in  which  even  the  shadowy  forms 
of  Death  and  Sin,  who  time  and  again  throw  the 
dice  for  the  soul  of  Ezelin,  have  a  certain  dim  but 
distinct  personality  of  their  own.  What  purpose 
the  author  had  in  writing  this  stcry  it  is  difficult 

to  say;  it  is  neither  pleasant  nor  profitable  for 
the  mind  to  dwell  upon  scenes  of  carnage  and  tor- 
ture, but  no  one  can  deny  its  daring  and  originality. 

"Karl  of  Erbach." 

The  author  of  "My  Lady  of  Orange"  possesses  id 
a  high  degree  the  storyteller's  gift.  He  can  weave 
a  plot,  invent  character,  and  describe  battle  inci- 
dents so  that  they  seem  to  live.  "  Karl  of  Er- 
bach" appeared  as  a  serial  in  "Longman's  Maga- 
zine," under  the  title  of  "  Prince  Karl;"  it  is  now 
published  in  volume  form,  with  a  slightly  changed 
title,  as  "  a  tale  of  Lichtenstein  and  Solgau,"  by 
the  great  publishing  house  of  Longmans,  Green 
&  Co.,  in  their  "  Colonial  and  Indian  Library " 
series.  The  tale  has  all  the  essential  elements  of 
interest.  It  is  a  story  of  the  Thirty  Years'  War. 
There  is  love  in  it,  adventure,  sorrow.  The  poli- 
tics of  the  two  tiny  States  are  interwoven  with 
the  fortunes  of  the  hero  and  the  heroine.  His- 
torical characters  appear  on  the  stage:  Pere  Jo- 
seph de  Tremblay,  Richelieu's  Capuchin  friend  and 
diplomat,  and  Bernhard  of  Weimar,  the  pupil  of 
Gustavus.  The  contest  is  one  of  wit,  as  well  as 
of  sword  blades,  and  in  the  long  run  love  triumphs 
in  the  fashion  always  welcome  to  novel  readers. 
Altogether,  "  Karl  of  Erbach  "  is  a  nne  example  of 
historical  fiction. 

''  By  the  Ramparts  of  Jezrcel/' 

Mr.  Arnold  Davenport,  the  author  of  this  tale— 
another  of  Longmans'  "  Colonial  and  Indian  Li- 
brary" series— has  at  least  the  merit  of  literary 
courage.  He  boldly  sets  his  plot  in  a  Biblical 
atmosphere,  and  sets  on  the  stage  a  cluster  of 
Biblical  characters,  including  Jezebel,  Elisha,  Ben- 
hadad,  etc.  One  of  the  heroines  is  a  daughter  of 
the  prophet  Elijah;  Jezebel  represents  the  worship 
of  Moloch,  and  is  painted  as  a  woman  of  transcen- 
dent beauty  and  no  morals.  Mr.  Davenport  not 
only  adorns  his  pages  with  "patches  of  purple 
rhetoric,"  his  whole  book  is  one  long  purple  stain 
of  rhetoric;  love  scenes,  storms  of  battle,  priestly 
plots,  scenes  of  sensual  idol  worship — all  are  pain- 
ted in  very  high  colours  indeed. 

"The  Way  of  Cain." 

This  book  belongs  to  "  The  Sportsman's  Library 
of  Fiction,"  issued  by  George  Routledge  &  Sons, 
Ltd.  It  is  a  tale  of  murder,  and  of  the  pursuit  of 
the  murderer,  of  suspicions  fixed  on  the  wrong 
man,  of  the  arts  of  the  amateur  detective.  The 
v/hole  makes  up  a  picture  of  a  human  soul  yield- 
ing to  temptation  and  reaping  the  bitter  harvest 
of  wrongdoing. 



April  20 y  ipo^. 


[We  give  some  extracts  from  the  serial  under  this  title,  which  appears  in  the  English  "  Review  of  Re- 
views,"  and   in   which  current   events   are   translated  into  personal  terms.— Ed.  "  R.  of  R.  for  A."] 

The  Comxngf  of  the  Rainsu* 

"There  now!"  exclaimed  Marion,  as  she  settled 
her  patient  comfortably  on  her  pillows,  "  you  are 
as  pretty  as  a  picture!" 

Sina  smiled  up  at  her  weakly  from  a  background 
of  vivid  red;  when  she  could  no  longer  spare  the 
water  for  washing  she  had  covered  her  pillows 
with  cheap  twill,  rather  than  have  her  dainty  soul 
vexed  continually  by  the  dingy  linen.  Her  face, 
childishly  small  and  large-eyed,  looked  up,  white 
as  parchment,  from  a  cloud  of  lustreless  black 
hair,  and  her  little  hand  opened  and  shut  on  the 
gay  counterpane,  as  if  grasping  after  something. 

"It  is  so  hot!"  she  complained  in  a  tiny  bird- 
like  voice.  Sina  was  very  small  and  bird-like  in 
evers^hing.  It  was  diflSicult  to  associate  her  with 
heroic  ideas.  Yet  little  Sina  had  faced  and  fought 
more  hardship  and  danger  than  falls  to  the  lot  of 
fifty  average  men.  "  The  air  seems  to  scorch  my 
lungs,"  she  added  with  a  gasp.  "  But  I  don't 
mind,  I  don't  mind  anything,  Marion,  now  that 
you're  here." 

"Oh!  but  I  mind!"  retorted  Marion,  stooping  to 
give  her  an  admonitory  pat  on  the  thin  cheek. 
"What  will  Lewis  Gore  say  to  me  if  his  wife  is  ill?" 

Sina  laughed  feebly.  "Poor  old  dear!"  she 
said.  "  You  know,  Marion,  it  is  such  an  odd 
thing,  but  I  feel  as  if  I  had  been  away  somewhere 
from  Lew  for  ever  so  long.  And  what  helps  the 
feeling  out  is  that  he  has  a  great  hole  in  his 
coat,  and  no  buttons  on  his  shirt.  Now  how 
can  that  have  happened!" 

"  S-s-s,"  exclaimed  Marion,  in  hasty  reproof. 
"  I  told  you,  Sina,  you  are  not  to  talk.  Shut  your 
eyes  and  determine  to  sleep.  You  must,  or  baby 
will  be  ill." 

A  soft  bundle  of  dingy  white  stirred  feebly  on 
the  pillows,  and  a  little  cry  came  from  it.  Marion 
shook  her  head  at  Sina,  and  lifting  the  bundle 
gently  on  her  arm,  set  the  door  a  little  wider, 
and  stood  in  it  swaying  from  one  foot  to  the 
other.  Sina's  brilliant  eyes  followed  her  with  a 
look  of  perfect  satisfaction. 

"  Sing,  Marion!"  she  said,  entreatingly.  "Hymns, 
M-m-m — if  you  only  knew  how  I  have  longed  to 
hear  somebody  sing  for  these  eighteen  months 

Marion  nodded  at  her  severely,  and  pointed  to 
the  baby;  then,  balancing  herself  lightly  from  one 

•"  The  Story  of  the  Seven  Years'  Drought,"  of  which 
this  is  the  sequel,  appeared  in  the  February  "  Review  of 
Reviews  for  Australasia." 

foot  to  the  other,  she  began  to  sing.  Her  voice 
was  curiously  deep  and  soft,  and  had  an  emo- 
tional thrilling  quality  very  sweet  to  listen  to, 
such  a  voice  as  one  hears  on  the  wild  coast  of  the 
West,  when  the  Irish  girls  sing  their  Litany  to  the 
Blessed  Virgin,  or  when  Highland  lasses  join  in 
the  Psalms.  So  great  had  been  Marion's  grief, 
that  the  very  fount  of  song  seemed  dried  with- 
in her.  But  at  another's  need  she  found  it 
springing  full  and  clear.  Softly  she  sang  at  first, 
rocking  the  child  in  her  long  arms,  with  her  eyes 
on  that  small  dark  face  lying  against  the  scarlet 
of  the  pillows.  Then,  little  by  little,  her  own 
pain  was  soothed  and  comforted  by  the  touch  of 
the  tiny  creature  she  held  so  close.  She  felt 
no  longer  her  fierce  motherhood,  robbed  and  de- 
solate, but  resigned  and  prayerful,  though  long- 
ing still.  Her  voice  rang  out  into  the  torrid  night 
in  the  cry  of  the  Psalmist,  "  Lord,  hear  the  voice 
of  my  complaint;"  and  Dick,  by  the  empty  water- 
tanks  with  Lewis  Gore,  told  himself,  with  a 
swelling  heart,  that  "  Marion  was  over  the  worst 
of  it  now:  thank  God  for  that!"  She  had  dropped 
the  greater  portion  of  her  own  heavy  load  in 
stooping  to  carry  another  woman's.  For  forty- 
eight  hours  she  had  kept  Sina  from  slipping  back 
into  that  no-whither  where  she  had  wandered 
before  the  baby  came;  kept  her  by  sheer  force  of 
will  and  strength  of  mind  to  the  world  of  every 
day  and  the  little  soul  who  needed  her.  Sina  was 
rational  now,  the  only  thing  necessary  was  sleep, 
and  sleep  she  could  not. 

Lewis  wandered  about  with  Dick  at  his  elbow, 
torn  between  hope  and  fear,  and  Marion  fought 
the  enemy  single-handed,  as  was  her  wont.  The 
over-bright  eyes  were  blinking  in  the  candle-light, 
dropping  every  now  and  then;  little  by  little  she 
sank  into  snatches  of  uneasy  slumber,  her  thin 
face  and  hands  twitching  painfully.  The  heat 
was  intolerable,  the  electricity-laden  silence 
pressed  down  on  the  narrow  calico-lined  room 
with  the  weight  of  a  mountain.  It  seemed  to 
volume  in  by  the  loosely-hung  door,  and  hang  on 
to  the  limp  swish  of  Marion's  holland  riding-habit 
as  she  patiently  swayed  to  and  fro  with  the  baby, 
her  soft  notes  falling  into  an  abyss  of  awful 
quietude  and  calm. 

Suddenly  she  stood  with  the  song  frozen  on  her 
lips.  Sina  was  sitting  bolt  upright,  her  eyes,  with 
the  brilliant  pupils  distended,  staring  into  space. 

Review  of  Reviews,  W/k/OS. 



her  thin  scarlet  lips  apart,  her  shadowy  hair  trail- 
ing cloud-like  around  her  wasted  shoulders. 

"Listen!  listen!"  she  exclaimed,  with  one 
transparent  hand  raised  in  warning.  "  Oh,  lis- 
ten! The  rain!  the  rain!  Oh,  cool  and  sweet 
at  last!       The  rain,  the  blessed,  blessed  rain!" 

Marion  went  swiftly  to  the  bed,  and  laid  the 
child  down,  then  gently  forced  her  back  upon  the 

"  Lie  down,  dear,"  she  said,  commandingly,  "and 
do  not  wake  baby  again.      Do  you  hear,  Sina?" 

Sina  looked  away  into  some  far-off  land,  and 
talked  of  rain,  rain.  Marion  flew  to  the  muslin- 
covered  packing-case  which  did  duty  for  table, 
and  snatched  up  her  most  treasured  possession, 
what  remained  of  a  large  bottle  of  eau-de-Co- 
logne, and  lifting  the  heavy  masses  of  black  hair, 
poured  it  down  the  back  of  the  sick  woman's 
head.  She  sighed  gratefully,  and  half  closed  her 
eyes,  then  opened  them  again,  and  would  have 
spoken,  but  Marion  imperiously  forbade  a  word, 
then,  stooping  to  pick  up  the  ever-necessary  palm- 
leaf  fan,  found  herself  suddenly  confronted  by  the 
keen  blue  orbs  of  Lewis  Gore,  looking  out  of  his 
high-featured  face,  with  a  positive  terror  in  their 

Sina  instinctively  divined  his  presence.  "Lew," 
she  murmured — "  Lew,  do  you  hear  the  rain?" 

A  spasm  of  pain  contorted  Lew's  features,  and 
he  answered,  with  unconscious  exaggeration  of 
his  customary  drawl.  "  Of  course  I  do,"  he  said. 
"  Don't  be  vexed  with  my  little  girl,  Mrs.  Penrhyn. 
Many  a  night  we've  sat  together  listenin'  for  the 
rain;  an'  now  it's  come! — teems  an'  pours,  as 
old  Sallie  Maguire  would  say." 

He  went  cautiously  across  the  gaping  ironwood 
floor,  and  turned  with  elaborate  dissimulation  at 
the  door.  "  My  word,"  he  exclaimed  heartily, 
"this  will  do  the  country  good!"  and  vanished 
into  the  darkness  of  the  verandah. 

Sina  turned  on  her  pillow  with  a  sigh  of  en- 
tire satisfaction,  and  closed  her  eyes  again. 
Marion,  with  a  quick  look  after  Lewis,  pulled 
down  the  mosquito  net,  tucked  it  in,  and  went  to 
the  head  of  the  bed,  and  there  she  stood  for  what 
seemed  interminable  hours,  fanning  her  patient, 
while  she  concentrated  every  fibre  of  her  being  in 
the  determination  that  she  should  sleep.  Rigid 
and  motionless,  with  the  palm-leaf  turning  in  her 
strong  fingers,  she  looked  down  on  the  tiny  face, 
with  its  two  brilliant  spots  of  colour  on  the  hol- 
low cheeks,  and  the  great  eyes,  that  would  open 
and  wander,  only  to  close  fiickeringly  again  and 
again,  till  the  final  struggle  left  Marion  victorious. 
Sina's  head  turned  comfortably  on  the  pillow,  and 
her  thin  red  lips  closed  in  the  long  tremulous  sigh 
of  that  profound  sleep  which  follows  on  sheer 
physical  exhaustion.      Marion  stooped  to  listen  to 

the  long,  regular  breathing,  the  palm-leaf  fluttered 
down,  and  she  became  all  at  once  conscious  that 
her  spine  was  as  water,  and  her  knees  were  knock- 
ing together  with  weakness.  She  walked  softly 
to  the  table,  steadying  herself  by  the  wall,  and 
sipped  a  grudging  mouthful  of  the  cooling  drink 
she  had  prepared  from  the  luscious  fruit  of  the 
prickly  pear  for  Sina,  then,  placing  the  candle  in 
the  basin,  went  out  on  the  verandah. 

The  heat  rose  up  against  the  homestead,  and 
submerged  it  in  a  succession  of  great  waves.  The 
vast  impermeable  silence  lay  dense  and  unbroken 
on  hill  and  plain,  a  deserted,  burnt-out  world. 

She  shut  her  hot  eyes,  and  pressed  her  palms  on 
the  hardwood  slabs  behind  her,  her  figure  tense 
with  pain,  her  head  thrown  back,  fighting  with  a 
horrible  illusion  which  persuaded  her  she  had  been 
fiayed  alive,  and  every  nerve  lay  raw  and  tingling 
to  the  electric  air.  As  she  wrestled  with  this 
agony,  a  sound,  a  sensation  almost,  so  faint, 
vague,  and  remote  did  it  seem — the  mere  sugges- 
tion of  an  echo — smote  upon  her  inner  senses, 
and  instantly  the  horror  fell  away  from  her,  and 
she  became  her  own  brave  self  again.  Swiftly 
and  noiselessly  she  fled  towards  the  sound  of 
Lewis  Gore's  voice.  He  rose  as  she  came,  and 
thrust  out  his  hands  as  if  to  ward  ofC  a  blow. 

"Don't,"  he  exclaimed,  hoarsely;  "wait  a  bit; 
you  don't  know  Sina.  She'll  be  all  right  in  a 
while — to-morrow,  perhaps.  Give  her  time,  Mrs. 

"  My  dear  man,"  said  Marion,  quietly,  "  Sina  is 
all  right;  sleeping  like  a  lamb.  What  I  want  to 
tell  you  is,  she  did  hear  the  rain.  It  is  coming- 
just  listen,  will  you!" 

With  a  bound  both  men  were  out  in  the  open 
straining  their  ears  for  the  far-off  sound.  Lewis 
Gore  cleared  his  throat  several  times,  and  spoke 

"  Got  some  dust  in  'em,  those  froggies,"  he  said, 
unsteadily;  "  but  they're  singing  out  as  if  they 
meant  business — eh,  old  man?" 

He  slapped  Dick  on  the  back  weakly,  and  turned 
quickly  to  the  house,  laughing  to  himself  softly 
as  he  went. 

"  Poor  chap,"  remarked  Dick,  "  his  nerves  are 
clean  gone  to  pieces." 

Then  he  suddenly  buried  his  face  in  his  hands, 
and  stood  silent. 

Marlon  clasped  her  fingers  across  his  arm  and 
waited,  and  clear  and  distinct  across  the  void 
of  silence  came  the  faint  sound  of  croaking — the 
frogs  in  some  dried-up  swamp  awaking  from  the 
semblance  of  death  to  welcome  the  coming  rain. 
The  darkness  deepened  till  it  was  almost  palpable, 
and  that  dim  croaking  seemed  to  float  through  the 
silence  of  inflnite  space.  A  brooding  weight  of 
atmosphere  oppressed  them,  the  milky  smoke  of 



April  20,  IQ03. 

the  bush  flres  crept  upwards  through  the  hot  air 
In  snaky  wreaths,  and  across  the  heavens  stretched 
an  arch  of  appalling  magnificence  from  which  ter- 
rific fires  descended  and  enwrapped  them  in  blind- 
ing flame.  Marion  fled  back  to  the  sick-room; 
Dick  followed  her  and  brought  a  chair  to  the 
wide-set  door,  that  he  might  have  her  near. 

A  sudden  puff  of  wind  came  whirling  by,  scat- 
tering dust  and  leaves.  The  hobbled  horses 
whinnied  softly.  A  cow  lowed  in  the  darkness 
uneasily,  and  was  faintly  answered  by  her  feeble 
calf.  A  blaze  of  sudden  crimson  showed  Lewis 
standing  by  the  step,  every  line  of  his  hard  face 
alight  with  joy. 

"  D'ye  hear  that?"  he  cried,  shrilly. 

The  cicadas  had  begun  to  fiddle,  and  nearer  and 
nearer  came  the  frog-chorus;  till  from  among  the 
faded  honeysuckle  at  the  verandah  post  came 
a  little  whispering  pipe  from  some  tiny  green  crea- 
ture awakened  to  an  unhoped-for  salvation. 
There  was  a  brief  period,  during  which  a  mighty 
rushing  wind  swept  through  the  high  heavens, 
driving  the  tumultuous  masses  of  lightning-riven 
cloud  in  fiery  grandeur  before  it,  while  the  scrub 
lay  motionless,  and  the  plain  cracked  and  gaped 
for  the  rain.  Then  the  wind  came  down,  and  the 
world  broke  into  mad  rejoicing  over  the  breaking 
drought.  The  trees  tossed  their  branches  against 
it  as  the  wind  hurtled  through  them  with  incred- 
ible shriekings  and  wild  outcry.  The  frog-chorus 
swelled  into  thunderous  proportions,  the  cicadas 
shrilled  fiercely,  and  a  flock  of  parrots,  scared 
survivors  of  the  innumerable  multitude,  flew 
weakly  fluttering  with  the  gale.  Then  all  at  once 
the  whole  earth  seemed  to  stagger  and  recoil  with 
some  terrific  impact.  Great  globes  of  linked 
fire  fell  downwards  on  the  plain  and  licked  the 
smoking  ground.  The  gums  seemed  rocking,  in 
the  sound,  and  for  one  instant  the  hurricane  stood 
aghast,  and  once  more  there  was  silence.  Again 
heaven  and  earth  reeled  with  the  thunder-shock, 
the  wind  tore  out  and  away,  and  there  was  a  sud- 
den sense  of  breaking  bonds,  of  moist,  cool,  fra- 
grant earth-mould  and  ferny  deeps,  and  then  like 
the  sound  of  multitudinous  hurrying  feet  came 
the  susurration  of  the  rain  sweeping  through  the 
darkness,  bringing  with  it  all  the  wild,  exulting 
chorus  of  rejoicing  creatures,  bird  and  beast,  rep- 
tile and  insect.  Every  wild  creature  that  had 
survived  the  drought  came  forth  and  gave  thanks 
and  drank  deep. 

Dick  rose  and  stretched  his  hands  out  into  the 
solid  wall  of  descending  water.  Marion  bent  over 
the  verandah  rail  and  let  it  beat  on  her  bare  head 
and  soak  her  habit. 

"Oh,  Dick!"  she  said,  with  a  little  bitter  cry, 
"  if  it  had  only  been  a  month  sooner."  Dick 
bent  towards  her  and  lifted  her  right  hand. 

"  It  had  to  be,"  he  said,  heavily,  *'  and  it  is  in 
time  for  poor  little  Sina.  Let  us  be  thankful  for 
Sina,  Marion." 

All  night  long  the  rain  beat  in  soothing  cadence 
on  the  shingle  roof,  binding  Sina  and  her  baby  m 
a  deep  slumber,  and  when  her  eyes  opened  again, 
the  ground  was  already  showing  a  faint  mist  of 
green  above  the  ochre.  All  the  sky  was  hidden 
in  drooping  grey  and  a  full-mouthed  peal  came  in 
measured  strophe  from  the  rapidly  filling  swamp 
in  the  ten-acre  paddock,  while  a  bell-bird  sat  on 
a  high  tree  and  chimed  a  merry  song  for  her  de- 

"  Oh,  Marion!"  she  sighed.  "  Isn't  that  good  to 
listen  to?  And  I  think  you  are  the  best  woman 
in  the  world.  How  good  of  you  to  give  my  baby 
your  pretty  long  clothes!" 

"  He  deserves  them,  you  foolish  little  person," 
said  Marion,  "  and  there  will  be  no  need  to 
harry  the  lowlands  for  him,  the  grass  is  growing." 

Dick  beckoned  to  her  at  the  door.  "  I  am  going 
to  meet  the  mail,"  he  said,  cheerfully.  "  Old 
Fearon  passed  through  this  morning;  he  says  it 
has  been  raining  on  the  watershed  for  a  week. 
The  teams  have  gone  up,  Marion,  and  the  mail  is 
due  this  morning.  Like  old  times,  is  it  not? 
Just  think,  we  have  had  no  mails  for  seven 

-"  Oh,  do  go,"  exclaimed  Marion,  eagerly,  "  and 
hurry  back.      I  would  like  some  letters." 

Dick  lingered  for  a  moment.  "  There  is  some 
tea,  too,"  he  remarked.  "  I  went  down  to  the 
store  on  Sunday  with  the  shepherd.  I  know  how 
you  miss  your  tea." 

Marion  wa.tched  him  ride  away,  his  burly, 
square-set  figure  swinging  loosely  in  the  saddle, 
his  holland  coat  flapping  around  him,  and  a  whim- 
sical smile  turned  up  the  corners  of  her  sad 
mouth  as  she  recalled  another  picture  of  him,  the 
Dick  Penrhyn  of  her  beautiful  love-story,  im- 
maculate in  pink,  crossing  the  fioor  at  her  first 
ball,  with  his  strong  face  aglow  at  the  sight  of 
her.  Her  melancholy  eyes  smiled  at  the  memory, 
and  clouded  with  pain  as  she  remembered  her 
loss.  The  boy  with  his  father's  kind  eyes  and 
generous  heart. 

It  was  evening  before  Dick  came  back,  drenched 
to  the  skin,  but  looking  as  if  years  had  fallen  off 
him.  He  had  great  news.  The  teams  were 
through,  and  the  mail  man  had  heard  that  Billy 
had  saved  some  of  the  sheep,  and  was  sowing 

He  changed  into  dry  clothes,  and  sat  down  en 
the  arm  of  Marion's  squatter's  chair. 

"I  have  great  news!"  he  exclaimed — "astound- 
ing news!  Francis  is  coming  out  to  us.  He  left 
London  on  the  ninth  of  January.  We  may  reas- 
onably expect  him  about  the  middle  of  March." 

lievieic  of  Reviews,  20/Jt/OS. 



"Francis!"  ejaculated  Marion  in  amazement. 
"  What  would  Francis  do  on  a  sheep  station?  Be- 
sides, 1  thought  Rosamund  and  he " 

"  Rosamund,"  interrupted  Dick,  dryly,  "  is  going 
to  be  married." 

"Good  gracious!"  exclaimed  Marion,  "can  that 
be  true?  I  know  she — whom  is  she  going  ti 

"  Skeffington  the  Oil  King,"  replied  Dick,  with 
the  same  dry  accent.  "  Lady  Gordon  laments  in 
five  pages  that  Rosamund  is  engaged  to  a  man 
with  no  manners  and  millions!" 

"  She  will  be  very  unhappy,"  remarked  Marion 
slowly.       "  I  know  she  loves  Francis." 

"  Well,  if  she  is,"  replied  Dick,  "  the  fault  will 
not  be  with  Francis.  I  think  she  has  had  the 
opportunity  of  happiness  on  five  hundred  a  year 
with  him.  Francis  has  given  away  all  his  im- 
mense fortune  to  some  charity,  ana  only  retained 
his  mother's  money.  He  is  coming  out  to  learn 
sheep-farming.  I  am  very  glad  for  his  sake,  for 
I  always  thought  if  he  were  a  poor  man  we  might 
expect  great  things  from  him.  We  may  do  so 
now.  Comparative  poverty  will  simply  be  the 
making  of  him.  As  for  Rosamund,  I  never  pre- 
tended to  understand  her.  She  is  too  complex 
for  the  average  intelligence." 

"  I  am  sorry — sorry  for  Rosamund,"  exclaimed 
Marion,  softly;  "  she  has  missed  the  most  beauti- 
ful thing  the  world  can  offer." 

Dick  looked  at  her  troubled  face  with  a  short 
laugh.  "  Don't  worry,  Marion,"  he  said,  sugges- 
tively; "  it  is  a  long  time  till  the  end.  Let 
Rosamund  buy  her  soul.  For,  between  you  and 
me,  she  has  none  yet.  When  she  is  attuned  to 
suffering  she  will  be  nearer  happiness." 

"  Look,"  said  Marion,  "  how  wonderful!" 

She  pointed  out  across  the  wide  expanse  of  roll- 
ing plain,  along  which  the  gums,  blackbutt,  and 
stringybark  arrayed  themselves  in  the  rain,  their 
white  and  brown  trunks  crowned  with  sullen  grey. 
A  great  shaft  of  sunlight  shot  up  behind  a  scrub- 
covered  hill,  showing  its  irregular  outline  vague 
and  high  in  a  whirling  robe  of  white  light.  The 
distant  mountains  shouldered  themselves  forward, 
gigantic  and  threatening,  under  a  canopy  of  purple 
cloud.  Suddenly  a  dazzling  array  of  brilliant  tints 
surged  off  the  earth — blues  and  greens  and  un- 
suspected browns  and  yellows,  a  long  line  of  pal- 
pitating colour,  which  drove  itself  against  the 
grey  of  scrub  and  sky,  and  broke  in  lines  of  ir- 
regular light  into  dim  forest  recesses  and  drift- 
ing cloud. 

Then  a  great  blaze  of  fiery  crimson  shot  sky- 
ward from  the  farthest  mountain  heights.  In  an 
avalanche  of  chromatic  fire  it  fell,  and  came  whirl- 
ing and  rolling  in  cloudy  torrents  towards  the 
plain.      Down,  down,  down,  tossing  and  foaming 

in  wheeling  fire,  till  the  young  greenness  of  the 
earth  seemed  to  shrivel  at  its  touch.  All  at  once 
it  was  snatched  back,  and  was  gone.  The  clouds 
drifted  low  and  grey,  the  shingle  roof  dropped  a 
curtain  of  crystal  drops  on  the  shrunken  honey- 
suckle, and  from  a  drifting  rift  the  crescent  moon 
looked  down  on  the  satisfied  ground,  drinking, 
drinking  still. 

The  British  Grenadiers:   New  Style* 

Her  Majesty's  Theatre  was  crowded  with  a  bril- 
liant audience,  intent  upon  seeing  the  dramatic 
representation  of  Count  Tolstoi's  story  "  Resur- 
rection." Those  liked  it  best  who  knew  least  of 
the  Count,  and  of  the  great  story  of  infinite  pathos 
in  which  he  has  embodied  the  latest  and  ripest 
result  of  the  profound  studies  of  a  lifetime.  The 
genius  of  the  actress  who  played  the  part  of 
the  luckless  Maslova,  which  had  from  the  firbt 
interested,  now  enthralled  the  house.  Apart  from 
her,  the  chief  interest  of  the  play  to  many  of  those 
present  seemed  to  be  the  picture  which  it  afforded 
of  the  sombre  melancholy  and  brutal  horror  of 
convict  life  in  Siberia. 

The  curtain  had  fallen  on  the  third  act.  The 
tense  strain  relaxed,  and  a  buzz  of  conversation 
filled  the  house. 

Colonel  Fred  Gordon,  a  tall,  handsome  soldier, 
bronzed  with  the  African  sun,  with  Lady  Sidney 
and  a  Russian  friend,  Prince  Boris,  was  seated 
in  the  centre  of  the  stalls.  Prince  Kropotkin 
flitted  to  and  fro,  full  of  interest  in  the  success  of 
the  play,  and  rejoicing  in  his  innermost  heart 
that  sentiments  so  humane  and  doctrine  so  sub- 
versive of  all  Governments  should  be  proclaimed 
from  a  London  stage.  Here  and  there  were  a 
few  Russians,  but  for  the  most  part  the  audi- 
ence Avas  the  ordinary  well-to-do  crowd  in  the 
stalls  and  boxes,  and  the  average  theatre-goer  in 
the  pit  and  gallery. 

"  What  brutes  these  Russians  are,"  said  a  young 
exquisite  with  an  eyeglass,  in  the  next  row,  loud 
enough  for  all  the  neighbourhood  to  hear. 

Prince  Boris,  who  was  sitting  next  Colonel  Fred- 
erick, flushed  slightly. 

The  Colonel  tried  to  divert  his  attention  by  ask- 
ing if  the  Prince  had  ever  seen  Count  Tolstoi. 

"  Once,"  he  replied,  "  and  I  am  glad  he  is  not 
here.  He  did  not  write  '  Resurrection '  to  hear 
his  country  insulted." 

"  Oh,  never  mind,"  said  Lady  Sidney.  "  What 
does  It  matter  what  such  a  creature  says?" 

But  the  creature,  who  was  standing  with  his 
back  to  the  stage,  continued  to  hold  forth  to  the 
gaily-dressed  ladies  of  his  party  in  a  drawling 
voice  and  a  somewhat  affected  lisp. 



April  20,  Tpo3. 

"  Really,  they  are  too  awful  for  anything.  It's 
bad  enough  on  the  stage,  but  the  reality,  by  Jove, 
is  far  worse.  Why,  they  flog  their  soldiers  with 
the  knout  in  Russia.  Fancy  that!  Just  fancy 
an  English  private  being  flogged  by  his  officers! 
They're  brute  beasts,  slaves  they  are,  that's  what 
I  call  'em." 

Fortunately  for  everybody,  the  curtain  rising 
on  the  fourth  act  silenced  a  discourse  which 
Prince  Boris  could  not  have  endured  much  longer. 

The  audience  settled  into  silence.  But  the 
young  man  with  the  eyeglass  and  the  drawl  did 
not  sit  down. 

Those  behind  him  whose  view  of  the  stage  was 
obscured,  cried  impatiently,  "  Sit  down,  sit  down!" 

But  he  continued  standing.  Impatience  gave 
way  to  anger,  and  the  voices  crying,  "Down,  down, 
sit  down  in  front!"  became  clamorous.  Suddenly, 
in  a  momentary  lull,  there  piped  out  a  shrill  voice 
from  the  pit: 

"  Let  the  poor  chap  alone!  He  can't  sit  down. 
Don't  you  see  he  is  one  of  the  Grenadier  Guards?" 

Instantly  there  burst  out  a  roar  of  Homeric 
laughter.  The  actors  on  the  stage  were  momen- 
tarily forgotten;  the  woes  of  Maslova,  the  suffer- 
ings of  the  Siberian  chain-gang  were  momentarily 
swept  out  of  sight  and  out  of  mind.  The  laugh- 
ter and  cheering  were  renewed  as  the  offender, 
with  his  lady  companions,  quitted  their  stalls  and 
left  the  house. 

As  the  house  was  settling  down  again.  Prince 
Boris,  with  a  bewildered  air,  began:  "Why 
this ?" 

But  he  stopped,  for  Colonel  Fred  was  preparing 
to  leave  the  box.  A  bright  red  spot  blazed  in 
his  cheek,  and  with  a  hurried  and  hardly  articu- 
late apology  he  left  the  theatre. 

The  Russian  turned  to  Lady  Sidney.  "  The 
Colonel— is  he  ill?" 

"  No,"  said  Lady  Sidney,  in  a  whisper.  "  Only 
upset.     Wait  till  the  play  Is  over." 

The  last  act  dragged  interminably.  But  it  came 
to  an  end  at  last,  and  as  they  rose  to  go,  Colonel 
Fred  reappeared.       He  was  himself  again. 

"  I've  come  to  take  you  to  supper  at  the  Carl- 
ton," he  said.  "  So  sorry  I  had  to  leave  you,  bu: 
I  really  couldn't  help  it." 

"  You  must  excuse  me,  Fred,"  said  Lady  Sidney, 
"  I  must  be  off  home.  Besides,"  she  added,  in 
an  undertone,  "  I  should  be  in  the  way." 

The  Colonel  pressed  her  hand.  "  Sir  George 
will  be  there,"  he  said.  "  He  promised  to  Join 
us,  and  bring  with  him  your  cousin  the  editor." 

After  seeing  Lady  Sidney  into  her  carriage  the 
two  men  sauntered  down  to  the  Carlton,  where 
they  found  Sir  George  and  the  grizzled  Gordon 
awaiting  them. 

The  Colonel  led  his  friends  to  a  table,  and  they 
were  just  taking  their  seats,  when  his  eye  lighted 
upon  the  young  dude  who  had  figured  so  coji- 
spicuously  in  the  theatre  sitting  between  two  lady 
companions.  The  champagne  was  flowing  freely, 
and  all  three  were  flusaed  and  excited. 

"  Waiter,"  said  the  Colonel,  "  we  won't  sit  here, 
give  us  another  table."  They  followed  him  to 
the  other  end  of  the  supper  room.  When  they 
settled  down  the  Colonel  began: 

"  It's  too  bad,  my  dear  Prince,"  he  said,  "  to 
fuss  like  this.  But  I  cannot  stand  that  young 
cub  and  his  companions." 

"  It  matters  not,"  said  the  Prince.  "  Ignorant 
he  is,  and  his  companions  also.  But  what  meant 
that  laughter  in  the  theatre  when  they  went  out?" 

The  Colonel  was  silent  for  a  moment.  Noting 
his  moody  looks.  Sir  George  asked  if  there  had 
been  a  scene. 

"  No,"  said  the  Russian;  "  not  a  scene,  but  a 
laugh.  That  young  man  with  the  women  was 
rude  to  my  country,  and  there  would  have  been 
a  scene  if  he  had  not  stopped.      But  then " 

"  Fact  is,"  interrupted  the  Colonel,  "  it's  thai, 
cursed  '  ragging '  case  come  up  again.  It's  always 
coming  up,  but  never,  I  think,  quite  so  awkwardly 
as  to-night." 

Prince  Boris  looked  puzzled.  " '  Ragging  * 
case?"  he  said.  "What  means  'ragging'?  I 
don't  understand." 

"  With  your  leave,"  said  the  editor,  "  I  will  ex- 
plain to  the  Prince." 

"  Excuse  me,"  said  the  Colonel.  "  The  truth 
is,"  said  he,  somewhat  ruefully,  "  it's  a  bad  busi- 
ness, a  thorough  bad  business.  We  all  say  that. 
Not  one  of  my  brother  officers  but  admits  it.  But 
to  have  it  thrust  in  your  face  in  the  theatre  like 
that  was  more  than  flesh  and  blood  could  stand. 
As  an  old  Guardsman  I  never  thought  it  would 
come  to  this." 

"  Really,  my  friend,"  said  the  Prince,  "  I  am 
more  in  the  dark  than  ever.  What  means  this 
'bad  business'?  Is  'ragging,*  then,  so  bad,  and 
what  has  it  to  do  with  Guardsmen?" 

"Not  a  bit  of  it,"  said  the  Colonel,  defiantly. 
" '  Ragging '  is  all  right.  Never  a  fellow  gets 
'  ragged '  unless  he  jolly  well  deserves  it.  What 
are  we  to  do  with  the  unlicked  cubs  handed  over 
to  us  to  make  men  of  if  there  was  no  '  ragging'? 
No,  no!  don't  tell  me  that  it  is  bad  business.  It 
is  good  business — necessary  business.  Without 
it  where  would  be  our  regimental  system?  And 
what  have  we  left  in  the  Army  but  the  regimental 
system?  The  War  Office  is  rotten.  Bobs,  poor 
old  Bobs,  is  weak  as  water,  and  a  mere  cipher 
at  that.  Brodrick  pokes  his  nose  into  every  de- 
tail  of   matters   he   does   not   understand.       Our 

Revie^c  of  Reviews,  so/i/os.      '^  XO  BE  CONTINUED  IN  OUR  next: 


Army  Corps  are  phantoms.  Our  regimental  sys- 
tem is  the  one  good  thing  we've  got  left." 

"  And  the  regimental  system  is  built  on  '  rag- 
ging '  as  its  chief  corner-stone,"  said  Sir  George. 

The  Colonel  eagerly  assented,  and  the  two  men, 
finding  themselves  in  accord,  chummed  together 
and  lit  their  cigars. 

"  Allow  me.  Prince,"  said  the  editor,  seeing  the 
others  were  absorbed  in  their  own  talk,  "  just  to 
explain  what  they  are  talking  about." 

"  I  shall  be  delighted,  sir,"  said  the  Russian.  "I 
thought  I  knew  something  about  it  before  we  be- 
gan to  talk,  but  now  I  understand  nothing." 

"Ragging,"  he  began,  "is  a  slang  term  describing 
the  rough  justice  administered  among  the  subal- 
terns in  a  regiment  by  their  comrades.  The  boya 
who  enter  our  Army,  especially  the  Guards,  are 
many  of  them  badly  spoiled  before  they  take  to 
soldiering.  Rich,  idle,  and  self-indulgent,  they 
put  on  side " 

"  Excuse  me,"  said  the  Prince,  "  but  the  term  is 
unfamiliar.      How  'put  on  side'?" 

"  When  a  fool  poses  as  if  he  were  superior  to 
other  people,  and  puts  on  airs  as  if  he  was  made 
of  better  clay  than  his  neighbours — we  call  that 
'  putting  on  side.'  These  lads,  unlicked  cubs,  as 
the  Colonel  calls  them,  have  to  be  licked  into 
shape.  Their  fellow  subalterns  put  them  through. 
If  one  is  slovenly,  haughty,  dirty,  or  caddish,  if 
he  disregards  the  unwritten  law  of  the  mess,  or 
if  he  does  any  of  the  thousand  and  one  things 
unworthy  of  an  officer  and  a  gentleman,  he  gets  a 
'  ragging,'  and  it  does  him  good.  They  are  all 
big  boys  together.  They  hold  their  own  informal 
court-martial  and  execute  their  own  sentences. 
Usually  this  works  very  well.  But  in  the  Grena- 
dier Guards  there  were  too  many  raw  subaltemf?, 
and  the  few  who  tried  to  maintain  their  authority 
were  more  vigorous  than  judicious." 

"  This  '  ragging '  then,"  persisted  the  Russian. 
"What  does  it  consist  In?" 

"  Usually  a  fine  paid  in  champagne.  Some- 
times the  culprit  is  pummelled  and  thrown  aboat 
by  his  comrades — mere  rough  horseplay.  Some- 
times, if  the  lad  has  put  on  more  '  side '  than  is 
tolerable,  he  is  stripped  of  his  clothes,  and  learns 
by  experience  how  little  of  dignity  there  is  in- 
herent in  man  until  the  tailor  comes  to  his  aid." 

"  But  what  meant,  then,  the  cry  in  the  theatre 
that  a  Grenadier  Guardsman  could  not  sit  down?" 

The  editor  smiled  grimly.  "  Because  in  the 
case  of  '  ragging '  which  has  recently  come  before 
the  public,  it  is  said  one  of  the  Grenadier  Guards- 
men was  '  ragged '  by  being  divested  of  his 
breeches,  and  fiogged  with  a  knotted  cane  till  the 
blood  came,  and  sitting  down  for  days  after  be- 
came impossible." 

"  What! "  said  the  Prince,  "  an  English  officer 
submit  to  such  an  indignity!  In  Germany,  or 
in  Russia,  much  blood  would  have  been  spilt  be- 
fore such  an  outrage  could  have  been  possible. 
In  Russia  our  very  peasants  are  revolting  against 
flogging  as  an  intolerable  outrage  on  the  dignity 
of  man." 

"  That  is  all  very  well,"  said  the  Colonel,  sud- 
denly resuming  his  part  in  the  conversation,  "  for 
you  to  say  that,  but  in  Russia  you  don't  under- 
stand fagging  in  public  schools." 

By  which,"  said  the  editor,  "  the  son  of  a  duke 
may  have  to  make  the  toast  for  the  son  of  a 

"Mon  Dieu!"  said  Prince  Boris.  "What  next? 
But  of  course  the  fustigated  officer  is  turned  out 
of  his  regiment!" 

"Not  in  the  least;  flogged  to-night,  he  takes 
command  of  his  men  to-morrow." 

The  Prince  gave  a  long  low  whistle.  "  And  they 
obey  him?"  he  said.    "  But  what  was  his  offence?" 

"  No  one  knows,  but  everyone  tells  a  different 
tale.  The  friends  of  the  boy  who  was  flogged 
say  he  was  spanked  because  he  was  too  ab- 
sorbed in  the  study  of  military  history.  The 
friends  of  the  floggers  say  that  it  had  more  10 
do  with  the  Gaiety  Girls  and  the  Guards'  Club 
than  with  Caesar's  Commentaries." 

"  All  that  I  could  learn  when  I  got  back  from 
India,"  said  Sir  George,  "  was  that  the  Duchesses 
got  hold  of  Bobs,  and  Bobs  sacked  the  Colonel, 
and  the  Admiral,  who  is  uncle  of  one  of  the  lads, 
wrote  to  the  papers,  and  that  there  has  been  a 
huge  row  all  round,  in  the  Service  and  in  the 
papers,  and  Heaven  only  knows  where  it  will 

"  Well,  my  friends,"  said  Prince  Boris,  "  I  think 
it  would  not  be  well — not  quite  well — for  you  to 
read  the  German  or  Russian  papers  for  some  time. 
I  fear  they  will  not  soothe  your  amour  propre." 

"A  fig  for  your  papers!"  said  the  Colonel. 
"  Look  here.  Prince.  '  Ragging '  is  a  long  sight 
better  than  duelling,  and  a  good  thing  does  not 
become  a  bad  thing  because  some  silly  young  fool 
goes  too  far." 

But  as  the  Russian  bade  them  good-night  and 
the  three  friends  were  left  alone,  the  Colonel 
sighed,  and  said,  bitterly:  "  I  wish  they'd  have 
stopped  short  of  flogging.  But  why  should  all  the 
dirty  linen  of  the  Army  be  washed  in  every  news- 
paper?     I  never  knew  such  a  leaky  War  Office." 

"  Or  such  a  weak  Commander-in-Chief,"  said 
Sir  George. 

"  I'm  afraid,"  said  the  editor,  "  Rhodes  was  not 
far  wrong  when  he  said  our  Society  had  gone 
rotten  at  the  top." 


THE  REVIEW  OF  REVIEWS.  AprU  20,    903. 


Is  Man  the  Centre  of  the  Universe? 

Probably.    By  Alfred  RosscI  Wallace. 

Are    we    going    to    come    back    to    the    old    familiar 
theory  of  the  universe,   according  to  which  man   was 
the  centre  of  all  creation,  the  sun,  the  moon,  and  the 
stars  being  the  convenient  street-lamps  created  for  his 
convenience?    The  discovery  of  the  immensity  of  this 
sidereal  universe  led  to  the  belittling  of  the   import- 
ance of  man.    We  seemed  to  become  as  insignificant  as 
cheesemites  seated  upon  one  of  the  minor  planets  in  a 
universe  which  contained  one  hundred  million  worlds. 
"What  is  man  that  Thou  art  mindful  of  him?"  was  the 
inquiry  which  gained  in  force  with  every  improvement 
of  the  telescope.    As  system  after  system  was  revealed, 
each  fresh  discovery  seemed  to  make  more  utterly  un- 
thinkable the  old  theory  which  had  its  expression  in 
the  Book  of  Genesis.    But  now  an  article  which  Alfred 
Russel  Wallace   contributes  to   the  March   number   of 
the  "Fortnightly"  gives  us  hope  that  our  good  conceit 
of  ourselves  is  about  to  be  revived,  and  that  we  are 
going  to  come  back  to  the  old  faith  by  the  very  latest 
and  most  approved  scientific  road.    For  if  Dr.  Wallace 
is  correct,  there  is  a  strong  presumption  that  we  are, 
after  all,  the  centre  of  the  whole  universe.    He  main- 
tains that  there  is  no  reason  to  believe  that  the  stars 
are  infinite  in  number.    He  says  that  the  increased  size 
and  power  of  the  telescope,  and  that  powerful  engine 
of  research  the  photographic  plate,   alike  lead  to  the 
same  conclusion— namely,  that  we  are  piercing  to  the 
outer  elements  of  the  starry  system.    The  total  number 
of  visible  stars  from  the  first  to  the  ninth  magnitude 
is  about  200,000.    If  they  increased  in  number  on  to 
the  seventeenth  magnitude  at  the  same  rate  that  they 
increased  from  the  first  to  the  ninth,  there  ought  to 
be  1,400,000,000  stars  visible  through  the  best  telescope, 
instead  of  which  there  are  not  more  than  100,000,000. 
As    our   instruments   reach    further   and    further    into 
space  they  find  a  continuous  diminution  in  the  number 
of  stars,  thus  indicating  the  approach  of  the  outer  ele- 
ments of  the  stellar  universe.    If  the  universe  is  not 
infinite,  but  has  limits,  where  is  its  centre?    He  says 
that  the  new  astronomy  has  led  to  the  conclusion  that 
our  sun  is  one  of  the  central  orbs  of  a  globular  star 
cluster,   and   that  this   star  cluster  occupies   a   nearly 
centra,l  position  of  the  exact  plane  of  the  Milky  Way. 
Combining  these  two   conclusions,   Dr.   Wallace   states 
definitely  that  our  sun  is  thus  shown  to  occupy  a  posi- 
tion very  near  to,  if  not  actually  at  the  centre  of,  the 
whole  visible  universe,   and    therefore    in    all    proba- 
bility is  the  centre  of  the  whole  material  universe.    This 
conclusion,  he  maintains,  has  been  arrived  at  gradually 
and  legitimately  by  means  of  a  vast  mass  of  precise 
measurements  and  observation  by  wholly  unprejudiced 
workers.    Not   only  are  we  the   hub  of  the  universe, 
but  Dr.  Wallace  thinks  that  there  is  grave  reason  to 
doubt   whether   life    could    have   originated    and    have 
been  developed  upon  any  other  planet.      It  was  neces- 
sary that  for  hundreds  of  millions  of  years  the  surface 
temperature    should    never    for    any    considerable    time 
fall    below     freezing     point,     or     rise     above     boiling 
point.         None     of     the     other     planets     appear     to 
possess    this    and    other    fundamental    features  which 
have     made     life     possible     on     the     earth.       Among 
these  features  he  maintains  that  the  importance  of  vol- 
canoes and  deserts  has  never  been  properly  appreciated. 

Without  volcanoes  and  without  deserts  we  should  not 
have  had  tliat  uninterrupted  supply  of  atmospheric 
dust  without  which  the  earth  would  have  been  un- 
inhabitable by  men.  Our  position,  therefore,  without 
the  solar  system  is  as  central  and  unique  as  that  of 
our  sun  in  the  whole  starry  universe.  He  sums  up 
his  conclusions  as  follows: 

"  The  three  startling  facts — that  we  are  in  the  centre 
of  a  cluster  of  suns,  and  that  that  cluster  is  situated 
not  only  precisely  in  the  plane  of  the  Galaxy,  but  also 
centrally  in  that  plane,  can  hardly  now  be  looked  upon 
as  chance  coincidences  without  any  significance  in 
relation  to  the  culminating  fact  that  the  planet  so 
situated  has  developed  humanity. 

"  Of  course,  the  relation  here  pointed  out  may  be  a 
true  relation  of  cause  and  effect,  and  yet  have  arisen 
as  the  result  of  one  in  a  thousand  million  chances  oc- 
curring during  almost  infinite  time.  But,  on  the  other 
hand,  those  thinkers  may  be  right  who,  holding  that 
the  universe  is  a  manifestation  of  Mind,  and  that  the 
orderly  development  of  Living  Souls  supplies  an  ade- 
quate reason  why  such  a  universe  should  have  been 
called  into  existence,  believe  that  we  ourselves  are  its 
sole  and  suflSicient  result,  and  that  nowhere  else  than 
near  the  central  position  in  the  universe  which  we  oc- 
cupy could  that  result  have  been  attained." 

If  Dr.  Wallace  be  right,  it  is  obvious  what  an  im- 
portant bearino:  his  conclusion  will  have  upon  the 
whole  field  of  theological  thought. 

Alcohol:  Food  or  Poison  ? 

M.  Dastre,  in  the  second  February  number  of  the 
"  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes,"  attacks  this  old,  yet  ever 
new,  problem.  The  subject  is  perhaps  of  more  im- 
mediate interest  in  France,  where  the  spread  of  drink- 
ing habits  among  all  classes  of  the  population,  due  in 
part  at  least  to  the  unfortunate  system  of  practical 
free  trade  in  liquor,  has  excited  the  alarm  of  all 
thoughtful  minds.  M.  Dastre,  at  any  rate,  succeeds  in 
showing  that  the  question  whether  alcohol  is  good  or 
bad,  useful  or  injurious,  is  by  no  means  capable  of  a 
direct  answer.  Everything  depends  on  the  quantity 
absorbed,  the  condition  of  the  drinker,  and  the  pro- 
portion of  pure  alcohol  contained  in  the  liquor  con- 
sumed— indeed,  M.  Dastre  shows  us  that  alcohol  can 
be  at  one  time  a  medicine,  at  another  a  poison,  at 
another  a  stimulant,  and  at  another  a  food.  We  might 
add  the  fact  that  on  occasion  it  may  be  used  to 
produce  depression!  The  extreme  view  of  the  teetotal- 
ers is  that  alcohol  is  always  a  poison,  and  they  deny 
that  it  has  any  hygienic  or  alimentary  value.  This  is, 
of  course,  disputed  by  physiologists;  but,  unfortunately 
for  the  theorists,  it  is  found  that  the  limit  of  dose 
beyond  which  alcohol  becomes  a  poison  is  in  practice 
almost  always  passed,  and  thus  the  abuse  of  this  sub- 
stance is  continually  sapping  the  intelligence,  the 
morality,  and  the  character  of  humanity,  and  enor- 
mously increasing  the  total  volume  of  crime.  M. 
Dastre  tells  us  that  when  the  use  of  alcohol  has  become 
a  habit  it  degrades  the  organism  instead  of  maintaining 
it,  so  that  there  is  really  no  place  for  alcohol  in  a 
rational  diet  except  in  insignificant  quantities. 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/4/OS. 



The  German  Emperor  on  the  Bible. 

Revelation  and  the  Higher  Criticism. 

Dr.  Harnack,  the  well-knoAvn  German  scholar,  has 
pubhshed  in  the  "  Preussischer  Jahrbucher  "  for  March 
an  article  in  which  he  criticises  the  Emperor's  recent 
remarkable  manifesto  on  the  subject  of  the  bearing  of 
Higher  Criticism  on  the  authority  of  the  Bible.  In 
order  to  understand  Dr.  Hamack's  article  it  is  neces- 
sary to  print  the  article  which  the  German  Emperor 
caused  to  be  published  in  the  "  Grenzboten,"  and  to 
preface  the  latter  with  a  brief  explanation  as  to  hoAv 
the  controversy  arose.  Professor  Delitzsch  having  re- 
cently lectured  before  the  Kaiser  upon  the  result  of 
recent  discoveries  in  the  ruins  of  Babylon,  took  occa- 
sion to  express  his  own  opinions  as  to  the  effect  of 
these  discoveries  upon  the  authority  of  the  Bible  narra- 
tive. Professor  Delitzsch  merely  stated  the  conclusions 
which  many  scholars  have  arrived  at  as  to  the  Baby- 
lonian origin  of  what  is  popularly  called  the  Mosaic 
cosmogony  and  the  laws  of  the  Jews.  According  to 
the  literal  interpretation  of  the  Pentateuch  these  laws 
were  directly  delivered  to  the  Jews  on  Mount  Sinai. 
The  discovery  of  ancient  libraries  in  the  ruins  of  Baby- 
lon brought  to  light  the  fact  that  hundreds  of  years 
before  the  law  was  delivered  to  Moses  on  Mount 
Sinai  similar  laws  had  been  reduced  to  writing  on  the 
tablets  which  are  now  being  unearthed  from  the  buried 
libraries  of  Babylon.  The  fact  that  the  Emperor 
listened  to  such  a  statement  of  the  relation  between 
Babylon  and  the  Bible  created  considerable  ferment 
among  the  orthodox  in  Germany.  To  allay  this  ex- 
citement and  to  guide  his  people  in  the  paths  of 
truth,  the  Emperor  wrote  and  caused  to  be  published 
the  following  remarkable  manifesto,  in  which  he 
solemnly  reproves  Professor  Delitzsch,  and  lays  down 
his  own  Royal  and  Imperial  theory  of  the  manner  of 
Divine  revelation. 


The  form  of  the  Emperor's  manifesto  Avas  a  letter 
addressed  to  Admiral  Hollmann  on  February  15.  It 
appeared  in  the  "  Grenzboten,"  and  was  published  in 
translation  in  the  "  Times  "  of  February  21. 

We  omit  the  opening  passages,  in  which  he  explains 
how  he  came  to  listen  to  Delitzsch's  discourse,  how 
he  regretted  that  Delitzsch,  abandoning  the  note  of 
mere  historian  and  Assyriologist,  had  indulged  in 
hypotheses  very  nebulous  or  daring.  The  theologian 
Delitzsch,  he  says,  ran  away  with  the  historian,  and 
fed  him,  among  other  things,  to  deny  the  divinity  of 
Christ,  a  matter  in  which  his  standpoint  is  diametric- 
ally opposed  to  that  of  the  Kaiser,  who  thinks  it  a 
grave  mistake  to  trace  revelation  to  purely  human 
€lements.  The  Emperor  then  sums  up  his  view  of  the 
Higher  Criticism,  whose  conclusions  he  evidently 
thinks  should  be  kept  from  the  common  people. 

Spare  the  Pagodas  of  Terminology! 
"  What  Mr.  Delitzsch  did  was  to  upset  many  a 
cherished  conception  or  even  mental  picture  (Gebilde) 
with  which  these  people  link  ideas  that  are  sacred  and 
dear  to  them;  he  indubitably  shook,  if  he  did  not  re- 
move, the  foundations  of  their  belief.  That  is  an 
achievement  which  only  a  mighty  genius  should  venture 
to  attempt,  but  for  which  the  mere  study  of  Assyri- 
ology  is  not  enough  to  qualify  anyone.  Goethe  has 
dealt  with  this  subject  in  a  passage  where  he  expressly 
points  out  that  people  when  they  are  dealing  with  a 
large  and  general  public  ought  to  be  careful  not  to  de- 
molish even  '  pagodas  of  terminology/      The  excellent 

professor,  in  his  zeal,  rather  forgot  the  principle  that 
it  is  really  very  important  to  make  a  careful  distinc- 
tion between  what  is  appropriate  to  the  place,  the 
public,  etc.,  and  what  is  not.  As  a  theologian  by  pro- 
fession he  can  state,  in  the  form  of  theological  trea- 
tises, theses,  hypotheses,  and  theories  as  well  as  con- 
victions which  it  would  not  be  proper  to  advance  in  a 
popular  lecture  or  book." 

Revelation  of  Two  Kinds. — No.  1:  Continuous. 

Proceeding  to  discuss  the  doctrine  of  the  revelation 
of  God  to  man,  the  Kaiser  says: 

"  I  distinguish  between  two  different  kinds  of  reve- 
lation— one  continuous  and  to  some  extent  historical, 
and  one  purely  religious,  a  preparation  for  the  later  ap- 
pearance of  the  Messiah. 

"  With  regard  to  the  first  kind  of  revelation  I  have 
to  say  that  there  is  to  my  mind  not  the  slightest  doubt 
that  God  constantly  and  continually  reveals  Himself  in 
the  human  race,  which  is  His  own,  and  which  He  has 
created.  He  has  '  breathed  His  breath  '  into  man- 
that  is  to  say,  He  has  given  man  a  part  of  Himself,  a 
soul.  He  follows  with  fatherly  love  and  interest  the 
development  of  the  human  race;  in  order  to  lead  it  and 
to  advance  it  further.  He  'reveals'  Himself,  now  in  this 
now  in  that  great  sage,  whether  it  be  priest  or  king, 
whether  it  be  among  heathens,  Jews,  or  Christians. 
Hammurabi  was  one  of  these,  and  so  were  Moses,  Abra- 
ham, Homer,  Charlemagne,  Luther,  Shakespeare, 
Goethe,  Kant,  the  Emperor  William  the  Great.  These 
He  has  sought  out,  and  of  His  grace  judged  them 
worthy  to  perform  in  accordance  with  His  will  glorious 
and  imperishable  achievements  for  their  peoples,  both 
in  the  spiritual  and  in  the  physical  sphere.  How  many 
a  time  did  my  grandfather  expressly  and  emphatically 
maintain  that  he  was  only  an  instrument  in  the  hand 
of  the  Lord!  The  works  of  great  spirits  have  been 
bestowed  by  God  upon  the  peoples  in  order  that  they 
may  model  their  development  upon  them  and  may  con-, 
tinue  to  feel  their  way  through  the  confused  labyrinth 
and  the  unexplored  pathways  of  their  earthly  lot.  God 
has  certainly  '  revealed  '  Himself  to  divers  persons  in 
divers  ways  corresponding  to  the  position  of  a  nation 
and  the  standard  of  civilisation  it  has  attained,  and 
He  still  does  do  so  in  our  day.  For  just  as  we  are 
most  overwhelmed  by  the  grandeur  an«  might  of  the 
glorious  character  of  the  creation  when  we  contem- 
plate it,  and,  as  we  contemplate,  marvel  at  the  great- 
ness of  God  which  it  reveals,  as  surely  may  we  recog- 
nise with  gratitude  and  admiration  in  everything  really 
great  and  glorious  which  an  individual  or  a  nation  does, 
the  glory  of  the  revelation  of  God.  He  thus  acts 
directly  upon  us  and  among  us. 

No.  2. — Religious,  Culminating  in  Christ. 
"  The  second  kind  of  revelation,  the  more  strictly  re- 
ligious, is  that  which  leads  up  to  the  appearance  of  our 
Lord.  From  Abraham  onwards  it  is  introduced  slowly, 
but  with  prescient  vision,  infinite  wisdom,  and  infinite 
knowledge,  or  else  mankind  would  have  been  lost.  And 
now  begins  that  most  marvellous  operation,  the  revela- 
tion of  God.  The  seed  of  Abraham  and  the  nation  de- 
veloped therefrom  regarded  with  iron  consistency  the 
belief  in  one  God  as  their  holiest  possession.  They 
were  obliged  to  cherish  and  foster  it.  They  were  dis- 
integrated during  the  captivity  in  Egypt;  Moses  welded 
together  the  separate  fragments  for  the  second  time, 
and  they  always  persisted  in  their  endeavour  to  pre- 
serve their  '  monotheism.'  It  is  the  direct  interven- 
tion of  God  which  makes  it  possible  for  this  people  to 
emerge    once    more.      And    so    the    process  continues 



April  20,  1903. 

through  the  centuries  until  the  Messiah,  foretold  and 
announced  by  prophets  and  psalmists,  at  last  appears. 
This  was  the  greatest  revelation  of  God  in  the  world. 
For  He  appeared  in  the  Son  Himself;  Christ  is  God; 
God  in  human  form.  He  delivered  us;  He  inspires 
us;  He  attracts  us  to  follow  Him;  we  feel  His  fire 
burn  in  us,  His  compassion  strengthen  us,  His  dis- 
pleasure destroy  us;  though,  at  the  same  time,  we  feel 
that  His  intercession  rescues  us.  Assured  of  victory, 
relying  on  His  word  alone,  we  endure  labour,  scorn, 
wretchedness,  distress,  and  death;  for  we  have  in  Him 
the  revealed  word  of  God,  and  God  never  lies. 

The  Old  Testament  and  Its  Defects. 

"  That  is  my  view  upon  this  question.  For  us  Evan- 
gelicals in  particular  the  word  has  through  Luther 
become  our  all,  and  as  a  good  theologian  Delitzsch 
ought  not  to  forget  that  our  great  Luther  has  taught 
us  to  sing  and  to  believe,  *  the  word  they  must  allow 
to  stand!'  It  is  to  me  self-evident  that  the  Old 
Testament  contains  a  number  of  passages  which  are 
of  the  nature  of  purely  human  history  and  are  not 
*  God's  revealed  word.'  There  are  purely  historical 
descriptions  of  events  of  every  kind  which  are  accom- 
plished in  the  political,  religious,  moral,  and  spiritual 
life  of  the  people  of  Israel.  For  example,  the  act  of 
the  giving  of  the  law  on  Mount  Sinai  can  only  sym- 
bolically be  regarded  as  inspired  by  God,  inasmuch  as 
Moses  was  obliged  to  resort  to  the  revival  of  laws 
which  perhaps  had  long  been  known  (possibly  they 
originated  in  the  codex  of  Hammurabi)  in  order  to 
draw  and  bind  together  the  structure  of  his  people, 
which  in  its  composition  was  loose  and  hardly  capable 
of  offering  any  resistance  to  outside  pressure.  The 
historian  may  be  able  by  aid  of  the  sense  or  the  words 
of  the  text  to  establish  at  this  point  a  connection  with 
the  laws  of  Hammurabi,  the  friend  of  Abraham,  and 
the  link  would  perhaps  be  logically  correct;  but  this 
would  never  invalidate  the  fact  that  God  prompted 
Moses  and  to  this  extent  revealed  Himself  to  the  people 
of  Israel." 

The  Kaiser's  Credo. 

"  The  conclusion  which  I  draw  from  the  whole  mat- 
ter is  as  follows: 

"  (a)  I  believe  in  one  God,  Who  is  one  in  substance. 
(Ich  glaube  an  einen,  einigen  Gott.) 

"  (b)  In  order  to  set  God  forth  we  men  require  a 
form,  especially  for  our  children. 

"  (c)  This  form  has  hitherto  been  the  Old  Testament 
as  at  present  handed  down  to  us.  This  form  will  cer- 
tainly undergo  considerable  alterations  under  the  in- 
fluence of  research  and  of  inscriptions.  That  does  not 
matter,  and  another  thing  which  does  not  matter  is 
that  much  of  the  nimbus  of  the  chosen  people  will  dis- 
appear. The  kernel  and  the  contents  will  always  re- 
main the  same— God  and  His  dealings. 

"Religion  Avas  never  a  product  of  science;  it  is  an 
effluence  of  the  heart  and  being  of  man  arising  from 
his  relations  with  God. 

"  With  cordial  thanks  and  kindest  regards  always, 
your   faithful   friend,  "  William   I.R." 


As  might  have  been  expected,  this  remarkable  de- 
claration of  faith  met  with  considerable  criticism  in 
Germany,  and  Dr.  Harnack  himself  felt  called  upon  to 
deliver  himself  of  the  article  from  which  the  follow- 
ing are  the  salient  passages: 

Professor  Harnack's  article  in  the  March  number  of 
the  "  Jahrbucher  "  was  translated  in  lengthy  summary 

in  the  "  Times  "  of  February  26.  Dr.  Harnack  re- 
marks that  "  the  Babylonian  origin  of  many  of  the- 
*  myths  and  legends  of  the  Old  Testament '  has  long^ 
been  recognised,  and  that  in  the  general  opinion  of 
scholars  *  this  fact  has  been  recognised  as  fatal  to  the 
popular  conception  of  the  inspiration  of  the  Old  Testa- 
ment.' " 

It  is,  however,  going  much  too  tar  to  say  that  on 
this  account  the  Old  Testament  has  now  become  worth- 
less. But  the  traditional  forms  in  which  the  Old 
Testament  has  been  authoritatively  handed  down  to  u» 
are  urgently  in  need  of  alteration. 

The  Unity  of  Revelation. 

Professor  Harnack  expresses  his  agreement  with  the 
Emperor  when  he  asserts  that  the  revelations  of  God 
to  mankind  are  persons,  and  above  all  great  men,  whose 
individuality  and  power  constitute  their  secret,  but  he 
rejects  his  theory  of  two  Revelations.      He  says: 

"  There  can  be  no  question  of  two  (separate)  revela- 
tions, for  surely  religion,  moral  power,  and  intellectual 
knowledge  are  most  closely  connected.  There  is,  on 
the  contrary,  only  one  revelation,  the  instruments  of 
which  doubtless  differed  from  each  other  and  continue 
to  differ  altogether  in  respect  of  their  character  and 
their  greatness,  their  calling,  and  their  mission.  If 
Jesus  Christ  loses  nothing  of  His  peculiar  character 
and  His  unique  position  when  He  is  placed  in  the  line 
of  Moses,  Isaiah,  and  the  Psalmists,  He  likewise  suffers 
no  loss  when  we  regard  Him  in  the  line  of  Socrates,  of 
Plato,  and  of  those  others  who  are  mentioned  in  the 
Emperor's  letter.  The  religious  contemplation  of  his- 
tory can  only,  in  fine,  attain  unity  when  it  delivers  and 
raises  to  the  position  of  children  of  God  mankind, 
whom  God  leads  forth  out  of  the  state  of  nature  and 
emancipates  from  error  and  from  sin.  This  is  with- 
out prejudice  to  the  view  that  the  history  of  God  in 
Israel  represents  the  specific  line  in  ancient  times. 

The  Distinction  or  the  Divinity  of  Christ? 
"  The  Christian  community  must  reject  every  esti- 
mate of  Christ  which  obliterates  the  distinction  be- 
tween Him  and  the  other  masters.  He  Himself,  His 
disciples,  and  the  history  of  the  world,  have  spoken 
in  such  clear  terms  on  this  point,  that  there  ought  to 
be  no  room  for  doubt;  and  in  His  word  He  still  speaks 
to  us  as  clearly  as  in  the  days  of  old  He  spoke  to  His 
disciples.  Yet  the  question  may  and  must  be  raised 
whether  the  rigid  formula,  *  the  Divinity  of  Christ,'  is 
the  right  one.  He  Himself  did  not  employ  it;  He 
selected  other  designations;  and  whether  it  was  ever 
adopted  by  any  of  His  disciples  is,  to  say  the  least, 
very  doubtful.  Nay,  the  early  Church  itself  did  not 
speak  of  the  '  Divinity  of  Christ '  without  qualification ; 
it  always  spoke  of  His  '  Divinity  and  humanity.'  '  God- 
manhood  '  is,  therefore,  the  only  correct  formula,  even 
in  the  sense  of  the  ancient  dogma.  This  formula  im- 
plies the  almost  complete  restoration  of  the  *  mystery ' 
which,  in  accordance  with  the  will  of  Christ  Himself, 
was  meant  to  be  preserved  in  this  question.  Of  the 
truth  that  He  is  the  Lord  and  the  Saviour  He  made  no 
secret;  and  that  He  is  so  was  to  be  experienced  and 
realised  by  His  disciples  in  His  word  and  His  works. 
But  how  His  relationship  to  His  Father  arose,  this  H« 
kept  to  Himself  and  has  hidden  it  from  us. 

"  God  Was  in  Christ." 
"  According  to  my  reading  of  history  and  my  own 
feeling,  even  the  formula  'Man  and  God'  (Godman- 
hood)  is  not  absolutely  unexceptionable,  for  even  thia 
formula  trespasses  upon  a  mystery  into  which  we  are 
not  allowed  to  look.      Nevertheless,  this  formula  may 

Review  of  Revincs,  20/^/03. 



well  remain,  since  it  really  does  not  profess  to  explain 
anything,  but  only  protects  what  is  extraordinary  from 
profanation.  The  Pauline  phrase,  '  God  was  in  Christ,' 
appears  to  me  to  be  the  last  word  which  we  can  utter 
on  this  subject  after  having  slowly  and  painfully 
emancipated  ourselves  from  the  delusion  of  ancient 
philosophers  that  we  could  penetrate  the  mysteries  of 
God  and  nature,  of  humanity  and  history. 

A  Vision  of  Reunited  Christendom. 
"  *  If  ye  love  Me  keep  My  commandments  ' ;  '  thereby 
shall  every  one  know  that  ye  are  My  disciples  if  ye  love 
one  another'— it  is  more  important  to  meditate  on 
these  words  and  to  live  in  accordance  with  them  than 
to  put  into  formulae  what  is  incomprehensible  and 
venerable.  And,  moreover,  the  time  will  come  and  is 
already  approaching  when  Evangelical  Christians  will 
join  hands  in  all  sincerity  in  confessing  Jesus  Christ  as 
their  Lord  and  in  the  determination  to  follow  His 
words;  and  our  Catholic  brethren  will  then  have  to  do 
likewise.  The  burden  of  a  long  history,  full  of  mis- 
understandings and  replete  with  formulae  which  are  as 
rigid  as  swords,  the  burden  of  tears  and  of  blood, 
weighs  upon  us;  yet  in  that  burden  there  is  vouchsafed 
us  a  sacred  inheritance.  The  burden  and  the  inheritance 
seem  to  be  inextricably  linked  together,  but  they  are 
gradually  being  severed,  although  the  final  'let  there 
be '  {sic)  has  not  yet  been  uttered  over  this  chaos. 
Straightforwardness  and  courage,  sincerity  towards  one- 
self, freedom  and  love — these  are  the  levers  which  will 
remove  the  burden.  In  the  service  of  this  exalted 
mission  the  Emperor's  letter  is  also  enlisted." 

The  Many  Kaisers. 

There  is  an  article  by  "  Scrutator "  in  the  March 
"  National  Review,"  which,  though  decidedly  anti- 
German,  nevertheless  expresses  a  great  deal  of  truth  as 
to  the  real  character  of  the  Kaiser  Wilhelra  II. 
"  Scrutator "  regards  the  Kaiser  as  a  psychological 
study,  and  sees  the  explanation  of  his  vagaries  in  his 
"  multiplex  personality,"  the  symptom  of  which  is  that 
the  individual  affected  pursues  contrasted  courses  at 
one  and  the  same  time.  There  is  something  protean 
and  extraordinary  in  the  Kaiser's  temperament,  and 
just  as  he  is— in  external  dress— private  individual, 
hussar,  British  admiral,  the  wearer  of  a  dozen  uniforms 
all  on  the  same  day,  so  he  is  mentally  the  friend  and 
enemy  of  everything  at  the  same  time. 

The  Pro-anti-British  Kaiser. 

The  Kaiser,  "  Scrutator  "  points  out,  has  always  been 
pro-British  and  anti-British.  The  anti-British  Kaiser 
sent  the  Kruger  telegram,  and  when  the  war  broke  out 
hinted  at  Hamburg  that  if  the  German  fleet  had  been 
ready  there  would  have  been  intervention.  The  pro- 
British  Kaiser  abandoned  the  Boers,  and  sent  money 
to  the  Indian  Famine  Fund,  with  the  remark  that 
"  blood  was  thicker  than  water."  The  anti-American 
Kaiser  dreads  the  nightmare  strength  of  the  United 
States;  he  risks  a  rupture  at  Manila;  the  pro- American 
Kaiser  sends  his  brother  Prince  Henry  to  flatter  and 
coax  the  American  people.  In  his  relations  with 
France  and  Holland  there  has  been  a  pro-  and  an  anti- 

"  But  the  pro-British,  the  anti-British,  the  pro- 
American,  the  anti-American,  the  pro-Russian,  the  anti- 
Russian,  the  pro-French,  and  the  anti-French  Kaisers 
do  not  exhaust  the  catalogue.  There  is  the  Christian 
Kaiser  who  declared  that  *  the  foundations  of  the  Em- 

pire are  laid  in  the  fear  of  God ';  that  *  whosoever  does 
not  base  his  life  upon  faith  is  lost ' ;  that  *  only  good 
Christians  can  be  good  soldiers ';  who  preaches  sermons 
on  board  the  Imperial  yacht;  who  has  conferred  upon 
the  Almighty  the  distinction  of  being  the  special  ally 
of  Germany,  in  words  which  certainly  astonish  the 
reverent  world,  and  who  has  graciously  beatified  the 
old  Kaiser  Wilhelm  and  Frederick  the  Great.  Side  by 
side  with  this  Kaiser  stands  the  ruler  who  directed  his 
troops,  when  embarking  for  China,  to  give  no  quarter, 
to  kill  all  they  met. 

"  Time  and  space  fail  us  to  exhibit  side  by  side  the 
Socialist  Kaiser  and  the  Kaiser  who  punishes  strikes 
with  penal  servitude,  instructing  his  soldiers  that  they 
must  be  ready  to  fire  on  their  own  kinsmen  at  his  be- 
hest; the  poet  Kaiser,  author  of  the  quaint  ode  to 
Aegir;  the  dramatist  Kaiser,  the  terrible  volubility  of 
whose  letters  and  telegrams  drove  his  collaborator, 
Signor  Leoncavallo,  into  the  mountains  of  Italy,  where 
he  might  at  least  have  rest  from  these  messages;  the 
theatre-critic  Kaiser;  the  artist  Kaiser,  who  draws 
everything,  from  pictures  of  the  armed  Michael  to  dia- 
grams of  battleships;  who  produces  a  perfect  shower  of 
memorial  cards,  postcards,  paintings;  who  dictates  the 
rules  of  their  profession  to  German  artists;  who  is, 
in  a  word,  omniscient  and  omnipotent,  but  whose  works 
must  not  be  criticised  under  penalty  of  lese  majeste; 
the  crusader  Kaiser,  who  made  a  pilgrimage  to  Jerusa- 
lem, and,  while  speaking  in  that  thrice  holy  spot  of  his 
devotion  to  the  sendee  of  the  Redeemer's  cause,  at  the 
same  time  complimented  the  Sultan,  though  that  poten- 
tate's hands  were  then  red  with  the  blood  of  the 
Armenians,  and  avowed  friendship  with  him;  the  abso- 
lutist Kaiser,  who  has  written  "Sic  volo,  sic  jubeo,  regis 
suprema  voluntas,'  and  who  has  said  *  There  is  one  law 
only,  and  that  is  my  will';  the  soldier  Kaiser,  who 
turns  out  garrisons,  rehearses  manoeuvres,  and  com- 
mands the  most  formidable  army  the  world  has  ever 
seen;  the  sailor  Kaiser,  who  knows  every  detail  of  hia 
fleet  and  who  is  persistently  pressing  for  its  increase, 
who  dismisses  admirals,  captains,  and  lieutenants  where 
they  fall  below  the  standard  which  he  sets,  and  who 
orders  Venezuelan  bombardments,  '  pour  embeter  les 
etats  Unis.' 

"  But  the  real  puzzle  has  yet  to  be  solved.  Which 
of  all  these  twenty  odd  Kaisers  is  the  real  one?  That,, 
perhaps,  the  history  of  the  next  few  years  may  reveal.  "^ 

Anti-British  De^i^ns. 

Mr.  0.  Eltzbacher  comes  out  with  a  strong  anti-Ger- 
man blast  in  the  March  "  Fortnightly  Review."  "Ger- 
man Colonial  Ambitions  and  Anglo-Saxon  Interests " 
is  the  title  of  his  paper,  but  it  is  in  reality  nothing  but 
an  attack  upon  Germany,  of  the  type  to  which  we  have 
lately  been  so  accustomed.  German  hatred,  says  Mr. 
Eltzbacher,  dates  back  fifty  years,  when  the  Germans 
began  to  look  for  colonies  and  found  that  we  had  got 
them  all.  The  recent  anti-British  outburst  was  not  a 
spontaneous  movement  of  irresponsible  public  opinion, 
but  an  agitation  which  was  kindled,  fanned,  and  in- 
furiated so  that  at  last  it  got  quite  beyond  controL 
The  movement  emanated  from  the  Government  an  4. 
those  near  it,  and  was  assisted  by  the  intellectual 
leaders  of  the  nation  at  the  universities. 

Official  and  unofficial  Germans  are  now  considering 
the  question  whether  it  is  possible  to  wrest  suitable 
territory  from  Great  Britain  and  America.  They  re- 
gard Great  Britain  as  a  senile  nation  which  is  declin- 
ing, and  the  United  States  as  a  young  and  vigorous 
nation  whose  political  future  and  military  potentialities, 
seem  unlimited— unless,   indeed,   their  progress  be  su*- 



April  20,  190^. 

rested  by  force.  The  Germans  wish  to  tackle  Great 
Britain,  the  weaker  body,  first;  and  German  funds 
have  been  lavishly  spent  in  America  in  order  to  create 
bad  blood  between  Great  Britain  and  the  United 

Germany  is  completing  her  plans  by  touting  for 
French  support.  M.  Lockroy,  thrice  French  Minister 
of  Marine,  during  a  recent  visit  to  Germany,  was  al- 
lowed to  inspect  the  German  fleet  and  dockyards,  even 
to  the  smallest  details.  In  order  to  make  invasion 
easier,  she  has  made  official  and  semi-official  attempts 
Avithout  number  to  entice  or  coerce  Holland  into  a 
closer  union  with  the  Fatherland. 

The  Irish  Land  Problem^ 

Mr.  H.  W.  Nevinson  contributes  to  the  March  "Con- 
temporary Review  "  a  paper  on  the  Irish  Land  Settle- 
ment, entitled  "  The  Chance  in  Ireland,"  in  which  he 
sets  out  the  exact  manner  in  which  the  agreement  be- 
tween the  two  parties  will  work,  provided  the  Govern- 
ment comes  to  their  aid  as  expected: 

"  Deduct  10  per  cent,  for  his  estimated  cost  of  collec- 
tion at  present,  and  he  must  receive  a  sum  which  will 
seinire  him  £9  a  year  if  invested  at  3  per  cent.,  or  at 
3J  per  cent,  if  guaranteed  by  the  State.  That  is  to 
say,  he  must  receive  £300  or  £277  as  the  case  may  be; 
in  other  words,  in  round  figures,  he  must  receive  thirty- 
three  years'  purchase  of  £9  in  one  case  and  thirty 
years'  purchase  in  the  other;  or  if  his  gross  income  of 
£10  be  taken  as  a  basis,  he  receives  thirty  years'  pur- 
chase in  the  one  case  and  twenty-eight  in  the  other. 
Anyhow,  the  landlord  comes  off  well.  Probably  there 
is  not  an  estate  in  Ireland  that  would  fetch  thirty 
years'  purchase  in  the  open  market.  The  Congested 
Districts  Board  gave  sixteen  years'  purchase  for  the 
Dillon  estates.  The  ruling  price  lately  has  been  a 
little  under  eighteen  years. 

"  The  tenant's  position  under  the  example  given  is, 
unhappily,  clear  only  on  one  point.  He  now  pays  £10 
as  his  second-term  rent,  and  as  he  is  to  obtain  from  15 
to  25  per  cent,  reduction  on  that,  we  may  put  his  pay- 
ment at  £8  a  year,  that  £8  being  made  up  of  interest 
and  sinking  fund." 

A  Landlord's  Suggestions. 

"  A  Landlord "  contributes  to  the  "  National  Re- 
view "  a  paper  entitled  "  A  Final  Irish  Land  Measure." 
He  maintains  that  the  first  principle  upon  which  any 
new  Land  Bill,  not  avowedly  compulsory,  should  be 
based  is  the  conversion  of  judicial  rents  into  perpetui- 
ties. All  rents  fixed  since  the  Act  of  1896  should  be 
converted  into  perpetuities.  In  future,  if  the  present 
system  should  continue,  rents  will,  other  conditions  re- 
maining the  same,  be  fixed  solely  with  regard  to  prices. 
"  A  Landlord "  regards  as  the  second  important 
principle  that  a  tenant  purchasing  under  the  new  Act 
shall  pay,  at  any  rate  for  the  first  ten  years,  an  annuity 
equivalent  to  the  rent  which  is  purchased.  Any  pur- 
chase measure  founded  upon  these  two  principles  need 
not  make  any  further  demands  upon  public  credit  than 
those  to  which  it  is  pledged  under  the  existing  lar.<^ 

In  the  "  Strand  Magazine  "  Frank  Broaaoent  writes 
very  entertainingly  upon  "  The  Flight  of  a  Golf  Ball," 
as  studied  in  a  course  of  experiments  conducted  by 
Mr.  Harry  Smith  and  himself.  A  series  of  photo- 
graphs does  much  to  explain  the  letterpress. 

"  From  Out  of  the  Mist  of  HeU." 

Pictures  from  Macedonia. 

In  the  "  Contemporary  Review  "  Dr.  Dillon  writes  of 
the  Macedonian  atrocities  and  the  futility  of  Turkish 
reforms.  He  describes  scenes  which,  as  he  truly  says, 
come  to  us  "  like  deadly  visions  from  out  the  plague- 
polluted  mist  of  hell." 

I.— By  Dr.  E.  J.  Dillon. 

He  ridicules  the  idea  that  the  Sultan  will  execute  any 
of  the  reforms  recommended  in  the  Austro-Russian 

"  All  these  reforms — with  the  exception  of  the  ad- 
ministration of  the  provinces  by  the  Ottoman  Bank — 
have  over  and  over  again  been  decided  upon  and  an- 
nounced by  the  Sultan,  but  they  have  always  remained 
on  paper." 

The  Turk,  while  promising  to  carry  out  reforms,  is 
preparing  to  fight: 

"  The  best  Turkish  generals  have  been  appointed  to 
the  chief  strategic  positions  in  the  country;  All  Riza 
Pasha — who  served  for  several  years  in  the  Prussian 
Army,  and  will  probably  be  commander-in-chief  in  the 
future  war — is  at  the  head  of  the  province  of  Monastir 
and  Mehmed  Hafiz  in  Uskub." 

What  is  Going  On  in  Macedonia  To-day. 

Dr.  Dillon  quotes  from  the  reports  of  Madame  Bakh- 
metieff,  the  American  wife  of  the  Russian  Consul  at 
Sofia,  and  from  the  official  report  of  M.  Westman,  Rus- 
sian Vice-Consul  at  Philippopolis,  details  of  atrocities 
enough  to  make  the  blood  run  cold.  He  says  that  one- 
third  of  the  male  population  of  one  of  the  best  behaved 
districts  in  Macedonia  has  been  compelled  to  fly  the 

"  The  Russian  Vice-Consul  at  Philippopolis,  M.  West- 
man,  crossed  over  into  Macedonia  in  order  to  verify  the 
incredible  statements  of  many  of  the  fugitives,  and  the 
startling  results  of  his  investigations  were  sent  to  the 
Foreign  Office  in  St.  Petersburg.  Among  other  in- 
teresting facts  he  tTiere  informs  his  Government  that  a 
belt  of  territory  thirty  versts  broad,  running  parallel 
to  the  frontier,  typifies  the  abomination  of  desolation: 
the  churches  have  been  defiled  and  the  villages  partly 
burned  to  the  ground,  while  the  inhabitants  have  fled 
no  one  knows  whither. 

"  M.  Westman  declares  that  he  saw  women  who  had 
run  away  to  save  their  honour  and  their  lives,  and  were 
huddled  together  in  mountain  fastnesses  where  the  snow 
lay  several  feet  deep,  and  the  wretched  creatures  were 
in  an  almost  naked  state.  Some  of  them,  he  adds,  had 
trudged  along  on  foot,  floundering  in  the  snows  for 
twenty  consecutive  days  with  no  shred  of  clothing  but 
their  chemises.  Forty  of  the  women  who  reached 
Dubnitsa  and  who  were  cared  for  by  Madame  Bakhme- 
tieff,  were  about  to  become  mothers.  Most  of  these 
misery-stricken  women  and  men  were  almost  naked, 
wasted  to  skeletons,  with  dull,  sunken  eyes  and  pinched 
cheeks.  Several  were  mutilated  or  disfigured,  and  the 
livid  welts,  the  open  wounds,  the  horrible  marks  of  the 
red-hot  pincers  with  which  they  had  been  tortured 
were  witnessed  by  all. 

How  the  Turks  Torture  Women  and  Children. 
"  One  of  the  women  in  Dubnitsa,  who  seemed  more 
dead  than  alive,  was  asked  by  the  kind-hearted  lady 
why  she  looked  so  utterly  crushed  in  spirit,  now  that 
the  danger  had  passed,  and  life,  at  any  rate,  was  safe. 
Amid  tears  and  sighs  and  convulsive  shiverings  of  the 
body  the  poor  creature  told  the  sickening  story  of  how 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/^/03. 



her  brother  had  had  his  head  cut  off  before  her  eyes, 
after  which  she  had  to  stand  by  while  the  ruffians 
chopped  up  his  body  into  fragments.  Several  wit- 
nessed the  agony  of  their  tender  daughters— children 
from  ten  to  thirteen— and  heard  their  piercing  cries  as 
the  men  who  wore  the  Sultan's  coat  subjected  them  to 
nameless  violence.  Numbers  of  the  children  suc- 
cumbed to  these  diabolical  assaults,  their  last  looks 
being  turned  on  their  helpless  parents  or  their  smoking 
homes.  In  one  place  two  children— one  aged  eighteen 
months,  the  other  four  years— had  their  skulls  split 
open  by  the  soldiers.  Other  little  boys  and  girls  were 
deliberately  and  methodically  tortured  to  death,  while 
a  place  was  assigned  to  their  fathers  and  mothers  where 
they  were  forced  to  listen  to  the  agonising  screams, 
and  watch  the  contractions  of  the  tender  bodies  each 
time  that  the  once  pretty  faces  were  slowly  lowered  into 
the  fire,  into  which  Turkish  pepper  had  been  plenti- 
fully scattered.  This  is  in  truth  a  form  of  torture 
wliich  only  a  devil  could  have  invented,  for  long  before 
death  releases  the  tiny  mite,  the  eyes  are  said  to  start 
from  their  sockets  and  burst. 

The  Evidence  of  an  American  Lady. 

"  We  have  the  authority  of  Madame  Bakhmetieff— 
who  travelled  about  in  deep  snow  with  the  thermometer 
at  22  Celsius  below  freezing  point,  to  bring  succour  to 
the  fugitives— for  saying  that  two  priests  of  the  villages 
of  Oranoff  and  Padesh  were  tortured  in  a  manner 
which  suggests  the  story  of  St.  Lawrence's  death.  They 
were  not  exactly  laid  on  gridirons,  but  they  were  hung 
over  a  fire  and  burned  with  red  hot  irons.  In  the 
village  of  Batshoff,  thirty-two  peasants  were  beaten  al- 
most to  death  in  the  presence  of  the  district  chief 
(Kaimakam)  of  Mehomia.  In  the  village  of  Dobro- 
nishtshe,  the  superintendent  of  the  police,  Eyoob 
Eflfendi,  violated  three  little  girls  whose  names  have 
been  taken  by  Madame  Bakhmetieff.  In  Dobronitsky 
the  soldiers  stripped  thirty  women  to  the  waist,  while 
the  head  of  the  police  was  standing  by,  and  having  sub- 
jected them  to  various  indignities,  led  them  in  that 
plight  through  the  streets.  A  sub-lieutenant,  Ali 
Effendi  by  name,  ravished  three  women  m  GodlyefF. 
Reshid  Bey,  a  captain,  deflowered  a  girl  in  Nedobinsk, 
and  then  violated  the  daughter-in-law  of  the  parish 
priest  of  Dobronishtshe." 

Lord  Beaconsfield's  "  Peace  with  Honour  "  is  costing 
these  poor  girls  dear. 

XL — By  an  Anti-Btdgarian. 

In  the  "  Nineteenth  Century "  Mr.  G.  F.  Abbott 
writes  on  Macedonia  and  the  Revolutionary  Commit- 
tees. His  article  is  chiefly  valuable  because  it  con- 
tains a  translation  of  the  rules  and  regulations  which 
govern  these  revolutionary  bands.  Mr.  Abbott  makes 
the  most,  or  the  worst,  of  the  case  against  the  Mace- 
donians.     He  says: 

"  Macedonians  as  a  distinct  and  homogeneous  ethnic 
group  do  not  exist.  What  actually  exist  are  a  Greek 
population  in  the  south  of  the  province,  a  Slavonic 
population  in  the  north,  a  mixed  and  debatable  con- 
geries of  nationalities  and  dialects  in  the  middle,  a  few 
Wallachs  here  and  there,  and  Mohammedans  sprinkled 
everywhere.  The  whole  thing  strikes  the  traveller  as 
an  ethnological  experiment  conceived  by  demons  and 
carried  out  by  maniacs — not  devoid  of  a  mad  sort  of 
humour.  Add  that  the  Slavs  themselves  do  not  al- 
Vv'ays  know  whether  they  are  Servians  or  Bulgarians, 
and,  if  the  latter,  whether  they  are  Schismatic  or 
Orthodox,  or,  if  Schismatic,  whether  they  wish  to  see 
the    country    independent    or    part    of    the   Bulgarian 

Principality,  and  you  have  a  fairly  acciirate  picture  of 
a  state  of  things  presented  by  no  other  part  of  the 
globe  of  equal  dimensions." 

It  is,  perhaps,  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  the  revo- 
lutionary organisation  should  be  subject  to  splits  and 

"  At  the  annual  congress,  held  last  August,  the  ad- 
herents of  Sarafoff  refused  to  recognise  MM.  Michail- 
ovski  and  Zontcheff  as  heads  of  the  Committee,  and  on 
being  excluded  from  the  sittings  proceeded  to  form  a 
Committee  of  their  own." 

But  although  they  differ  on  the  question  of  annexa- 
tion versus  independence,  they  agree  as  to  their  modus 

"  Zontcheff  and  Sarafoff  and  their  respective  ad- 
herents, however,  believe  that  they  can  induce  Europe 
to  intervene  by  provoking  a  massacre,  and  it  is  not  at 
all  impossible  that  their  calculations  may  prove  correct. 
The  Porte  is  incapable  of  sustained  and  vigorous 

The  Committees  raised  their  funds  by  blackmail  en- 
forced by  murder,  and  he  asserts  that  it  was  they  who 
kidnapped  the  American  missionary  Miss  Stone: 

"  The  Central  Committee  not  long  since  issued  pos- 
tage stamps  with  the  figure  of  Macedonia  as  a  woman 
in  chains  and  the  legend  '  Supreme  Macedonia  Adrian- 
opolis  Committee.'  These  stamps  were  purchased  by 
patriots  and  used  in  addition  to  the  ordinary  stamps, 
the  proceeds  of  the  sale  going  to  feed  the  insurrection- 
ary movement." 

III.— By  Sir  Charles  Johnston, 

Sir  Charles  Johnston  contributes  to  the  "  North 
American  Review  "  a  very  painful  but  vigorous  paper, 
describing  the  story  of  the  last  six  months  of  the  hor- 
rors of  Macedonia.  Sir  Charles  Johnston  asserts  that 
five-sixths  of  the  inhabitants  of  Macedonia  are  Bul- 
garians, which  is  certainly  an  over-estimate.  He 
rightly  saddles  England  with  the  chief  responsibility 
for  the  present  abominable  state  of  things,  and  that  it 
was  England  aided  by  Austria  which  re-enslaved  Mace- 
donia in  order  to  give  Lord  Beaconsfield  the  chance  of 
boasting  that  he  had  obtained  "  Peace  with  Honour  " 
at  the  Berlin  Conference. 

The  presiding  genius  of  the  Macedonian  committees, 
he  says,  is  Colonel  Zontcheff,  former  officer  of  the  Bul- 
garian Army,  an  enthusiast  "svith  a  zealous  readiness  for 
martyrdom;  he  has  been  thrown  into  prison  again  and 
again,  but  always  emerges.  The  rallying  centre  of  the 
Macedonian  insurrection  is  to  be  found  in  the  Monas- 
tery of  Mount  Athos.  The  chief  buttress  of  Turkish 
power  is  to  be  found  in  the  eight  hundred  thousand 
Mussulman  Arnauts,  who  resemble  our  Highlanders  of 
two  centuries  ago.  Before  the  end  of  last  September 
every  Bulgarian  village  in  the  province  of  Monastir 
rose  in  arms.  The  Arnauts  raided  both  the  Mace- 
donians and  the  southern  borders  of  Servia. 

The  leader  of  the  Bulgarians  in  the  field  was  Colonel 
Jankoff,  who  had  three  thousand  men  directly  under 
his  orders.  The  whole  country  was  in  a  state  of  siege. 
In  the  second  week  in  October  Colonel  Jankoff  issued 
a  proclamation  declaring  that  the  whole  of  Macedonia 
was  ablaze.  He  concluded  by  declaring  that  the  free 
Balkan  peoples  purchased  their  liberty  at  the  cost  of 
streams  of  blood.  "  Let  us  follow  their  example;  free- 
dom is  not  bestowed  as  a  gift,  it  must  be  won.  We, 
who  join  in  the  insurrection  for  human  rights  and  the 
life  worth  living,  call  upon  you  Christian  people  to  en- 
force your  leaders  to  support  our  sacred  rights.    Know 



April  20,  igo^. 

that  we  will  not  lay  down  our  arms  until  we  have  ob- 
tained the  privileges  which  have  been  promised  us,  and 
secured  the  freedom  of  Macedonia." 

The  Turks  poured  Asiatic  tribes  into  Macedonia 
through  Salonika,  and  suppressed  the  insurrection  by 
sheer  weight  of  numbers.  When  the  snow  fell  hostili- 
ties were  suspended,  but  murders  and  outrages  of  all 
kinds  came  on.  In  Uskub  murder  is  such  a  common 
occurrence  that  people  have  agreed  not  to  speak  of  it; 
the  normal  life  of  the  city  could  not  go  on  without  it. 
Sir  Charles  Johnston  concludes  his  paper  by  saying  that 
the  real  cure  lies  in  the  liberation  of  Macedonia,  and 
the  responsibility  for  that  cure  lies  with  the  two 
nations,  Austria  and  England,  who  thrust  once  liber- 
ated Macedonia  back  again  under  the  iron  heel  of  the 

IV.— What  is  f^ttded. 

The  "  National  Review  "  for  March  contains  a  well- 
written  article,  signed  "  Diabantos,"  on  the  subject  of 
Macedonian  Reform.  The  writer  maintains  that  the 
following  are  the  fundamental  requirements  of  the 

"  Protection  of  the  Christian  against  the  Moslem, 
without  giving  the  Christian  majority  of  two  to  one 
the  means  of  thereby  obtaining  the  ascendency;  pro- 
tection of  the  peasantry  of  all  races  and  religions 
against  the  officials,  without  thereby  unduly  weaken- 
ing the  executive  or  reducing  the  revenues;  protection 
of  the  provincial  administration  against  the  Central 
Government,  without  injuring  the  prestige  or  power  of 
the  Empire." 

"Diabantos"  quotes  Sir  H.  D.  Wolff  to  the  effect 
that  the  only  hope  of  Turkey  lies  in  decentralisation; 
and  he  points  out  that  the  Padishah  was  never  so 
powerful  as  when  he  was  the  head  of  a  feudal  State. 
The  railroad  and  telegraph,  which  put  an  end  to  the 
relative  independence  of  the  provinces,  put  an  end 
also  to  their  comparative  prosperity.  The  writer 
urges  that  the  present  administrative  division  of  Mace- 
donia into  three  vilayets  should  be  retained,  as  it 
breaks  up  the  Bulgar  majority  of  the  population,  and 
balances  the  sections  against  the  three  rival  races- 
Serbs  in  Kossovo,  Greeks  in  Monastir,  and  Turks  in 
Salonika.  He  says  that  the  governors  of  these  vilayets 
should  be  subordinated  to  a  Governor-General  whose 
appointment  would  be  for  a  fixed  term  and  should  be 
approved  by  a  majority  of  the  Powers. 

The  Future  American. 

The  "  Century  "  for  March  has  three  articles  deal- 
ing with  the  future  population  of  the  United  States. 
M.  Gustave  Michaud  states  the  problem.  According 
to  the  last  census,  more  than  one-half  of  the  white 
population  of  the  United  States  consists  of  immigrants 
since  1835  and  their  descendants.  What  is  now  the 
larger  half  is  very  prolific;  the  lesser  half  has  a  de- 
creasing natality.  With  the  immigrants,  therefore, 
lies  the  future  of  the  United  States. 

Three  Types  of  the  WTiite  Man. 
The  white  race  is  divided  by  ethnographers  into  the 
Baltic  or  Teutonic,  the  Alpine,  and  the  Mediterranean 
or  Ligurian  race.  The  Baltic  race  occupies  Scandi- 
navia, the  British  Isles  and  North  Germany;  the  Al- 
pine covers  the  plateau  of  Western  Asia,  the  mountain 
ranges  of  Asia  Minor  and  Europe.      The  Baltic,  like 

the  Mediterranean,  have  a  long  and  narrow  skull;  they 
are  tall,  have  blue  eyes,  light  hair,  and  a  narrow  nose. 
They  are  enterprising,  persevering  and  willing  workers, 
highly  moral,  fearless,  orderly  and  cleanly.  The  Al- 
pine skull  is  broad  and  short,  the  eyes  grey,  hair  chest- 
nut; they  are  mostly  of  smaller  stature  and  of  broader 
girth.  They  are  conservative,  inartistic,  meditative, 
home-lovers,  industrious,  not  eager  to  become  rich,  and 
fond  of  simplicity.  The  Mediterranean  have  dark 
eyes  and  hair,  lesser  stature,  slender  in  body,  are 
highly  emotional,  less  persevering,  easily  stirred  to  en- 
thusiasm and  easily  discouraged,  instinctively  courteous, 
lovers  of  art  and  rest  and  pleasure. 

The  Product  of  These  Three  Factors. 

The  Baltic  almost  exclusively  peopled  the  United 
States  up  till  1835.  Between  1835  and  1890  the  per- 
centages of  immigrants  were:  Baltic  87,  Alpine  10, 
Mediterranean  3;  from  1890  to  1900:  Baltic  53,  Alpine 
32,  Mediterranean  15;  from  1901  to  1902:  Baltic  35, 
Alpine  42,  Mediterranean  23.  The  Baltic  proportion 
is  thus  steadily  dwindling.  The  Alpine  and  Mediter- 
ranean are  in  the  ascendant.  The  vnriter,  therefore, 
infers  a  deep  and  manifold  modification,  but  not  a  de- 
terioration of  the  national  character.  Physical  changes 
will  be  the  widening  of  the  skull,  the  decrease  of  the" 
stature  and  an  increased  number  of  the  brunette  type. 
The  mental  changes  will  be  the  decline  in  enterprise 
and  "  push,"  in  the  pursuit  and  display  of  Avealth, 
greater  love  of  abstract  knowledge,  and  an  addition  to 
the  artistic  temperament.  The  writer  asks  whether 
artificial  selection  is  possible,  and,  after  a  sneer  at 
military  selection,  which  kills  the  fittest  and  leaves  the 
undersized,  the  humpback,  and  the  idiot  at  home  for 
purposes  of  reproduction,  suggests  that  the  United 
States  should  continue  the  selective  process  in  regard 
to  immigrants— the  physically  unfit,  the  mentally  less 
capable,  and  the  morally  degraded  should  be  excluded. 
Professor  F.  H.  Giddings  is  not  alarmed  by  M.  Mi- 
chaud's  forecast.  English  language  and  English  law 
will,  he  says,  continue  their  sway,  but  the  blend  of 
the  three  great  white  types  will,  he  confidently  antici- 
pates, make  a  people  strong  and  plastic,  conservative, 
and  progressive.  As  precedent,  he  adduces  the  case 
of  the  English  people,  which  was  created  "  by  an  as- 
tonishing admixture  of  the  three  great  racial  varieties 
of  Europe." 

Mr.  J.  A.  Riis  describes  the  process  of  selection  re- 
commended by  M.  Michaud  as  it  is  now  carried  out  at 
Ellis  Island.  He  is  quite  confident  that  as  long  as  the 
schoolhouse  stands  over  against  the  sweat-shop,  clean  ■ 
and  bright  as  the  flag  that  flies  over  it,  we  need  have 
no  fear  for  the  future. 

In  the  March  "  Pearson's  Magazine  "  are  given  four- 
teen pages  containing  reproductions  of  the  portraits 
from  the  "  Book  of  Beauty,"  together  with  some 
of  the  contributions  by  eminent  men  and  women  which 
accompany  the  portraits  of  fair  women  in  the  original 

Herbert  Vivian  gives  some  descriptions,  illustrated 
by  photographs,  of  "  Brigands  in  Real  Life,"  in  the 
March  "  Strand  Magazine."  From  his  account  these 
brigands,  who  inhabit  the  Balkan  States,  seem  to  have 
many  of  the  characteristics  of  the  old  English  hero, 
"  Robin  Hood,"  and  to  enjoy,  as  he  did,  th^  support  of 
the  poor.  To  help  the  poor  and  rob  the  rich  seems  to 
be  the  maxim  in  the  Balkans  as  well  as  in  Sherwood 

Review  of  ReiHews,  20/i/OS. 



The  American  Capture  of  the  Orient 

Mr.  Harrington  Emerson  contributes  an  article  to  the 
March  "  Engineering  Magazine "  in  which  he  explains 
how  it  has  come  about  that  America  is  securing  the 
trade  of  the  Far  East: 

"A  few  years  ago  steamers  no  longer  fit  for  the  At- 
lantic or  Indian  service  were  sent  to  the  Pacific  as 
being  quite  good  enough  for  all  requirements.  With 
the  exception  of  the  '  Empresses/  built  for  the  Cana- 
dian Pacific  Railroad,  there  was  not,  until  the  Spanish- 
American  war,  a  first-class  steamer  on  the  American 
Pacific.  Now,  the  largest  steamers  ever  constructed  in 
American  waters,  and — ^with  one  exception,  the  *  Ced- 
ric ' — the  largest  steamers  ever  built,  have  been  ordered 
for  the  Pacific  Ocean  trade." 

New  York  to  San  Francisco  via  Suez. 

What  has  brought  about  this  change?  asks  Mr. 
Emerson,  and  answers  his  question  as  follows: 

"  Exports  to  the  Orient  must  come  from  the  eastern 
■and  southern  States — railroad  iron  and  other  equipment, 
mining  machinery,  tobacco  and  cotton — and  for  these 
goods  the  usual  railroad  rate  across  the  continent  is 
prohibitive,  as  it  costs  almost  twice  as  much  to  send 
boxed  goods  from  New  York  to  San  Francisco  as  from 
New  York  to  London,  and  thence  by  steamer  direct  to 
Puget  Sound  via  the  Suez  Canal,  the  Straits,  Hong 
Kong  and  Yokohama.  .  .  .  Before  there  could  be  a,ny 
hope  of  a  large  increase  in  Pacific  coast  exports  and 
imports  the  whole  railroad  situation  had  to  be  changed, 
and  this  is  what  has  happened." 

The  first  railroads  pushed  to  the  Pacific  were  built 
to  enrich  the  promoters  rather  than  to  make  money  out 
of  the  operation.  It  was  not  until  Mr.  James  J.  Hill 
made  and  developed  the  Great  Northern  Railroad  that 
different  methods  were  introduced.  He  built  not  for 
the  sake  of  bonds  or  subsidies,  but  for  the  immediate 
and  prospective  traffic.  He  made  his  terminus  at 
Seattle,  on  Puget  Sound,  by  far  the  best  harbour  on 
the  Pacific  Coast.  He  formed  an  alliance  with  the 
great  Japanese  line— the  Nippon  Yusen  Kaisha,  a  line 
in  ocean  tonnage  ranking  among  the  foremost  in  the 
world— and  began  to  divert  a  part  of  the  tea  and  silk 
trade  from  the  Canadian  Pacific  and  the  "  Empress 
Line  "  to  his  own  railroad. 

A  Great  Combine. 
At  first  he  had  to  regard  the  other  trans-continental 
Knes  as  rivals,  but 

"  with  dramatic  unexpectedness  the  Northern  Securities 
Company  was  formed,  identifying  these  three  roads 
(the  Northern  Pacific,  the  Great  Northern  and  the 
Burlington),  with  the  deliberate  intention  of  diverting 
the  cotton  exports,  of  the  United  States  to  Asia  by  way 
of  Atlantic  and  European  ports  to  the  ports  of  Puget 
Sound.  The  temporary  and  apparent  rivalry  between 
the  combination  of  the  northern  and  of  the  southern 
roads  was  but  an  episode.  It  is  not  a  question  as  to 
whether  Puget  Sound  ports  shall  not  be  favoured  in 
trans-continental  rates  compared  to  San  Francisco,  or 
whether  the  Great  Northern  shall  carry  fruit  from 
Southern  California  to  Chicago,  but  whether  the  un- 
limited trade  of  Eastern  Asia  shall  pass  to  Europe  by 
Pacific  American  steamers  and  American  railroads,  or 
continue  to  go  by  way  of  the  Suez  Canal." 

The  New  Steamers. 

Mr.  Hill  then  proceeded  to  build  the  largest  ships  in 
the  world.    Mr.  Emerson  says: 

"  By  building  the  largest  ships  in  the  world,  even 
though  they  run  under  the  more  expensive  American 
register,  by  filling  the  west-bound  cars  at  a  rate  little 
more  than  the  cost  of  handling,  Mr.  Hill  knows  that  he 
can  turn  the  export  trade  with  Western  Asia  from  its 
300-year-old  way  past  India  to  the  direct  Pacific  sea 
route  past  Alaska.  Before  these  new  ships  were  ordered 
experts  were  sent  to  Scotland,  Ireland  and  Germany,  to 
absorb  all  that  could  be  learned  of  modern  mammoth 
shipbuilding;  and  to  escape  from  all  hampering  tra- 
ditions of  the  past,  an  entirely  new  company,  the 
Eastern  Shipbuilding  Company,  was  formed  to  con- 
struct them,  and  took  the  contract  before  even  the  site 
was  purchased  on  which  the  new  yards  were  to  be  es- 

These  steamers  are  630  feet  long,  73  feet  wide,  with 
a  displacement  of  37,000  tons.  Each  steamer  can  carry 
1,200  troops,  and  the  cargo  capacity  exceeds  20,000  tons. 
Some  of  the  hatches  are  large  enough  to  admit  a  com- 
plete locomotive.  Horse  power  of  11,000  will  maintain 
a  speed  of  14  knots. 

To  Capture  the  Australasian  Trade. 

There  is  little  doubt  that  the  whole  of  the  trade  be- 
tween the  Eastern  States  and  the  Orient  will  now  go 
by  these  new  lines  of  steamers  running  in  connection 
with  the  great  trans-continental  railways,  instead  of 
going,  as  now,  via  Europe  and  Suez.    Nor  is  this  all: 

"  The  Nortnern  railroads  have  quoted  a  rate  of  8  dols. 
a  ton  for  the  transport  of  Government  supplies  from 
Chicago  to  the  Philippine  Islands.  Return  rates  have 
been  quoted  on  move  from  Australia  and  New  Zealand 
which  make  it  probable  that  the  imports  from  British 
Australasia  to  Boston,  New  York  and  Philadelphia  will 
come  by  the  Pacific  overland  route  instead  of  through 

Canada  versus  United*  States. 

The  Canadian  railroads,  however,  will  offer  serious 

"  From  an  American  point  of  view  there  is  one 
shadow  in  this  bright  light  of  future  American  supre- 
macy on  the  Pacific,  and  that  is  the  rivalry  of  the  Ca- 
nadian roads  to  the  north.  One  of  these  already  in  full 
operation,  the  Canadian  Pacific,  runs  from  ocean  to 
ocean.  The  other,  the  Grand  Trunk,  is  now  building 
to  Port  Simpson,  the  most  northern  seaport  in  British 
Columbia.  Both  these  roads  command  rich  wheat 
belts;  both  of  them  tap  exceedingly  rich  and  very  good 
coalfields;  both  of  them  as  they  approach  the  Pacific 
Coast  pass  through  timber  lands  of  the  same  general 
character  as  the  heavy  forests  of  Washington  and  Ore- 
gon. The  Grand  Trunk  will  have  six  advantages  over 
all  its  American  competitors.  It  will  stretch  from  At- 
lantic to  Pacific  under  one  management,  and  can  make 
its  own  through  rates,  while  none  of  the  American  roads 
extends  further  than  Chicago,  and  it  will  further  con- 
trol ocean  steamer  connections  at  both  ends;  it  will  be 
the  latest  built  road,  with  latest  and  most  consistent 
equipment;  its  Pacific  terminus.  Port  Simpson,  a  mag- 
nificent harbour  on  the  Alaskan  border,  is  nearer  by 
500  miles  to  Asia  than  is  Puget  Sound  or  Vancouver, 
yet  the  road  itself  is  as  short  as  any  other  trans-conti- 
nental line;  it  escapesentirely  the  climb  and  heavy 
grades  over  the  Rocky  Mountains,  which  do  not  extend 
as  far  north  as  its  line;  its  wheat  belt  extends  from 
Manitoba  unbrokenly  to  a  region  that  is  west  of  Van- 



April  20,  1903. 

couver,  a  gain  in  local  agricultural  lands  of  nearly  1,000 
miles  over  the  American  lines;  and  it  will,  by  the  lo- 
cation of  its  terminus,  monopolise  the  whole  of  the 
enormous  and  rapidly  growing  Alaskan  traffic." 

Mr.  Emerson  concludes  his  valuable  article  as  fol- 

"The  heavy  capitalisation  and  the  merger  of  the 
northern  roads  will  in  the  end  prove  advantageous,  not 
only  to  them,  but  in  far  greater  degree  to  all  the 
people  of  the  United  States,  as  it  will  necessitate  the 
development  of  every  local  resource,  and  also  bring 
about  a  diversion  of  the  world's  Oriental  trade  from  the 
Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  from  European  to  American 
control,  and  thus  quicken  into  being  a  thousand  indus- 
tries not  yet  conceived." 

An  Armless  Artist. 

In  the  March  number  of  the  "  Magazine  of  Art " 
there  is  a  short  article  on  Mr.  Bartram  Hiles,  the  arm- 
less artist: 

"  Mr.  Hiles,  says  the  writer,  nourished  the  desire  to 
become  an  artist  from  his  early  childhoood,  a  desire 
strengthened  by  a  natural  gift  for  drawing.  At  eight 
years  of  age,  however,  he  was  deprived  of  both  his  arms 
in  a  tramcar  accident  at  Bristol,  a  catastrophe  suffi- 
cient to  crush  the  strongest  desires  and  ruin  the  hopes 
of  any  man.  But  recovery  from  the  shock  brought 
back  the  aspirations  of  the  child,  and  far  from  aban- 
doning his  intention,  Mr.  Hiles  decided  to  fulfil  it  by 
learning  to  draw  with  the  mouth.  Two  years  of  effort 
enabled  Mr.  Hiles  to  write  by  this  means  with  free- 
dom, and  to  draw  so  well  that  he  obtained  a  first-class 
certificate  for  second  grade  freehand.  In  six  years 
from  the  date  of  the  accident  he  had  acquired  such 
facility  in  this  extraordinary  method  of  work  that  he 
could  accomplish  with  ease  most  things  that  we  do  with 
our  hands.  He  attended  the  art  classes  at  the  Merchant 
Venturers'  Technical  College  at  Bristol,  at  which  he 
passed  successfully  in  all  the  examinations,  including 
that  for  modelling.  A  course  of  study  in  landscape 
painting — in  which  he  received  valuable  help  from  Mr. 
E.  Matthew  Hale,  R.W.S. — enabled  him  at  sixteen  years 
of  age  to  paint  a  landscape  sufficiently  well  to  find  its 
place  on  the  walls  of  the  Bristol  Academy  of  Fine  Arts, 
and  even  to  find  a  purchaser.  A  National  Scholarship 
of  a  hundred  guineas  brought  him  to  London,  and  dur- 
ing his  two  years'  attendance  at  the  Royal  College  of 
Art  his  trophies  included  one  silver  and  two  bronze 
medals.  A  visit  to  Paris  completed  his  studies,  and  his 
subsequent  work  included  a  series  of  wall-paper  de- 
signs, '  one-man '  exhibitions  of  water  colour  drawings 
in  Bristol  and  London. 

"  Some  of  the  water  colours  were  acquired  by  Queen 
Victoria,  and  Her  Majesty  Queen  Alexandra,  Mr.  Wal- 
ter Crane,  and  other  collectors  and  connoisseurs,  when 
we  drew  attention  to  the  plucky  young  artist  a  few 
years  ago.  Mr.  Hiles  has  been  content  to  have  his 
work  judged  on  its  merits,  without  asking  any  allow- 
ance on  his  handicap,  and  in  this  manner  has  exhibited 
at  the  Royal  Institute  of  Painters  in  Water  Colours, 
the  Royal  Society  of  British  Artists,  the  Dudley  Gal- 
lery, and  elsewhere. 

"  Much  of  his  landscape  work  has  been  produced 
under  the  influence  of  the  late  E.  M.  Wimperis,  but  it 
is  not  without  individuality.  His  method  of  work  is 
to  make  quick  studies  from  Nature,  either  in  pen  and 
ink  or  sepia,  for  the  scene  and  the  effects  of  light  and 
shade,  and  from  them  to  paint  his  picture. 

"As  a  rule  his  landscapes  are  small  in  size,  but  he 
has  painted  some  as  large  as  4  feet  by  2  feet.  There  is 
no  hesitancy  in  the  work,  little  weakness  to  betray  the 
fact  that  it  is  produced  in  an  abnormal  manner;  it  is 
only  when  the  facts  are  known  that  wonder  is  aroused, 
and  we  acknowledge  admiration  for  the  man  who  ha« 
so  bravely  conquered  adversity. 

"  In  his  designs  for  wall-papers,  cretonnes  and  tapes- 
tries— so  well  has  he  trained  his  tongue  and  lips  to 
fulfil  some  of  the  purposes  of  his  lost  limbs— there  is 
the  same  unfaltering  firmness  of  line  and  freedom  of 
touch  that  prevail  in  successful  designs  produced  by 
artists  who  work  in  the  ordinary  manner.  His  record 
is  surprising  and  extraordinary,  and  reveals  a  strength 
of  character  almost  unique  in  the  annals  of  art." 

Cardinal  Rampolla:  the  Next  Pope? 

In  the  "  Nouvelle  Revue "  is  a  striking  article  oq 
Cardinal  Rampolla,  whom  many  thoughtful  observers 
of  Papal  politics  regard  as  the  next  Pope.  Alone 
among  the  twenty  Cardinals  who  habitually  live  in 
Rome,  Prince  Rampolla  is  a  living  force  in  the  govern- 
ment of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and  he  is  openly 
called  by  his  enemies  as  well  as  by  his  friends  "  The 
Vice-Pope."  Further,  and  this  is  perhaps  more  signi- 
ficant, among  the  Roman  populace  he  is  simply  known 
as  "  The  Cardinal." 

Cardinal  Rampolla  is,  from  the  ecclesiastical  point  of 
view,  still  young — that  is  to  say,  he  is  on  the  right  side 
of  sixty,  for  he  was  born  on  August  27,  1843.  He  be- 
longs to  one  of  the  oldest  of  Italian  patrician  families^ 
and  seems  to  have  made  up  his  mind  to  become  a  priest 
when  still  quite  a  child.  A  mere  accident  caused  him 
to  be  entered  at  the  Vatican  Seminary,  where  his  re- 
markable intelligence  caused  him  to  be  early  noted  as 
one  destined  for  preferment;  he  took  orders  at  twenty- 
three,  and  shortly  after  Pius  IX.  made  him  a  Canon  of 
St.  Peter's.  By  the  time  Rampolla  was  thirty  he  had 
entered  diplomacy,  and  was  attached  to  the  Spanish 
Nunciature.  The  Spanish  Papal  Nuncio  was  Simonei, 
and  a  short  absence  made  by  him  gave  Rampolla  his 
chance,  for  just  then  Spain  was  being  torn  in  two  by 
the  Carlist  war,  and  the  young  Italian  priest  played  his 
difficult  part  between  the  tv^o  parties  with  extraordi- 
nary intelligence  and  astuteness.  This  brought  him  to 
the  notice  of  another  great  Papal  diplomat,  the  present 
Pope,  and  it  was  thanks  to  his  efforts  that  Rampolla 
was  finally  made  Papal  Nuncio  at  Madrid,  and  together 
the  then  new  Pope  and  Rampolla  managed  the  diffi- 
cult arbitration  case  concerning  the  Caroline  Islands. 
Shortly  after  this  episode  Leo  XIII,  sent  for  his  young; 
coadjutor  to  Rome,  where  he  has  now  been  the  Papal 
Secretary  of  State  for  fifteen  years. 

The  fact  that  Cardinal  Rampolla  has  kept  his  great 
position  so  long  is  perhaps  the  most  remarkable  proof 
of  his  marvellous  ability;  the  more  so  that  the  aged 
Pope — now  ninety-three  years  of  age — is,  of  course,  sur- 
rounded by  many  who  would  ardently  desire  to  wield 
the  immense  power  which  has  necessarily  fallen  into 
the  hands  of  the  "  Vice-Pope." 

Cardinal  Rampolla  is  tall,  slight  and  dark,  full  of 
energy,  and  blessed  with  the  charming  manners  and 
high-bred  courtesy  which  seems  to  be  the  birthright 
of  great  Italian  patricians.  His  suite  of  apartments 
is  situated  on  the  third  floor  of  the  Vatican,  above 
those  of  the  venerable  Leo  XIIL,  and  both  suites 
command    a   marvellous   view   over   the   Eternal    City. 

Review  of  Reviews^  20/4/03. 



The  Cardinal  rises  at  daybreak,  and  after  having  said 
mass  in  his  private  chapel  he  reads  over  his  private 
letters,  and  then  sends  for  his  secretary,  who  submits 
to  him  the  innumerable  despatches  and  documents 
which  have  to  be  shown  to  the  Pope.  Then  comes 
breakfast,  after  which  the  Cardinal  takes  a  brief  rest, 
followed  by  his  daily  audience  with  the  Pope.  Then 
follows  perhaps  the  most  fatiguing  duty  of  the  day — 
that  of  the  reception  of  visitors,  who  belong  to  all 
classes  and  to  all  countries,  and  who  are  generally  re- 
ceived by  his  Eminence  in  his  study.  Like  an  Ameri- 
can editor.  Cardinal  Rampolla  is  the  servant  of  all 
men;  it  is  not  necessary  to  make  an  appointment  in 
order  to  see  him,  but  twice  a  week,  on  Tuesdays  and 
on  Fridays,  his  doors  are  only  opened  to  the  Diplo- 
matic Corps.    At  one  o'clock  he  has  his  lunch. 

As  to  the  Cardinal's  political  views,  they  are  known 
to  be,  at  any  rate  outwardly,  of  the  most  anti-Quirinal 
order.  In  this  he  is  quite  unlike  the  late  Cardinal 
Parocchi,  who  was  most  desirous  of  seeing  a  reconcilia- 
tion effected  between  the  Vatican  and  the  reigning 
house  of  Savoy.  Cardinal  Rampolla  is  believed  to  be 
the  determined  enemy  of  the  Triple  Alliance,  because 
the  latter  guarantees  the  possession  of  Rome  to  the 
King  of  Italy.  As  regards  social  questions  the  Cardi- 
nal is  said  to  be  an  opportunist,  but  on  the  whole 
he  has  shown  himself  the  champion  of  Christian 

At  the  present  moment  his  Eminence  is  giving  a 
great  deal  of  thought  to  the  Higher  Biblical  Criticism, 
and  it  is  by  his  advice  that  the  Pope  lately  named  a 
commission,  whose  difficult  duty  it  is  to  go  into  the 
whole  question  of  the  Scriptures. 

At  the  end  of  his  most  remarkable  article  M. 
Raqueni  gives  a  hint  of  what  will  probably  come  to 
pass — namely,  that  Cardinal  Rampolla  will  not  be  the 
next  Pope,  but  the  Pope  after  next;  indeed,  it  is  prob- 
able that  Leo  XIII.'s  actual  successor  will  be  the 
humble  and  godly  Cardinal  Gotti,  an  aged  churchman 
who  has  been  a  student  rather  than  a  diplomat. 

Mr.  Balfour  at  Whittingchame. 

Mr.  Robert  Machray  contributes  to  the  March 
number  of  the  "  Pall  Mall  Magazine  "  an  interesting 
illustrated  paper  on  "  The  Prime  Minister  at  Whittinge- 
hame."  Mr.  Balfour  was  born  at  Whittingehame  on 
July  25,  1848,  he  being  only  the  third  of  his  line. 
The  builder  of  Whittingehame  was  his  grandfather, 
James  Balfour,  who  made  a  large  fortune  as  a  con- 
tractor in  India.  But  the  Balfours  came  of  good 
family,  the  successful  contractor  being  second  son  of 
the  Balfour  of  Balbirnie  of  that  day. 

Of  the  environs  of  Mr.  Balfour's  home  Mr.  Machray 

"  It  is  from  the  parapet  of  the  old  feudal  tower  of 
the  Douglases  that  the  best  view  of  Whittingehame 
House,  the  estate  and  the  surrounding  country  can  be 
obtained.  Seen  from  this  coign  of  vantage  the  pros- 
pect is  delightful,  beautiful,  enchanting;  there  is  no- 
thing severe,  nothing  savage,  nothing  on  a  very  grand 
or  terrific  scale — *  here  is  no  frowning  majesty  of 
nature.'  For  the  most  part,  the  landscape,  if  one  may 
so  speak  of  it,  comes  down  in  a  succession  of  lowering 
ridges  from  the  Lammermuir  Hills  to  the  sea,  with 
everywhere  trees  and  cultivated  fields  and  wide-spread- 
ing pastures.  Whittingehame  House  itself  stands  on 
one  of  these  ridges,  the  old  keep  on  another;  between 

them  is  a  lovely  glen,  through  which  there  flows  a 
sparKling  trout  stream." 

From  the  top  of  the  tower  you  can  catch  glimpses 
of  the  Firth  of  Forth  and  the  historic  Bass  Rock.  The 
house  itself  was  built  in  1818  from  the  designs  of 
Smirke,  who  built  the  Royal  Exchange: 

"  The  edifice  is  of  light  grey  sandstone,  similar  to 
that  of  which  a  gi-eat  part  of  the  new  town  of  Edin- 
burgh is  constructed,  and  still  retains  its  original  purity 
of  colour.  But  the  house  can^  hardly  be  described  as 
beautiful  or  exceptionally  interesting  from  an  archi- 
tectural point  of  view.  It  does  convey,  however,  an 
effect  of  spaciousness  combined  with  solidity.  Its 
eastern  front  is  Grecian  in  style;  its  western  is  not  on 
classic  *  lines,'  but  is  perhaps  more  pleasing  than  the 

The  house,  says  Mr.  Machray,  is  not  beautiful,  but 
it  stands  in  the  midst  of  grounds  which  are  particu- 
larly beautiful,  and  its  gardens  have  long  been  famous 
in  the  county: 

"  To  come  to  the  interior  of  Whittingehame  House. 
There  is  no  great  hall,  with  the  usual  decorations  of 
armour  and  weapons  and  trophies  of  the  chase;  but 
there  is,  running  the  length  of  the  building,  a  fine  long, 
high-ceiled  corridor,  with  pillared  archways  at  inter- 
vals, the  general  effect  of  which  is  delightful.  On  the 
west  side  of  the  corridor  are  Miss  Alice  Balfour's  bou- 
doir, the  drawing-room,  the  music-room,  and  the  li- 
brary; on  the  east  side,  Mr.  Balfour's  study,  the  bil- 
liard-room, the  dining-room,  and  the  smoking-room. 
Most  of  the  public  rooms  are  large,  square  or  right- 
angled,  with  lofty  ceilings,  and  the  principal  tone  of 
colour  on  the  walls  is  for  the  most  part  yellow  or  yel- 
lowish, which,  combined  with  the  great  height  of  the 
windows,  renders  all  these  rooms  very  bright  and 
cheerful.  The  paintings  and  other  pictures  are  mostly 
modern,  consisting  mainly  of  family  portraits.  The 
library  is  the  largest  room  in  the  house — it  is  a  really 
noble  room,  light  and  spacious.  Its  walls,  from  floor 
to  ceiling,  are  lined  with  books — books  of  all  sorts,  but 
the  majority  are  books  of  the  kind  which  make  books 
a  substantial  world.  The  frivolous  book  will  be  found 
to  have  been  relegated  to  the  smoking-room — and  Mr. 
Balfour  does  not  smoke.  The  library  is  the  room  in  the 
house  which  is  perhaps  most  used;  but  it  is  certainly 
not  used  for  purposes  of  study  only,  for  on  one  of  the 
tables  are  to  be  seen  boxes  of  children's  games  and 
packs  of  picture  playing  cards  and  the  like,  all  for  the 
delectation  of  Mr.  Balfour's  nephews  and  nieces,  who 
are  often  at  Whittingehame,  and  with  whom  and  to 
whom  he  is  Prime  Minister  in  quite  a  special  sense." 

Mr.  Balfour's  study,  says  Mr.  Machray,  is  character- 
istic of  the  man.  It  is  dedicated  to  his  favourite 
literature,  his  favourite  art  and  his  favourite  sport. 
It  is  full  of  books,  for  Mr.  Balfour  has  said,  "  I  am 
never  tempted  to  regret  that  Gutenberg  was  born." 
Within  easy  reach  of  Mr.  Balfour's  hand  is  a  shelf  on 
which  is  a  fine  edition  of  Rudyard  Kipling,  above 
which  is  another  fine  edition  of  R.  L.  Stevenson.  Mr. 
Balfour's  favourite  art  is  music,  and  the  next  most 
prominent  object  in  his  study  is  a  grand  piano,  to 
which  is  attached  a  pianola.  "  Music  is  the  most 
democratic  of  the  arts,"  said  Mr.  Balfour.  Finally,  in 
Mr.  Balfour's  study  are  two  stands  of  golf  clubs.  Golf 
is  played  in  the  grounds  of  Whittingehame;  but  not  by 
Mr.  Balfoui-,  who  goes  over  to  North  Berwick  and 
puts  up  at  a  private  hotel  there  when  he  is  bent  on 
the  ancient  and  royal  game. 



April  20,  1 90s. 

A  Sketch  of  Victor  Emmanuel  III. 

Mr.  Sidney  Brooks  contributes  to  the  "  North 
American  Review  "  a  very  sympathetic  sketch  of  the 
present  King  of  Italy,  v/hom  he  declares  to  be  a  real 
strong  king,  who  will  not  only  lead  but  control,  who 
will  not  hesitate  to  command  when  suggestions  fail, 
and  who  will  see  to  it  that  his  commands  are  obeyed. 
The  half-despised  prince  of  three  years  ago  is  now  the 
sheet  anchor  of  the  nation's  best  hopes.  He  has  the 
combined  powers  of  an  American  president  and  an 
English  premier,  and  he  holds  them  for  life;  he  is  be- 
sides a  crowned  king.  The  dagger  which  slew  his 
father  saved  Italy  from  civil  war,  and  gave  a  new 
lease  of  life  to  the  monarchy.  No  one  suspected 
when  King  Humbert  fell  that  his  son,  a  little  man 
whose  hobby  was  coin  collecting,  and  who  spent  most 
of  his  time  travelling  in  foreign  parts,  was  capable  of 
assuming  at  once  the  mastership  of  the  whole 

The  King's  Boyhood. 

As  a  boy  he  was  delicate  and  over-driven  in  his 
studies  by  the  Queen;  from  this  he  was  saved  by  his 
father.     Mr.  Brooks  says: 

"  For  his  son  to  grow  up  a  nervous,  impressionable 
boy,  averse  to  open-air  life,  and  absorbed  in  his  books 
as  though  he  were  qualifying  for  a  professorship,  was 
a  development  so  far  from  welcome  to  the  stout- 
hearted Savoyard  that  it  stirred  him  out  of  his  con- 
BtitluStionol  inertia  into  action.  He  interfered  de- 
cisively, confiscated  the  books,  and  almost  drove  his 
eon  out-of-doors,  there  to  ride  and  shoot  and  yacht 
and  harden  himself,  Ine  change  has  done  its  work. 
Victor  Emmanuel  III.,  though  neither  so  tall  nor  so 
muscular  as  his  father  and  grandfather,  has  the  wiri- 
ness  and  endurance  that  belong  to  the  House  of  Savoy. 
He  can  sit  for  hours  in  the  saddle  without  feelinj^ 
fatigued,  and  he  has  the  rarer  capacity  for  going  long 
without  food.  Years  of  ocean  life  and  hard  exercise 
on  shore  have  dispelled  the  fear,  at  one  time  not  un- 
justified, that  he  might  fall  a  victim  to  consumption. 
It  was  not  only  his  studious  habits  that  gave  his 
father  some  disquietuae.  He  showed  as  a  youth  a 
haughtiness  and  self-will  even  more  alien  to  King 
Humbert's  nature,  and  was  frequently  punished  for  his 
escapades  by  being  put  under  arrest  and  banished  to 
lonely  fortresses.  Even  as  late  as  1896,  just  before  his 
marriage,  when  he  was  in  his  twenty-sixth  year,  he 
was  sentenced  by  his  father  to  a  month's  confinement 
for  upbraiding  Crispi.  In  the  army,  which  he  entered 
at  eighteen,  he  made  himself  felt  as  a  keen,  if  bookish 
soldier,  and  an  exacting  disciplinarian.  But  both  court 
and  people  agreed  in  thinking  him  of  little  account.  A 
etudent-prince  who  is  also  undersized  and  frail-looking 
is  never  a  popular  prince." 

The  Rights  and  Duties  of  a  King. 

But  no  sooner  had  he  reached  the  throne  than  in 
his  first  speech  to  his  Parliament  he  electrified  Italy. 
His  father  obstinately  refused  to  be  anything  but  a 
constitutional  King  of  the  most  do-nothing  tyre- 
But  in  his  first  speech  from  his  throne  Victor 
Emmanuel  III.  sounded  a  very  different  note: 

"  May  monarchy  and  Parliament  go  hand  in  hand. 
.  .  ,  Llnabished  and  steadfast  I  ascend  the  throne, 
conscious  of  my  rights  and  of  my  duties  as  a  King. 
Let  Italy  have  faith  in  me,  as  I  have  faith  in  the  des- 
tinies of  our  country,  and  no  human  force  shall  destroy 
that  which,  with  such  self-sacrifice,  our  fathers  builded. 
It  is  necessary   to   keep   watch  and   to   employ   e\'ery 

living  force  to  guard  intact  the  great  conquests  of  unity 
and  of  liberty.  The  serenest  trust  in  our  liberal  charter 
will  never  fail  me,  and  I  shall  not  be  wanting,  either 
in  strong  initiative  or  in  energy  of  action,  in  vigorously 
defending  our  glorious  institutions,  precious  heritage 
from  our  great  dead.  Brought  up  in  the  love  of  re- 
ligion and  of  the  fatherland,  I  take  God  to  witness  of 
my  promise  that  from  this  day  forward  I  offer  ray 
heart,  my  mind,  my  life  to  the  grandeur  of  our  land." 

His  second  speech  was  emphatic.  What  a  blessing 
it  would  be  if  Lord  Rosebery,  for  instance,  would  take 
to  heart  the  following  declaration: 

"  In  Italy,  no  man  does  his  duty.  Fr»m  the  highest 
to  the  lowest  the  laissez  faire  and  laxity  are  complete. 
Now  it  is  to  the  accomplishment  of  their  several 
duties  that  all,  without  distinction,  must  be  called.  I 
begin  with  myself,  and  am  trying  to  do  my  duty  con- 
scientiously and  with  love.  This  must  serve  as  an 
example  and  a  spur  to  others.  My  Ministers  must  help 
me  in  everything.  They  must  promise  nothing  that 
they  cannot  certainly  perform;  they  must  not  create 
illusions.  Him  who  fulfils  his  duty,  braving  every  dan- 
ger, even  death,  I  shall  consider  the  best  citizen." 

Deeds,  not  Words. 

Mr.  Brooks  says  he  has  not  only  spoken  well,  he  has 
acted  in  the  spirit  of  his  words: 

"  But  do  his  actions  accord  with  his  clear-edged 
words?  They  do.  He  began  well  by  calling  to  power 
the  veteran  Liberal,  Signor  Zanardelli.  That  in  itself 
was  a  proof  that  repression  and  revenge  were  not  to 
be  his  policy,  and  that  when  he  spoke  of  reform  he 
meant  it.  He  went  on  to  reorganise  and  considerably 
reduce  the  royal  household;  he  made  thorough  inspec- 
tions of  the  public  institutions  and  military  depots  in 
Naples  and  Rome,  praising  and  blaming  as  seemed 
right;  he  broke  down  the  barrier  that  formerly  kept 
King  and  politicians  apart,  and  now  he  gives  audience 
to  public  men  once  every  day;  he  took  from  the  first 
an  active  share  in  Cabinet  councils,  and  has  done  all 
in  his  power  to  stimulate  and  brace  up  his  Ministers. 
It  was  by  his  personal  intervention  that  the  excava- 
tions in  the  Forum  are  now  being  continued.  It  was 
his  influence  that  probed  the  Casale  trial  to  its  depths 
of  infamy,  that  insisted  on  the  Mafia  and  its  archleader, 
Palizzolo,  being  brought  to  justice.  To  him  and  his 
energy  and  inflexible  sense  of  duty  it  is  largely  due  that 
reform  is  no  longer  in  the  air,  but  on  the  statute-book, 
that  a  beginning  is  being  made  towards  an  impartial 
administration   of  the   laws." 

Mr.  Brooks'  account  of  the  King  is  one  of  the  best 
that  has  ever  appeared,  and  we  most  heartily  hope 
that  he  is  right  in  believing  that  Victor  Emmanuel,  by 
his  breadth  of  comprehensive  sympathy  and  insight, 
his  serious  cultivation,  and  his  manly  and  determined 
temperament,  is  worthy  the  great  position  to  which  he 
has  been  called. 

The  Canadian  West  and  North  -West» 

In  the  "  Journal  of  the  Royal  Colonial  Institute " 
Mr.  Hickman  gives  some  interesting  details  as  to  the 
value  of  the  vast  undeveloped  lands  of  the  North-West 
of  Canada: 

"  The  Pacific  coast  has  its  great  salmon  and  halibut 
fisheries,  the  latter  almost  imdeveloped.  British  Co- 
lumbia has  mineral  wealth  incalculable;  infinite  stores 
of  coal,  gold,  lead,  silver  and  copper;  resources  in  lands 
for  orchards  and  vineyards,  in  vast  forests  of  gigantic 

Review  of  Reviews,  tO/i/OS. 



trees;  and  such  resources  in  scenery  as  have  been 
given  to  no  other  country. 

"  The  resources  of  the  plain  lands  are  still  more  in- 
describable. They  too  are  underlaid  with  great  beds  of 
coal  that  in  many  places  is  dug  out  of  the  banks  of  the 
rivers  by  the  settlers.  The  Mackenzie  district  seems  to 
give  indications  of  being  one  of  the  world's  greatest 
petroleum-bearing  regions,  and  natural  gas  has  been 
obtained  in  large  quantities  here,  as  well  as  much  fur- 
ther south,  where  Medicine  Hat  in  Assiniboia  has  put 
in  a  municipal  natural  gas  system.  In  the  north  the 
herds  of  Barren  Ground  caribou  and  musk  oxen  are 
countless,  and  the  lakes,  of  which  no  man  knows  the 
number,  teem  with  fish." 

As  to  the  agricultural  possibilititM,  Mr.  Hickman 
states  that  out  of  the  345,000,000  acres  in  the  districts 
of  Assiniboia,  Alberta,  Saskatchewan  and  Athabasca, 
some  257,410,000  acres  still  remain  to  be  disposed  of 
by  the  Government.  What  will  not  be  the  output  of 
wheat  when  this  vast  extent  of  agricultural  land  is  all 

A  Volcano  in  Eruption. 

In  the  "  Scottish  Geographical  Magazine,"  Mr.  R. 
Blake  White  tvills  of  his  experiences  on  the  Purace 
volcano  during  the  eruption  of  1869.  This  volcano  is 
situated  in  the  Republic  of  Colombia,  and  is  one  ot 
the  giants  of  the  Andes,  being  over  15,000  feet  in 
height.  The  ascent  itself  proved  too  much  for  some 
of  Mr.  White's  companions,  but  finally  an  encampment 
was  formed  some  13,000  feet  above  sea  level.  In  the 
evening  the  volcano  was  a  thing  of  beauty: 

"  The  fireworks  were  impressive  enough  in  the  day- 
time, but  after  dark  they  were  marvellous,  and,  I  must 
«ay,  appalling  both  to  the  sight  and  to  the  ear. 

The  Eruption  at  Close  Quarters. 

"The  whole  crater  was  ablaze;  roaring  flames  shot 
up  from  it  one  thousand  feet;  they  rushed  up  with 
herce  violence;  they  did  not  *  lick '  or  '  swirl '  as  com- 
monplace flames  do,  but  looked  just  like  what  they 
were — a  mighty  gas  jet  under  enormous  pressure. 
Above  the  flames  a  column  of  steam,  white,  red,  orange, 
yellow,  blue,  green,  of  all  colours,  illuminated  by  the 
glare,  followed  the  mad  upward  rush  of  the  flames  for 
another  two  thousand  feet  at  least,  and  then  began  to 
break  in  billowy  masses,  which  seemed  to  be  capped  by 
a  opreading  black  cloud.  Perhaps  it  was  only  black  by 
contrast,  for  it  was  the  seat  of  a  most  wonderful  display 
of  lightning,  forked,  zigzag,  and  flash,  which  did  not 
cease  for  an  instant.  Possibly  the  roar  of  the  volcano 
prevented  one's  hearing  thunder — at  any  rate  it  was  not 
distinguishable.  I  supposed  the  electricity  to  be  gene- 
rated by  the  steam,  remembering  the  kettle  spout  ex- 
periment of  our  first  lessons  in  physics.  The  earth 
shook  with  a  continuous  tremor,  caused  clearly  by  the 
rushing  forth  of  the  mighty  jet  of  gas  and  steam,  but 
altogether  I  felt  pretty  sure  that  we  ran  no  great 
danger  where   we  were." 

The  next  day  the  ascent  was  resumed,  and  the  edge 
of  the  crater  reached.    This  only  by  hard  work: 

"  We  could  only  struggle  up  twenty  or  thirty  yards  at 
a  spurt.  At  last  I  thought  I  should  have  to  give  in. 
I  was  half  asphyxiated,  and  my  eyes  were  smarting 
badly.  Lying  on  the  ground,  I  felt  a  strong  breeze, 
and,  peeping  up  through  my  fingers,  I  saw  some  jutting 
stones.  I  guessed  it  was  the  edge  of  the  crater,  so  I 
took  a  good  breath  of  fresh  air,  and  made  a  rush  for  it. 

Sure  enough,  it  was  the  crater's  edge,  and  I  dropped 
sharp  on  my  hands  and  knees,  for  I  had  no  wish  to 
fall  into  it.  I  cannot  adequately  describe  what  I  saw. 
Such  an  immensity  of  flame  is  beyond  description.  The 
noise  must  have  been  awful,  but  I  did  not  hear  it,  for 
I  was  too  busy  looking.  I  concentrated  all  my  faculties 
in  the  endeavour  to  see  the  how  of  that  fearful  thing, 
and  this  is  what  I  saw. 

Looking  Down  into  the  Crater. 

"  The  bottom  of  the  crater  looked  dark,  a  dull  red. 
The  rush  of  gas  and  steam  was  invisible;  there  was  no 
condensation,  no  flame.  All  the  fire  was  aloft.  Two- 
thirds  of  the  way  up  from  the  apparent  bottom  the 
enormous  violence  of  flame  leapt  skywards  in  a  furious 
rush.  From  that  pomt,  the  centre  of  combustion,  the 
flames  darted  downwards.  How  they  flashed  down, 
how  they  recoiled,  how  the  mighty  tongues  of  fire 
eeemed  to  aim  at  penetrating  the  awesome  chasm  which 
they  could  not  reach,  and  how  splendid  were  their 
colours!  All  the  colours  of  the  spectrum  were  visible. 
As  a  blowpipe  expert,  I  thought,  '  There's  copper,  so- 
dium, strontium,  potassium,  magnesium,  chromium, 
nickel,  everything  that  colours  a  flame!'  The  flashing 
and  darting  of  the  flames  was  something  like  what  one 
sees  at  times  in  the  aurora  borealis." 

That  the  afltair  was  not  all  child's  play,  besides  the 
danger  from  the  fire  and  lava,  is  proved  by  the  effect 
of  the  gases: 

"  Next  morning,  on  reaching  for  the  handkerchief 
that  had  served  me  as  a  respirator  the  previous  day, 
and  which  I  had  hung  up  to  dry,  it  fell  to  shreds,  com- 
pletely burned  by  the  acid  gas.  The  black  check  in 
the  ends  of  my  plaid  had  turned  yellow,  though  the 
fabric  was  not  hurt.  I  had  a  nasty  pricking  away 
down  in  my  left  lung,  and  now,  thirty-three  years  after 
this  trip,  every  doctor  that  examines  me  says  I  have  a 
little  patch  of  lung  dried  up  and  adhering  to  the  pleura. 
I  only  mention  this  as  a  warning  to  volcano  explorers 
not  to  underestimate  the  corrosive  power  of  volcanic 

The  Career  of  the  Tobacco  Trust. 

There  is  a  good  account  of  the  extraordinary  growth 
of  the  tobacco  trust  by  Earl  Mayo  in  the  March 
"Frank  Leslie's."  Mr.  Mayo  thinks  the  achievement 
of  Mr.  James  B.  Duke,  the  head  of  the  tobacco  com- 
bination, in  bringing  the  bitterly  antagonistic  com- 
peting firms  together  was  in  some  respects  even  greater 
than  Mr,  John  D.  Rockefeller's  in  founding  the  Stand- 
ard Oil  Company,  because  the  latter  had  the  advantage 
of  starting  his  plans  in  the  infancy  of  the  industry. 
No  trust  except  the  Standard  Oil  Company  exercises 
so  complete  a  monopoly  as  the  tobacco  combination. 
Like  Mr.  Rockefeller,  Mr.  Duke's  start  toward  his 
present  imperial  position  in  the  tobacco  trade  was 
made  from  very  small  beginnings,  and  the  Duke  firm's 
entire  output  could  be  carried  in  a  handbag  in  1865. 

After  the  Philadelphia  Centennial,  the  growth  of 
cigarette  manufacture  in  the  United  States  was  very 
rapid,  and  by  1890  had  grown  to  a  product  of  two 
billions  a  year.  W.  Duke  &  Sons  were  one  of  the 
largest  manufacturers,  but  there  were  half  a  dozen 
struggling  neck-and-neck  for  8uprema:;y.  The  most 
lavish  advertising  and  premium  schemes  were  used. 
"At  one  time  the  competition  had  rjached  a  point 
where  a  coupon,  a  coloured  reproduction  of  a  photo- 
graph, and  a  card  bearing  a  representation  of  a  flag, 
done  in  colours,  were  all  given  away  Avith  a  five-cent 



April  20,  ipo^. 

box  of  cigarettes."  Notwithstanding  the  bitterness  of 
the  antagonism,  Mr.  Duke  succeeded,  in  1890,  in  form- 
ing the  American  Tobacco  Company,  and  brought  into 
it  all  the  large  rival  concerns.  From  cigarette  manu- 
facture, Mr.  Duke  went  on  to  capture,  by  the  hardest 
fighting  imaginable,  the  pipe-tobacco  and  chewing- 
tobacco  markets.  In  establishing  the  fame  of  the 
"  Battle-Axe"  brand  of  chewing  tobacco,  $4,000,000  was 
sunk,  but  since  then  $12,000,000  has  been  earned. 

To-day  there  are  two  great  manufacturing  corpora- 
tions, the  American  Tobacco  Company  and  the  Con- 
tinental Tobacco  Company,  the  first  making  cigarettes, 
the  second  plug  tobacco,  and  dividing  the  pipe  tobacco 
between  them.  A  subsidiary  company,  the  American 
Snuff  Company,  makes  15,000,000  pounds  of  snuff  a  year. 

The  Tobacco  War  in  Great  Britain. 
Mr.  Mayo  describes  the  Homeric  battle  in  England 
of  the  American  tobacco  interests,  led  by  Mr.  Duke, 
against  the  Imperial  Tobacco  Company,  composed  of 
the  leading  British  houses,  hastily  organised  to  repel 
the  American  invader.  This  fight  culminated  in  Mr. 
Duke's  offer  to  give  to  the  retail  dealers  all  the  profits 
of  his  company  for  four  years  and  $4,000,000  besides, 
without  even  exacting  that  the  dealers  should  refuse 
to  handle  his  rival's  wares.  Immediately  after  this 
curious  proposal,  the  American  and  British  interests 
"  got  together,"  and  there  was  much  jubilation  in  Eng- 
land over  the  defeat  of  the  invader;  but  Mr.  Mayo  says 
that  the  net  result  of  the  agreement  was  that  the 
Imperial  Company  surrendered  the  entire  foreign  mar- 
ket to  the  Americans,  and  gave  them  an  interest  in  its 
own  business  as  the  price  of  peace. 

The  Retail  Trade. 
Finally,  the  great  combinations  under  Mr.  Duke  had 
got  practical  mastery  of  the  manufacture  of  tobacco  in 
all  its  forms.  Now  people  are  asking  themselves  if  the 
f  trust  is  determined  to  be  its  o\vn  retailer  as  well,  be- 
cause an  ominous  new  concern,  the  United  Cigar  Stores 
Company,  has  appeared  on  the  horizon.  No  less  than 
$500,000,000  worth  of  tobacco  is  sold  every  year,  a 
trade  prize  worth  working  for.  The  Cigar  Stores  Com- 
pany has  started  four  hundred  stores  in  the  best  loca- 
tions, and  is  constantly  expanding.  The  officials  say 
they  have  nothing  to  do  with  the  tobacco  trust,  and 
that  they  are  simply  trying  to  bring  the  business  of 
cigar  and  tobacco  selling  to  an  orderly  and  economical 
basis.  But  the  retail  dealers  are  sure  the  trust  is  try- 
ing to  swallow  them  throng- this  new  mouth.  Where  the 
retail  dealer  will  not  be  bought  out,  one  is  apt  to  see 
a  magnificent  shop  of  the  United  Cigar  Stores  Company 
opened  up  next  door.  If  sumptuous  fittings  do  not 
capture  the  trade,  the  big  store  may  sell  some  favourite 
brand  of  15  cent  cigar  for  6  cents  a  piece,  and  these 
tactics  of  course  will  soon  see  the  small  dealer's  end. 

Two  Ways  of  Borinj^  the  Alps. 

The  longest  tunnel  in  the  world,  the  St.  Simplon 
tunnel,  is  the  subject  of  an  admirable  sketch  by  Mr. 
H.  G.  Archer  in  "  Cassell's  Magazine."  When  open  for 
traffic  in  May,  1904,  it  will  be  12^  miles  long,  the  St. 
GotLard  being  9|,  the  Mont  Cenis  7|,  and  the  Arlberg 
6^.  Perhaps  the  most  pleasing  feature  in  the  sketch  is 
the  witness  it  bears  to  the  vastly  greater  care  taken  of 
the  workmen  in  this  than  in  any  of  the  preceding  bores. 
Strange  to  say,  one  of  the  most  formidable  dangers  to 
the  health  of  the  navvies  is  the  intense  heat  of  the 
tunnel,   the   temperature   having   risen   as   high   as    123 

degrees  Fahrenheit.  A  valuable  illustration  of  the 
progress  of  civilisation  is  supplied  by  the  contrast  which 
Mr.  Archer  draws  between  the  arrangements  at  St.. 
Simplon  and  the  arrangements  at  St.  Gothard: 

The  Inhuman. 
"At  the  latter  the  workmen  were  miserably  housed 
in  wretched  wooden  shanties.  Professors  described  the 
tunnel  itself  as  a  veritable  hell,  continuous  labour  in  its 
pestiferoue  atmosphere  being  almost  certain  death  for 
the  young.  Owing  to  the  air,  vitiated  by  the  perpetual 
explosion  of  dynamite,  the  smoke  from  hundreds  of 
reeking  oil  lamps,  and  the  exhalations  from  the  bodies 
of  men  and  horses,  being  insufficiently  renewed,  to- 
gether with  the  entire  absence  of  sanitary  appliances, 
80  per  cent,  of  the  miners  suffered  from  a  form  of  tri- 
chinosis consisting  of  microscopic  worms  in  the  intes- 
tines. During  the  eight  years  the  tunnel  took  to  make, 
no  less  than  four  hundred  lives  were  lost,  either  from 
'  tunnel  worm  '  or  from  pneumonia,  the  latter  original 
ing  through  the  sudden  change  from  the  hot  galleries, 
to  the  cool  Alpine  atmosphere  outside,  while  another 
two  hundred  were  killed  or  maimed  by  explosions  and 
passing  trucks. 

The  Humane. 
"  Things  were  managed  better  at  the  Arlberg,  but 
it  has  been  reserved  for  the  Simplon  directorate  ta 
inaugurate,  with  their  refinements,  a  new  era  in  the 
history  of  social  science.  To  obviate  the  risk  of  pneu- 
monia, large  dressing  halls  are  provided  at  either  en- 
trance. On  emerging  from  the  galleries,  the  men  are 
compelled  to  enter  these  halls,  which  are  ready  heated 
for  their  reception  at  the  temperature  which  they  have 
just  left,  and  to  stay  therein  for  half  an  hour  while  the 
temperature  is  gradually  cooled  down  to  that  prevail- 
ing outside.  The  men  are  conveyed  into  and  out  of 
the  tunnel  in  trainloads,  and  the  space  between  the 
tunnel  exits  and  the  platforms  where  they  alight  is' 
roofed  over  and  boarded  in,  so  that  no  chill  may  be 
contracted  on  this  short  portion  of  the  journey.  The 
halls  are  equipped  with  baths,  hot  and  cold  douches,, 
etc.,  and  here  the  men  take  off  their  mining  clothes^ 
which  are  at  once  hung  up  in  heated  rooms  to  dry, 
ready  for  the  next  day's  work.  Adjacent  are  canteens,, 
under  official  control,  and  selling  nothing  but  the  best 
food  and  liquor  at  nominal  prices.  Excellent  hospitals 
have  been  provided,  in  case  of  accident  or  illness;  and, 
lastly,  in  order  to  minimise  the  risks  of  accident  inside 
the  tunnel,  the  trains  are  run  by  time-table  and  pro- 
tected by  signals,  while  the  narrow-gauge  contractors^ 
track  is  laid  at  one  side,  thus  leaving  plenty  of  room 
for  pedestrians." 


The  Biggest  Social  Experiment  on 

In  the  American  "  Review  of  Reviews,"  Mr.  Wellman. 
describes  the  great  scheme  of  profit-sharing  adopted  by 
the  United  States  Steel  Corporation.    He  says: 

"An  occurrence  of  tremendous  and  far-reaching  im- 
portance is  the  success  of  the  United  States  Steel  Cor- 
poration's  wage-earners'   investment   and   profit-sharing 

"  The  directors  of  the  Steel  Corporation  offered  25,000 
shares  of  stock  to  their  168,000  employes.  The  books 
were  to  be  kept  open  thirty  days.  No  one  dared  beheve 
that  within  this  month,  while  the  plan  was  so  new, 
while  all  sorts  of  prejudices  or  fears  might  deter  sub- 
scribers, and  while  the  great  mass  of  employes  would 
still  be  studying  and  thinking  about  the  offer  wh4ch  to. 

Review  of  Revieuos,  tO/k/OS. 



them  must  have  seemed  somewhat  novel  and  com- 
plicated, all  or  even  one-half  of  the  proffered  stock 
would  be  taken  up.  Yet,  when  the  books  closed  on 
Saturday  evening,  January  31,  it  was  found  that  the 
25,(X)0  shares  offered  had  been  subscribed  for  more 
than  twice  over.  Twenty-seven  thousand  six  hundred 
and  thirty-three  employes  had  subscribed  for  51,125 
shares.  This  was  success — success  complete  and  sur- 


"Almost  exactly  one-sixth  of  the  vast  army  of  em- 
ployes of  the  corporation  had  declared  that  they  wished 
to  become  owners  of  the  securities  of  the  company  for 
which  they  work.  Best  of  all,  the  very  men  who,  it  had 
been  feared,  would  not  take  kindly  to  the  project — the 
men  who  stand  bare-bodied  in  front  of  the  furnace  fires, 
or  like  magicians  handle  the  glowing  rails  or  bars  of 
molten  metal,  or  delve  in  the  gloomy  mines,  or  watch 
the  myriads  of  machines,  or  keep  the  books  in  the 
offices — have  most  eagerly  responded  to  the  company's 

"  Nearly  one-sixth  of  all  the  employes  of  the  Steel 
Corporation  have  thus  become  purchasers  of  the  pre- 
ferred stock  of  the  company,  to  the  extent  of  $4,500,000 
par  value.  Of  this  sum,  $4,000,000  is  taken  by  employes 
whose  earnings  range  from  $500  or  $600  a  year  upward 
to  $2,500. 

"  If  such  a  result  as  this  can  be  attained  at  the  first 
trial,  within  a  single  month — if  the  restraint  of  prejudice 
and  of  lack  of  acquaintance  with  a  new  project  can  be 
overcome  to  so  great  an  extent  in  so  short  a  time — 
thoughtful  men  are  asking.  What  may  not  be  done  in 
the  future?  What  are  the  ultimate  possibilities  of  the 
plan  in  this  single  corporation?  And  as  applied  to  all 
great  industrial  corporations?  If  $4,500,000  of  good  divi- 
dend-paying securities  may  be  disposed  of  to  the  actual 
workers  for  one  corporation  in  one  month,  is  it  not  pos- 
sible to  dispose  of  hundreds  of  millions  of  such  safe  and 
standard  securities  to  the  employes  of  hundreds  of  in- 
dustrial corporations  in  the  course  of  a  year?  And  if 
this  can  be  done — if  ownership  of  our  great  industrial 
combinations  can  be  spread  out  among  the  men  who 
work  for  them,  if  aggregations  of  capital  may  thus  be 
democratised,  are  we  not  finding  herein  a  natural  and 
easy  solution  of  the  industrial,  political,  and  social 
problems  which  to  many  keen  eyes  appear  to  be  rising 
like  a  cloud  above  the  national  horizon? 

Business  Perils. 

"  The  chief  danger  threatening  a  vast  corporation 
whose  work  is  carried  on  by  an  army  of  168,000  men  is 
lack  of  individual  interest.  It  is  the  danger  of  heavi- 
ness and  inertia,  of  ruts  and  stagnation.  Men  must  be 
stimulated  to  individual  initiative  and  greater  efficiency. 
The  way  must  be  found  to  bind  them  to  the  corpora- 
tion with  stronger  ties  than  those  of  mere  salary — or 
wage-earning.  Men  must  have  a  stake  in  the  success 
of  the  company  higher  and  better  than  a  simple  desire 
to  hold  their  places.  We  must  make  a  great  democracy 
of  this  business,  not  an  autocracy,  nor  even  an  oli- 

"  The  members  of  the  Finance  Committee  saw  at  once 
that  their  plan  must  be  divided  into  two  main  branches. 
One  was  to  interest  a  large  number  of  employes  by 
inducing  them  to  become  permanent  stockholders.  The 
other  was  to  engage  the  services  of  presidents,  officer^ 
managers,  and  superintendents,  and  all  others  charged 
with  responsibility,  on  a  profit-sharing  basis.  It  was 
early  perceived  that  at  the  present  time  it  v/ould  not 
be  practicable  to  apply  profit-sharing  directly  to  the 
great   number  of  men  who  work    with    their    hands 

throughout  all  the  ramifications  of  the  corporation's 
activities.  But  profit-sharing  was  indirectly  included 
in  the  offer  made  to  these  employes,  and  of  which  such 
a  large  number  have  already  availed  themselves.  In 
other  words,  the  company's  proposal  was  to  share 
profits  with  all  employes  who  would  demonstrate  their 
interest  and  thrift  by  buying  the  company's  stock. 
Consequently,  the  great  bulk  of  the  stock  set  aside  for 
purchase  by  employes  was  offered  to  the  men  who  earn 
the  smallest  salaries.  This  was  done  by  dividing  the 
168,000  employes  into  six  classes,  according  to  their 
salaries:  Class  A,  over  $20,000  a  year;  Class  B,  $10,000 
to  $20,000,  down  to  Class  E,  $800  to  $2,500  a  year,  and 
Class  F,  under  $800  a  year — and  then  by  limiting  the 
amount  of  stock  employes  could  take  to  the  following 
proportions  of  their  annual  salaries:  Class  A,  5  per 
cent.;  Class  B,  8  per  cent.;  Class  C,  10  per  cent.;  Class 
D,  12  per  cent.;  Class  E,  15  per  cent.;  and  Class  F,  20 
per  cent. 

"  One  of  the  directors  of  the  Steel  Corporation,  in 
speaking  of  the  programme  to  secure  popular  or  widely 
distributed  ownership  of  its  shares,  pointed  to  the  fact 
that  in  France  hundreds  of  thousands  of  workmen  and 
peasant  farmers  are  owners  of  the  stock  of  the  Credit 
Foncier,  Credit  Lyonnais,  and  other  banking  and  indus- 
trial corporations. 

"  The  second  or  direct  profit-sharing  part  of  the  Steel 
Corporation  plan  is  also  based  upon  the  principle  of 
democracy.  The  company  proposes  to  distribute  among 
its  responsible  men  1  per  cent,  of  the  net  earnings  if 
the  net  earnings  during  the  present  year  shall  exceed 
$80,000,000  and  be  less  than  $90,000,000,  and  to  increase 
the  sum  distributed  one-fifth  of  1  per  cent,  for  every 
$10,000,000  added  to  the  net  earnings.  If  during  this 
year,  as  is  not  unlikely,  the  net  earnings  reach  the  total 
of  $140,000,000  the  sum  distributed  among  the  men  who 
have  helped  make  that  great  success  will  be  $3,150,000. 
This  is  profit-sharing  on  a  great  scale.  At  the  present 
time,  there  are  in  the  employ  of  the  Steel  Corporation 
and  its  subsidiary  companies  approximately  1,750  men 
who  receive  salaries  in  excess  of  $2,500  a  year,  divided 
as  follows: 

"Twelve  with  salaries  of  $20,000  a  year  and  over, 
including  the  $100,000  salary  of  the  president  of  the 
corporation  itself. 

"Fifty  from  $10,000  to  $20,000  a  year. 

"  Two  hundred  from  $5,000  to  $10,000  a  year. 

"Fifteen  hundred  from  $2,500  to  $5,000  a  year." 

Sir  John  Gorst  on  Social  Reform. 

An  Appeal  to  tlie  Tory  Party. 

Sir  John  Gorst  is  unmuzzled  and  no  mistake,  and  a 
very  good  thing  it  is  for  all  those  who  care  for  social 
reform  that  the  ablest  member  of  the  Tory  party  has 
at  last  regained  a  position  in  which  he  can  devote  his 
capacity  to  the  service  of  the  people.  When  he  re- 
signed the  vice-presidency  of  the  Council  a  new  and 
much-needed  force  was  added  to  the  ranks  of  the  party 
of  progress,  of  which  it  stood  sorely  in  need.  Last 
month  he  made  several  speeches,  in  Parliament  anJ 
out  of  it,  that  seemed  to  indicate  that  in  him  we  have 
a  leader  who  means  to  force  the  pace.  And  in  the 
"  Nineteenth  Century  "  for  March  we  have  a  veritable 
manifesto  from  his  pen  summoning  the  Tory  party  to 
take  up  the  cause  of  social  reform. 

The  Tories  and  Social  Reform. 
He  begins  his  paper  by  declaring: 



April  20,  ipo3. 

"  The  happiness  and  welfare  of  the  people  have  al- 
ways been  a  vital  article  of  the  Tory  creed,  just  as  im- 
portant as  the  maintenance  of  our  Constitution  and 
the  defence  of  our  Empire." 

He  recalls,  much  to  the  disgust  of  many  of  his  late 
colleagues,  the  fact  that  they  put  forward  Social  Re- 
form as  their  alternative  to  the  Liberal  programme  of 
Home  Rule,  and  asks: 

"  How,  then,  is  the  obligation  of  the  Tory  party  to 
be  fulfilled?  Experience  shows  that  social  reforms  are 
not  likely  to  originate  spontaneously  in  the  public  de- 
partments of  the  Central  Government." 

He  then  passes  in  review  the  various  agencies  by 
which  the  cause  of  Social  Refonn  might  be  promoted. 

From  Whence  Will  Come  Our  Help? 

The  constitution  of  our  public  offices,  he  remarks, 
does  not  promote  these  qualities  which  are  requisite 
for  the  creation  of  schemes  of  new  legislation. 

"  Neither  are  public  departments  likely,  under  pre- 
sent arrangements,  to  be  stimulated  into  the  proposal 
and  construction  of  great  measures  of  social  reform  by 
their  Parliamentary  heads.  These  are  seldom,  if  ever, 
selected  for  their  previous  knowledge  of  the  matters 
with  which  their  department  has  to  deal." 

No  initiative  and  little  help  is  to  be  expected  from 
them.  Neither  can  we  look  for  much  assistance  from 
the  Central  Government.  Social  reforms  have  for  the 
Government  peculiar  perils  of  their  own: 

"  It  is  the  nervous  dread  of  producing  electoral  difli- 
culties  that  has  prevented  successive  British  Govern- 
ments from  dealing  frankly  with  the  recommendations 
of  the  Berlin  Labour  Conference," 

How  This  Government   "  Desires  "   Reform. 

Sir  John  Gorst  was  the  representative  of  the  British 
Government  at  that  Conference,  and  he  reminds  us 
that  the  result  of  their  discussions  at  Berlin  was  the 
drawing  up  of  a  number  of  clear  and  definite  proposi- 
tions relating  to  the  labour  of  children  and  young 
persons  in  industries  and  mines.  If  they  had  been 
adopted  by  the  Government  and  carried  into  law  the 
result  would  have  been  a  useful  and  substantial  mea- 
sure of  Social  Reform.  The  Government  declared  that 
they  regarded  these  reforms  as  desirable.  But  in  the 
following  year  the  Government,  which  had  declared 
through  Sir  John  Gorst  that  it  desired  these  reforms, 
brought  forward  a  Factory  Bill  in  which  it  refrained 
from  proposing  to  give  effect  to  the  reform  which  would 
have  raised  the  limit  age  in  English  factories  from  ten 
to  twelve: 

"  The  limit  of  eleven  was,  however,  imposed  upon 
them  by  a  vote  of  the  House  of  Commons.  No  at- 
tempt has  ever  been  made  by  any  British  Government 
of  either  party— and  both  parties  have  held  office  since 
the  Berlin  Conference — to  bring  up  the  conditions  of 
labour  of  children  and  young  persons  to  the  'desirable* 
Berlin  standard." 

Royal  Commissions  and  Select  Committees  have 
proved  equally  barren  of  results.  Select  Committees 
in  1895  and  1896  were  also  helpless  in  discovering  and 
recommending  any  permanent  remedy  for  dealing  with 
the  question  of  the  unemployed. 

The  Breakdown  at  the  House  of  Commons. 
Where,  then,  must  the  reformers  look  for  help? — 
"  Can  they  look  for  much  help  from  the  modem 
House  of  Commons?  The  answer  is  that  for  purposes 
of  legislation  the  House  of  Commons  has  become  almost 
effete.  The  machine  is  out  of  order,  and  will  no 
longer  work.  After  a  generation  of  perpetual  change 
in  its  rules  of  procedure,  the  House  of  Commons  is  a 

far  less  efficient  instrument  for  law-making  than  it  was- 
thirty  years  ago." 

He  illustrates  the  impotence  of  the  House  of  Com- 
mons by  recalling  its  failure  to  give  effect  to  the  re- 
commendations of  the  committee  upon  the  overw'ork- 
jng  of  school-children.  The  report  of  this  committee 
was  startling  and  terrifying: 

"They  reported  it  to  be  proved  that  a  substantial 
number  of  children,  amounting  probably  to  50,000,  were 
being  worked  more  than  twenty  hours  a  week  in  ad- 
dition to  27i  hours  at  school,  that  a  considerable  pro- 
portion of  this  number  were  being  worked  to  thirty  or 
forty,  and  some  even  to  fifty,  hours  a  week,  and  that 
the  effect  of  this  work  was  in  many  cases  detrimental 
to  their  health,  their  morals,  and  their  education,  be- 
sides being  often  so  unremitting  as  to  deprive  them  of 
all  reasonable  opportunity  for  recreation." 

They  recommended  that  power  should  be  conferred 
upon  Municipalities  and  County  Councils  to  make  by- 
laws as  to  the  employment  of  children.  A  Bill  was  in- 
troduced in  1901,  but  nothing  came  of  it. 

Try  Local  Authorities! 

What,  then,  is  Sir  John  Gorst's  remedy?  He  de- 
spairs of  anything  being  done  by  Downing  Street  or  at 
Westminster;  his  suggestion  is  that  we  must  turn  to 
the  local  authorities.      He  says: 

"Social  reform,  which  is  so  ardently  desired  by  the 
mass  of  our  people,  and  upon  which  the  safety  of  our 
Empire  so  vitally  depends,  must  be  carried  out  on  the 
same  principle  as  the  establishment  of  a  national  sys- 
tem of  education.  Give  up  the  dream  of  a  benevolent 
Central  Government,  which  is  to  do  everything  for  the 
people— to  diagnose  the  social  disease,  to  invent  and 
apply  the  remedies,  and  to  superintend  their  operation. 
That  may  come  hereafter  in  some  future  generation, 
but  we  are  in  a  more  primitive  and  elementary  stage  as 
yet.  We  are  in  the  condition  of  towns  a  generation 
ago,  when  they  cleansed  away  their  snow  by  every 
householder  sweeping  his  own  doorstep.  Let  each 
county  and  municipal  authority  become  absolutely  and 
entirely,  as  it  is  already  partially  and  imperfectly, 
responsible  for  the  health  and  welfare  of  its  own  men, 
women,  and  children,  for  the  care  of  its  own  sick  and 
aged,  the  provision  of  healthy  dwellings  and  of  light, 
air,  and  water,  the  prevention  of  strikes  and  lockouts, 
and  the  treatment  of  its  own  '  unemployed.'  " 

How  to  Improve  the  Average  Man» 

Some  More  Prescriptions  from  Mr,  H,  G.  Wells. 

Mr.  H.  G.  Wells  continues  to  publish  in  the  "Fort- 
nightly Review"  his  thoughtful  and  thought-provok- 
ing papers  entitled  "Mankind  in  the  Making."  In 
the  March  number  he  deals  with  the  question  as  to 
how  we  can  best  improve  the  training  of  our  children 
so  as  to  make  them  worthy  citizens  of  the  new  Re- 

Improve  His  Home. 

Mr.  Wells  maintains  that  "  If  we  would  make  the 
average  man  of  the  coming  years  gentler  in  manner, 
more  deliberate  in  judgment,  steadier  in  purpose,  up- 
right, considerate,  and  free,  we  must  look  first  to  the 
possibility  of  improving  the  tone  and  quality  of  the 
average  home." 

How  to  Do  It. 

After  describing  the  two  typical  homes  of  the  middle 
class  and  of  the  artisan,  Mr.  Wells  says: 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/Jf/03. 



"  How  the  economic  conditions  of  homes  may  be  con- 
trolled to  accomplish  New  Republican  ends  has  al- 
ready been  discussed  with  a  view  to  a  hygienic  mini- 
mum, and  obviously  the  same,  or  similar,  methods  may 
be  employed  to  secure  less  materialistic  benefits.  You 
can  make  a  people  dirty  by  denying  them  water,  you 
can  make  a  people  cleaner  by  cheapening  and  enforcing 
bath-rooms.  Man  is  indeed  so  spiritual  a  being  that 
he  will  turn  every  materialistic  development  you  force 
upon  him  into  spiritual  growth.  You  can  aerate  his 
house,  not  only  with  air,  but  with  ideas.  Build, 
cheapen,  render  alluring  a  simpler,  more  spacious  type 
of  house  for  the  clerk,  fill  it  with  labour-saving  con- 
veniences, and  leave  no  excuse  and  no  spare  corners 
for  the  '  slavey,'  and  the  slavey— and  all  that  she  means 
in  mental  and  moral  consequence— will  vanish  out  of 
being.  You  will  beat  tradition.  Make  it  easy  for 
Trade  Unions  to  press  for  shorter  hours  of  work,  but 
make  it  difficult  for  them  to  obstruct  the  arrival  of 
labour-saving  appliances,  put  the  means  of  education 
easily  within  the  reach  of  every  workman,  make  pro- 
motion from  the  ranks,  in  the  Army,  in  the  Navy,  in 
all  business  concerns,  practicable  and  natural,  and  the 
lingering  discolouration  of  the  serf  taint  will  vanish 
from  the  workman's  mind." 

Improve  His  Ethical  Training. 

Mr.  Wells  has  no  patience  with  the  religious  educa- 
tion of  our  public  schools.  He  asserts  that  the  only 
kind  "  of  man  whose  insistence  upon  religious  teaching 
in  schools  by  ordinary  school  teachers  I  can  under- 
stand, is  the  downright  Atheist,  the  man  who  believes 
sensual  pleasure  is  all  that  there  is  of  pleasure,  and 
virtue  no  more  than  a  hood  to  check  the  impetuosity 
of  youth  until  discretion  is  acquired,  the  man  who  be- 
lieves there  is  nothing  else  in  the  world  but  hard 
material  fact,  and  who  has  as  much  respect  for  truth 
and  religion  as  he  has  for  stable  manure.  Such  a  man 
finds  it  convenient  to  profess  a  lax  version  of  the 
popular  religion,  and  he  usually  does  so,  and  invariably 
he  wants  his  children  '  taught '  religion,  because  he  so 
utterly  disbelieves  in  God,  goodness,  and  spirituality 
that  he  cannot  imagine  young  people  doing  even  enough 
right  to  keep  healthy  and  prosperous,  unless  they  are 
humbugged  into  it. 

"  If,  too,  you  ransack  your  young  Englishman  for  re- 
ligion, you  will  be  amazed  to  find  scarcely  a  trace  of 
School.  In  spite  of  a  ceremonial  adhesion  to  the  re- 
ligion of  his  fathers,  you  will  find  nothing  but  a  pro- 
found agnosticism.  He  has  not  even  the  faith  to  dis- 
believe. It  is  not  so  much  that  he  has  not  developed 
religion  as  that  the  place  has  been  seared. 

How  to  Mend  Matters. 
"  Now  one  nobly  conceived  and  nobly  rendered  play 
will  give  a  stronger  moral  impression  than  the  best 
schoolmaster  conceivable,  talking  ethics  for  a  year  on 
end.  One  great  and  stirring  book  may  give  an  im- 
pression less  powerful,  perhaps,  but  even  more  per- 
manent. Practically  these  things  are  as  good  as  an 
example — they  are  example.  Surround  your  growing 
boy  or  girl  with  a  generous  supply  of  good  books  and 
leave  writer  and  growing  soul  to  do  their  business  to- 
gether without  any  scholastic  control  of  their  inter- 
course. Make  your  state  healthy,  your  economic  life 
healthy  and  honest,  be  honest  and  truthful  in  the  pul- 
pit, behind  the  counter,  in  the  office,  and  your  children 
will  need  no  specific  ethical  teaching;  they  will  inhale 
right.  And  without  these  things  all  the  ethical  teach- 
ing in  the  world  will  only  sour  to  cant  at  the  first 
•wind  of  the  breath  of  the  world." 

Why  Something  Must  Be  Done. 

Mr.  Wells  thinks  the  need  is  manifest.    He  says: 

"  Driving  zeal,  that  practical  vigour  that  once  dis- 
tinguished the  English,  is  continually  less  apparent. 
Our  workmen  take  no  pride  in  their  work  any  longer, 
they  shirk  toil  and  gamble.  And  what  is  worse,  the 
master  takes  no  pride  in  the  works;  he,  too,  shirks 
toil  and  gambles.  Our  middle-class  young  men,  in- 
stead of  flinging  themselves  into  study,  into  research, 
into  literature,  into  widely  conceived  business  enter- 
prises, into  so  much  of  the  public  service  as  is  not  pre- 
served for  the  sons  of  the  well  connected,  play  games, 
display  an  almost  Oriental  slackness  in  the  presence  of 
work  and  duty,  and  seem  to  consider  it  rather  good 
form  to  do  so. 

"  The  world  of  the  average  citizen,  just  like  his  home, 
resolves  itself  into  three  main  elements.  First,  there 
is  the  traditional  element,  the  creation  of  the  past; 
secondly,  there  is  the  contemporary  interplay  of 
economic  and  material  forces;  and,  thirdly,  there  is 
literature,  using  that  word  for  the  current  thought 
about  the  world,  which  is  perpetually  tending  on  the 
one  hand  to  realise  itself  and  to  become  in  that  manner 
a  material  force,  and  on  the  other  to  impose  fresh  in- 
terpretations upon  things  and  so  become  a  factor  in 
tradition.  Now  the  first  of  these  elements  is  a  thing 
established.  And  it  is  the  possibility  of  intervention 
through  the  remaining  two  that  it  is  now  our  business 
to  discuss." 

Mr.  Wells,  it  is  evident,  is  girding  up  his  loins  for  a 
tour  round  the  universe.  We  could  not  have  a  more 
interesting  guide. 

The  Sultan  of  Morocco. 

The  Morocco  question  is  evidently  exciting  a  great 
deal  of  interest  among  the  more  thoughtful  French 
political  writers  of  the  day.  In  the  "  Revue  de  Paris  " 
are  two  articles  devoted  to  the  Near  East:  the  one 
which  is  anonymous  is  entitled  "  The  Sultan  of 
Morocco,"  the  other,  by  M.  Berard,  is  simply  called 
"The  Morocco  Question."  The  first  of  these  two 
articles  is  to  all  intents  and  purposes  a  violent  attack 
on  Sir  Henry  Maclean,  of  whom  the  writer  gives  the 
most  unflattering  picture;  in  fact,  the  article  is  so  ex- 
tremely libellous  that  this  fact  makes  it  almost  im- 
possible to  deal  with  its  contents. 

Of  the  present  Sultan,  who  is  supposed  to  be  entirely 
under  "  Kaid  Maclean's "  thumb,  is  given  a  curious 
account.  He  is  said  to  have  no  will  of  his  own,  to 
be  ignorant  and  timid,  devoted  to  lawn-tennis,  which 
he  plays  all  day  long;  further,  that  he  is  always  sur- 
rounded with  cyclists,  painters,  photographers,  and 
billiard  players  of  British  nationality,  while  his  people 
watch  this  state  of  things  with  increasing  anxiety. 
They  are  well  aware  that  the  treasury  is  empty,  and 
they  are  further  exceedingly  indignant  to  note  their 
Sovereign's  intimacy  with  the  hated  Nazarenes. 

According  to  the  anonymous  writer  of  this  piece  of 
very  frank  criticism,  Morocco's  revolt  against  her 
Sovereign  is  only  too  justified.  It  is  curious  to 
read  this  paper  in  conjunction  with  the  weighty  and 
thoughtful  pages  contributed  by  one  of  the  editors  of 
the  "  Revue,"  in  which  he  gives  an  elaborate  geo- 
graphical account  of  Morocco,  and  attempts  to  foresee 
the  outcome  of  a  struggle  in  which  France  could  not 
but  be  very  deeply  interested,  the  more  so  that  while 
every  other  country  is  in  the  position  of  being  sellers 
to  Morocco,  the  French  are  buyers,  in  this  sense— that 
they  employ  in  their  North  African  colonies  a  great 
deal  of  Morocco  labour. 



April  20,  190^. 

President  Roosevelt  as  ^^  Tenderfoot/' 

In  "  Cassell's  "  for  March,  Mr.  Frederick  Moore  de- 
scribes President  Roosevelt's  early  days  in  the  Wild 
West.  He  gives  a  vivid  account  of  what  the  President 
described  as  the  ride  of  his  life,  w^hen  he  headed  a  stam- 
pede of  cattle,  driven  mad  with  fear  by  a  thunder- 
storm, into  a  corral  in  the  pitchy  darkness  of  the 
night.      Here  is  a  characteristic  incident: 

"  When  Theodore  Roosevelt  went  out  on  the  frontier, 
the  '  bad  men  '  of  the  lawless  country  estimated  him 
another  easy  mark  for  them  to  bluff  and  bilk.  One 
night  in  the  early  'eighties  he  had  to  '  put  up  '  at  a 
bordertown  '  hotel,'  the  bar,  dining-room,  and  sitting- 
room  of  which  were  all  one.  After  supper  he  re- 
mained seated  at  one  of  the  tables  reading.  In  came  a 
bad  man  who  was  painting  the  town  red.  Marching 
with  considerable  gusto  up  to  the  bar,  he  invited  '  the 
house '  to  drink.  Everybody  responded  to  the  sum- 
mons but  Roosevelt. 

"  '  Who  is  it?'  the  man  asked  a  friend,  pointing  over 
his  shoulder  at  Roosevelt. 

"  *  Some  tenderfoot,  just  arrived,'  the  word  was  whis- 

"  The  bad  man  turned  and  shouted  to  the  *  tender- 
foot '— 
"  *  Say,  Mr.  Four-eyes,  I  asked  this  house  to  drink.' 
"  Roosevelt  was  a  little  incensed  at  this  reference  to 
his  spectacles,  but  kept  his  head,  and  made  no  reply. 
"  The  man  walked  over  to  him,  pulled  out  his  gun 
(pistols  are  called  guns  in  the  West),   and  explained 
that  when  he  asked  a  man  to  drink  the  man  had  to 

"  '  I  do  not  care  for  anything  to  drink,'  said  Roose- 

"  *  Now,  you  just  order  your  drink,  my  man,  or 
there'll  be  some  trouble.' 

" '  Well,'  said  Roosevelt,  apparently  submitting  be- 
fore the  threat,  *  I  do  not  care  for  anything,  but  if  I 

must " 

"  Roosevelt  had  risen  slowly,  and  was  now  standing 
full  erect.  As  he  broke  off  the  sentence  he  struck 
the  big  man  fairly  on  the  point  of  the  chin.  The 
man  tumbled  over  on  his  back,  and  before  he  could 
recover  Roosevelt  had  him  pinioned  to  the  floor,  his 
knees  on  the  man's  biceps.  He  stripped  him  of  his 
pistols  and  his  knives,  then  released  the  man.  Rising, 
he  inquired  with  mock  politeness:  '  Now,  my  man,  may 
I  insist  that  I  do  not  care  to  drink  with  you?' 

"  You  can  imagine  the  effect  of  this  affair — how 
Roosevelt  stock  went  up." 

In  such  legends  as  these  lies  the  President's  popu- 

Thirty  Years  in  Paris. 

The  "  Fortnightly  Review "  for  March  contains  a 
very  interesting,  gossipy  article  by  Mr.  J.  G.  Alger,  de- 
scribing the  events  and  changes  he  has  witnessed  dur- 
ing a  residence  in  Paris  of  thirty  years.  He  has  seen 
three  narrow  escapes  of  the  Republic— the  first  in  1876, 
Avhen  MacMahon  dismissed  the  Jules  Simon  Cabinet, 
the  next  during  the  Boulanger  crisis  of  1889,  and  the 
third  during  the  Dreyfus  affair.  Mr.  Alger  thinks 
that  if  Boulanger  had  stood  his  trial  it  is  very  doubt- 
ful whether  the  Senate  could  have  condemned  him; 
but  with  his  flight  he  threw  away  his  last  chance. 
It    was    the    anti-Dreyfus    sentiment    of    Felix    Faure 

which  saved  the  Republic  from  an  attempt  to  estab- 
lish a  military  dictatorship. 

Of  Presidents  Mr.  Alger  has  known  many.  He  says 
that  Grevy  saved  at  least  half  of  his  £48,000  a  year. 
Casimir-Perier's  real  cause  of  resignation  was  that 
M.  Hanotaux  denied  his  right  to  see  Foreign  Office  de- 
spatches. As  for  M.  Faure,  Mr.  Alger  says  he  was 
never  the  same  man  after  he  had  been  embraced  by 
the  Tsar.  "  Such  honours  puffed  him  up,  and  he 
fancied    himself   a   great   man." 

Twenty-five   Prime   Ministers. 

Mr.  Alger  lived  under  twenty-five  Prime  Ministers, 
of  whom  he  says  that  not  one  could  be  considered  a 
man  of  genius: 

"  A  man  of  genius  at  the  head  of  a  democracy  is 
dangerous,  and  France  has  wisely  copied  the  example 
of  America,  if  indeed  either  of  them  can  be  thought 
to  have  exercised  a  choice  and  not  rather  to  have 
found  no  alternative.  The  French  democracy,  having 
abolished  personal  rule,  does  not  rush  blindly  after 
any  one  man.  The  French  are  not,  indeed,  given  to 
what  we  should  call  enthusiasm  for  their  statesmen. 
Gambetta  was  certainly  the  most  popular  man  in  my 
time,  yet  his  reception  at  public  meetings  was  never 
such  as  an  Englishman  of  equal  eminence  would  have 
enjoyed.  Carnot,  as  I  have  said,  was  respected,  but 
nothing  more.  A  friend  of  mine  who  went  to  see 
him  open  a  new  street,  waved  his  hat  and  shouted, 
'Vive  Carnot!'  whereupon  the  by-standers,  all  silent, 
stared   at   him  with  amusement." 

The  End  of  the  Aristocrats. 

One  remarkable  change  that  has  taken  place  during 
the  last  thirty  years  is  the  elimination  of  aristocrats. 
The  "  de "  has  disappeared  in  every  branch  of  the 
public  services: 

"  Not  one  member  of  the  present  Cabinet  sports  the 
aristocratic  particle,  and  the  aristocracy,  under  the 
Republic,  have  been  more  and  more  excluded,  not 
merely  from  political  power,  but  from  all  public  posts. 
We  are  never  likely  again  to  see  a  duke  Prime  Minister 
like  de  Broglie  in  1876,  or  President  of  the  Senate  like 
D'Audiffret  Pasquier  in  1876.  The  then  Prince  of 
Wales,  according  to  General  Galliffet,  himself  the  last 
Marquis  ever  likely  to  be  at  the  War  Office,  asked  Gam- 
betta in  1880  why  the  Republic  did  not  employ  nobles. 
He  might  put  the  same  question  now  with  still  greater 
force.  Only  six  bishops  out  of  ninety  possess  the  par- 
ticle, which,  however,  is  a  good  deal  due  to  the  fact 
that  noblemen's  sons  do  not  enter  the  Church.  Not 
a  single  general  or  admiral  in  active  service  has  any 
title  of  nobility,  and  very  few  indeed  have  the  par- 
ticle, albeit  noblemen's  sons  still  enter  the  army  and 
navy.  Even  diplomacy,  their  last  remaining  strong- 
hold,   is    failing    them." 

The  Police. 
Another  change  has  been  in  the  police,  "  the  control 
of  which  has  been  the  constant  but  hitherto  fruitless 
aim  of  the  municipality,  and  which  has  markedly  un- 
dergone the  influence  of  the  Republic.  It  is  no  lon- 
ger a  semi-military  force,  and  so  far  from  being  bru- 
tal in  the  repression  of  disturbances,  has  on  recent 
occasions  received  more  blows  than  it  has  inflicted. 
The  sergeants-de-ville,  or  as  they  are  more  commonly 
called,  the  agents,  are  now  as  good-humoured  as  their 
London  brethren  in  keeping  crowds  in  order — not  al- 
ways an  easy  task — and  in  managing  the  cabmen  and 
costermongers,  who  have  an  invincible  propensity  for 
arguing  before  obeying." 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/^/08. 



Democracy  and  Domestic  Servants. 
Democracy  has  made  great  strides.      In  particular  is 
this  noticeable  in  the  case  of  domestic  servants: 

"  Even  in  London  I  am  told  they  now  expect  to 
'  have  life  made  pleasant  for  them/  but  in  Paris  they 
assume  a  familiarity  which  would  scarcely  be  tolerated 
in  England.  Education  having  for  twenty  years  been 
compulsory,  they  are  fairly  well  educated.  Some  of 
these  young  women,  coming  up  from  the  country,  far 
from  confining  themselves,  as  formerly,  to  the  feuille- 
ton  of  the  *  Petit  Journal,*  take  an  interest  in  the 
events  of  the  time,  domestic  and  foreign.  I  can  even  tes- 
tify to  a  case  in  which  the  bonne,  on  an  eclipse  occur- 
ring, explained  the  phenomenon  to  a  young  English- 
woman, who  had  been  drilled  in  the  ologies  and  ono- 
mies,  but  had  never  mastered  the  motions  of  the  heav- 
enly bodies.  I  could  also  quote  a  letter  written  by 
a  domestic  servant  to  her  mistress,  which  would  not 
discredit  a  Girton  graduate.  Servants  not  merely 
know  all  that  goes  on  in  the  household,  which  informa- 
ton  they  exchange  with  those  of  adjoining  flats,  but 
allow  themselves  to  comment  upon  it  to  their  masters 
and  mistresses.  What  would  an  English  mistress 
think,  moreover,  of  being  kissed  on  both  cheeks  by  her 
maid  on  returning  from  a  holiday,  or  of  a  departing 
servant  not  only  kissing  the  mistress,  but  offering  to 
kiss  the  master?  Only  yesterday  I  read  in  the  papers 
that  a  magistrate  had  had  to  decide  whether  a  break- 
age of  crockery  had  taken  place  in  the  course  of  the 
housemaid's  usual  duties,  in  which  case  the  damage 
could  not  be  deducted  from  her  wages,  or  whether  it 
took  place  in  her  attic,  on  one  of  her  weekly  receptions 
of  friends." 

Antipathy  to  Germans  has  entirely  died  out,  and 
Germans  now  stand  on  the  same  footing  as  other 
foreigners.  Englishmen  never  suffer  any  annoyance, 
except  where  they  bring  it  on  themselves.  English 
customs  are  largely  imitated.  Sunday  closing  has  be- 
come almost  general  in  the  west  of  Paris;  and  tea, 
which  was  only  taken  as  a  medicine  thirty  years  ago, 
is  now  consumed  everywhere.  Of  English  ambassa- 
dors in  Paris  Mr.  Alger  has  an  indifferent  opinion. 
Lord  Lyons  gave  no  entertainments,  and  saved  half  his 
£10,000  a  year  for  his  nephew,  the  JDuke  of  Norfolk. 
Lord  Lytton  had  no  vocation  for  statesmanship.  Lord 
Dufferin  was  more  successful,  but  he  made  a  serious 
blunder  when,  resenting  newspaper  attacks  attributed 
to  the  Russian  Embassy,  he  went  off  in  a  huff  to 
Walmer.  Socially  the  English  colony  has  fallen  off. 
There  are  few  very  wealthy  residents,  and  more  art 
students  and  governesses. 

The  Surgery  of  Light. 

The  Truth  about  the  Finsen  Light. 

"  McClure's  Magazine "  for  February  contains  four 
interesting  articles  dealing  with  Dr.  Niels  Finsen  and 
his  wonderful  discovery.  From  the  article  by  Cleve- 
land Moffett  we  learn  the  following  details  about  the 
discovery.  First  came  the  discovery  that  the  red 
rays  of  sunshine  have  no  effect  upon  the  skin,  while 
the  blue  or  actinic  rays,  sometimes  also  called  the 
•'  chemical "  rays — including  violet  and  ultra-violet- 
are  the  only  ones  that  have  any  noteworthy  physio- 
logical effect  upon  animal  life.      Following  this — 

"  Finsen  offered  to  the  world  his  red-light  treatment, 
declaring  confidently  that  smallpox  patients  would 
suffer  no  scarring  of  face  or  body  if  cared  for  in  rooms 
from  which  all  light  but  red  had  been  excluded.      And 

the  curious  part  of  it  is  that  at  this  time  Fmsen  had 
never  seen  a  case  of  smallpox,  and  based  his  conclu- 
sions entirely  on  theoretical  grounds. 

"  In  August,  1893,  the  first  test  was  made  on  eight 
smallpox  patients,  four  of  them  children  who  had  never 
been  vaccinated,  and  were  bad  cases.  The  result  was 
a  triumph  for  Finsen,  and  was  summed  up  thus  by 
Dr.  Svendsen: 

" '  The  period  of  suppuration,  the  most  dangerous 
and  most  painful  stage  of  smallpox,  did  not  appear; 
there  was  no  elevation  of  temperature,  and  no  edema. 
The  patients  entered  the  stage  of  convalescence  imme- 
diately after  the  stage  of  vaccination,  which  seemed  a 
little  prolonged.       The  hideous   scars  were  avoided.' 

"  In  ordinary  cases  a  clear  red  light  is  sufficient  to 
prevent  scarring,  and  the  patient  can  see  to  read.  In 
very  bad  cases,  however,  tbere  is  neeu  of  a  deep  red 

When  his  idea  was  successfully  in  operation.  Dr. 
Finsen  turned  his  attention  to  the  killing  of  the  ba- 
cilli of  lupus  by  the  blue  and  violet  rays,  the  red  rays 
being  filtered  out.  It  was  found  that  a  powerful 
electric  light  is  more  efficacious  than  sunlight,  since 
the  latter  loses  much  of  its  ultra-violet  rays  in  passing 
through  the  atmosphere.  The  writer  thus  describes 
the  first  attempt  to  cure  the  awful  disease  of  lupus: 

"At  first  everything  was  very  crude;  a  hand  lens 
was  used  to  concentrate  the  rays  from  an  ordinary 
arc  lamp,  the  red  and  ultra  red  being  filtered  out 
through  blue  water.  For  an  hour  or  two  hours  every 
day  this  concentrated  blue  light  was  directed  against 
the  atnicted  right  cheek,  Finsen  himself  holding  the 
lens,  aided  by  a  medical  student. 

"  The  result  came  up  to  the  fullest  expectations. 
After  the  first  treatment  there  was  no  more  spread 
of  the  disease,  but  a  steady  closing  in  of  the  lupus 
patches,  and  a  lessening  of  the  angry  redness  as  healthy 
tissue  formed.  Within  six  months  Niels  Morgensen 
was  free  from  his  disease,  and  Finsen  had  done  what 
doctors  and  surgeons  would  have  laughed  at  as  a  mad 
impossibility — he  had  cured  a  case  of  lupus  with  some 
blue  water  and  a  piece  of  glass!" 

Mr.  Alfred  Harmsworth,  the  donor  of  the  first  50,000 
dol.  lamp  to  the  London  Hospital,  writes  upon  the 
work  of  the  lamps  in  England: 

"  Since  the  installation,  in  the  spring  of  1900,  398 
patients  have  been  treated  at  the  London  Hospital,  of 
whom  149  have  returned  to  their  homes  completely 
cured,  and  232  are  at  the  present  time  under  treat- 
ment. Of  these,  however,  72  are  practically  cured, 
and  do  not  attend  regularly,  but  are  still  kept  under 
medical  observation.  Fifteen  nurses  are  wholly  occu- 
pied in  applying  the  treatment,  and  a  large  depart- 
ment is  now  being  built  for  it  at  the  hospital.  How 
urgent  the  need  continues  to  be,  will  be  apparent  from 
the  fact  that  no  less  than  227  patients  are  at  the  pre- 
sent moment  waiting  to  be  treated.  In  the  case  of 
many  of  these,  the  disease  will  have  made  terrible  pro- 
gress before  their  turn  arrives." 

The  cost  of  working  one  of  these  four-light  lamps 
amounts  to  about   £600  a  year. 

Dr.  Hopkins  adds  a  remarkable  testimony  as  to  the 
value  of  the  Finsen  light  when  used  in  connection  with 
the  Roentgen  rays.      He  says: 

"  Having  used  the  Finsen  ray  with  good  results  in 
a  case  of  cancer  of  the  skin,  I  decided  in  1900  to  prove 
its  results  upon  the  deeper-seated  cancer  of  the  breast. 
Here,  however,  entered  a  difficulty.  The  Finsen  ray 
has  slight  penetrative  power.      The  use  of  the  Roent- 



April  20,  190^. 

gen  or  X-ray  in  connection  with  the  Finsen  ray,  sug 
gested  itself  to  me.  The  Roentgen  ray  has  extraor- 
dinary germicidal  qualities,  but  no  curative  properties. 
Light  heals;  tiie  X-ray  is  not  light,  but  something  be- 
yond light,  the  nature  of  which  is  an  unfathomed  se- 
cret. Therefore,  to  destroy  the  germs,  I  used  the  X- 
ray,  which  broke  down  the  cancerous  tissue,  and  killed 
the  bacteria.  Then  1  used  the  Finsen  tube  to  heal 
the  open  sore  which  resulted.  The  Finsen  ray  alone 
would  have  done  the  whole  work  had  it  been  able  to 
penetrate  to  the  core  of  the  ailment.  Under  the 
double  radial  attack  the  area  of  ulceration  quickly 
shrank,  and  after  several  months  of  treatment  disap- 
peared. That  was  two  years  ago;  there  has  been  no 
return  of  the  growth  since.  Subsequently,  cases  of 
abdominal  cancer  were  treated  with  the  same  result." 

Who  is  this  Dr.  Finsen,  and  what  manner  of  man  is 
he  who,  by  his  discovery,  has  brought  new  life  to  hun- 

**  Meantime,  Finsen  himself,  in  spite  of  his  longing  for 
light  and  trust  in  its  virtues,  is  a  stricken  man.  All 
that  he  has  done  for  the  health  of  others  has  profited 
little  for  his  own  health.  When  I  saw  him  he  looked 
weak  and  ill,  though  buoyed  up  by  the  power  of  his 
enthusiasm,  a  sort  of  light  from  within.  He  is  able 
to  work  only  an  hour  or  two  in  a  day.  He  suffers 
constantly.  He  can  eat  scarcely  anything,  and,  during 
his  bad  months,  sits  at  table  with  a  pair  of  scales 
beside  his  plate,  and  weighs  every  morsel.  He  has 
scorned  to  make  money  from  his  discoveries,  giving 
them  all  freely  to  the  world,  and  has  patented  no  part 
of  his  apparatus.  He  lives  content  on  a  salary  of  1,200 
dols.  a  year,  paid  by  the  Danish  Government,  and  is 
worried  only  because  the  Light  Institute,  which  gives 
its  treatment  to  the  poor  for  almost  nothing,  has  a 
debt  of  40,000  dols.  hanging  over  it." 

How  I  Became  a  Novelist. 

By  Edna  Lyall. 

The  "  Sunday  Magazine  "  contains  an  article  by  the 
late  well-known  writer,  Edna  Lyall,  upon  her  early 
experiences.  This  article  gives  many  interesting 
glimpses  of  the  formation  of  her  character.      She  says: 

"  It  was  not  until  I  was  nine  years  old  that  the 
desire  to  write  seized  me.  In  the  meantime,  however, 
much  of  the  future  training  of  an  author  was  going 
on.  We  were  blessed  with  a  nurse  whose  sympathies 
were  wide  and  far-reaching,  and  I  owe  a  great  deal  to 
her  kindly  heart,  and  to  her  unfailing  readiness  to  tell 
us  all  that  she  had  heard  and  seen.  Moreover,  being 
the  youngest  of  the  family,  it  chanced  that  I  heard 
books  read  and  topics  discussed  between  the  elder 
ones  and  my  parents,  which  very  soon  widened  the 
world  for  me." 

Heroes  and  Favourite  Authors. 

Among  her  early  heroes  was  Mr.  Fawcett,  and,  later, 
Oliver  Cromwell. 

"  Politics  were  very  real,  and  were  somehow  made 
interesting  to  us,  my  father  encouraging  us  to  think 
on  such  subjects.  My  first  political  hero  was  Mr. 
Fawcett,  and  I  can  clearly  recall  the  excitement  of 
his  election  for  Brighton.  It  was  partly  his  blindness 
which  made  him  my  hero,  for,  suffering  much  from 
weak  eyes,  I  well  knew  what  it  was  to  live  in  the 
dark,  and  my  mother  had  told  me  how  cleverly  she 
had  seen  Mr.  Fawcett  manage  at  a  dinner-party,  and 
how  he  would  not  allow  his  loss  of  sight  in  any  way 
to  spoil  his  life. 

"  Returning  once  more  to  the  influences  which  in 
early  life  did  most  to  fit  me  for  future  work,  I  must 
mention  two  which  were  specially  powerful.  The 
first  was  the  opportunity  of  hearing  good  standard 
books  read.  My  father  was  a  very  good  reader,  and 
we  enjoyed  nothing  better  than  hearing  him  read  the 

*  Waverley  Novels.'  Jane  Austen's  novels,  with  their 
delicious  humour,  were  far  beyond  the  comprehen- 
sion of  a  child  of  eight  or  nine,  and  I  confess  to 
having  thought  them  extremely  dull.  But  Sir  Walter 
Scott  opened  a  whole  world  of  delight  to  us,  and  to 
my  way  of  thinking  it  was  a  more  wholesome  world 
than  that  revealed  to  the  rising  generation  by  the  very 
fascinating,  but  often  morbid,  studies  of  child  life 
provided  nowadays  in  the  countless  *  Children's 


"Undoubtedly  I  was  born  a  coward;  my  mother,  by 
infinite  patience  and  gentle  encouragement,  taught  me 
to  fight  my  fears.  One  of  my  greatest  terrors  was  an 
old  street  fiddler,  with  hideously  crooked  legs  and  de- 
formed feet;  he  used  to  prop  himself  up  on  two  sticks, 
and  play  melancholy,  tuneless  music,  which  in  itself 
was  gruesome. 

"  Though  incorrigibly  stupid  at  mathematics  and  sel- 
dom deeply  interested  in  science,  they  found  me  an  apt 
pupil  at  anything  connected  with  literature  or  history. 

"  The  seventeenth  century  always  had  a  special  fas 
cination  for  me,  and,  after  a  brief  wavering  in  school- 
room days,  when  a  very  pathetic  picture  of  Charles  1. 
and  some  thrilling  cavalier  stories  temporarily  eclipsed 
the  grand  figure  of  the  Protector,  I  returned  to  my 
allegiance,  and  in  course  of  time  endeavoured  to  show, 
in  '  To  Right  the  Wrong,'  that  it  was  possible  to  be 
an  honest,  God-fearing,  well-bred  Englishman,  yet  to 
espouse  the  Parliamentary  side  in  the  great  Civil  War. 

The  Value  of  "  Dream  Children." 
"  From  those  past  days  up  to  the  present  time  there 
has  always  been  a  story  on  hand,  and  writing  has 
become  so  much  a  part  of  my  life  that  it  is  difficult 
quite  to  understand  what  life  without  a  vocation  wouM 
be  like,  or  how  people  exist  without  '  dream  children/ 
They  cost  one  much  suffering,  and  bring  many  cares 
and  anxieties;  they  are  not  what  we  could  wish,  and 
we  are  conscious  of  their  faults.      Still  they  are  our 

*  dream  children,'  and  when  they  cheer  the  dull,  or 
interest  the  overworked,  or  help  the  perplexed,  there 
comes  a  glad  sense  that  it  has  all  been  worth  while, 
and  we  are  thankful  that  the  gift  was  given  us." 

"  Cornhill "  for  March  is  a  fairly  readable  number, 
the  most  important  articles  being:  one  by  Mr.  Hogarth 
on  the  Cretan  Exhibition;  the  other,  by  Mr. 
Carlile  on  the  question  of  London's  Unemployed. 
The  Hon.  George  Peel  gossips  lightly  on  the  Durbar. 
In  a  similarly  light  vein  are  sketched  the  travels  of 
an  architect  in  search  of  occupation  in  the  United 
States,  and  there  is  a  satire  by  Mr.  E.  H.  Lacon  Wat- 
son on  the  evils  of  property,  as  illustrated  by  a  wife's 
perpetual  meddling  with  her  husband's  arrangements 
of  his  rooms  and  furniture.  Prospects  in  two  profes- 
sions are  discussed.  Land  agency  is  said  to  offer  con- 
genial employment,  and  a  good  and  lucrative  business. 
Farming  offers  great  chances  to  the  working  farmer, 
but  not  to  the  gentleman  farmer.  Miss  Violet  A. 
Simpson  contributes  an  interesting  study  of  servants 
and  service  in  the  eighteenth  century  in  town  and 
country,  from  which  it  appears  that  the  tyranny  of 
domestics  and  their  exactions  had  reached  an  almost 
incredible  point. 

Review  of  Revietos,  20/Jt/03. 



Venezuela:    Under  Which  Eagle? 

"German  Policy  in  South  America"  is  the  title  of 
a  paper  contributed  by  Mr.  W.  B.  Duffield  to  the 
"  Monthly  Review  "  for  March.  Mr.  Duffield  is  con- 
vinced that  Germany's  ultimate  policy  is  to  challenge 
the  Monroe  Doctrine.  He  aays  that  American  states- 
men are  perfectly  well  aware  of  this;  hence  the  folly 
of  our  co-operation.  Germany  has  infinitely  more  to 
gain  by  annihilating  the  ivionroe  Doctrine  than  by 
attempting  to  seize  any  of  our  possessions: 

"As  has  been  well  pointed  out  by  Captain  Mahan, 
Germany's  geographical  position  forces  her  to  conquer 
us  or  be  friends  with  us.  The  latter  is  clearly  the  less 
expensive  course.  Her  international  manners,  like  those 
of  the  United  States  before  the  era  of  Mr.  Hay,  are, 
it  is  true,  deplorable.  She  has  attempted  to  frighten 
us  just  as  the  United  States  did  with  Canada  in  1891, 
and  with  the  same  result.  Even  if  she  overcame  all  the 
difficulties  involved  in  a  war  with  us  and  appropriated 
some  of  our  colonies,  they  are  already  occupied  and 
exploited  by  a  patriotic  and  hard-working  population. 
Can  the  profit  be  compared  for  a  moment  with  that 
to  be  reaped  from  a  successful  attack  on  the  Monroe 
Doctrine,  which  would  in  no  way  upset  the  European 
balance  of  power,  and  would  not  expose  German  com- 
merce to  the  same  risks  as  would  arise  from  war  with 
a  great  maritime  Power  at  her  own  doors?  This  theory 
fits  in  entirely  with  the  Kaiser's  reiterated  statements, 
and  it  has  the  merit  of  possessing  not  only  solid  busi- 
ness reasons  but  also  very  plausible  grounds  in  theoreti- 
cal justice." 

Germany  wants  real  and  profitable  colonies.  Mr. 
Duffield  points  out  that  the  subsidy  given  to  every 
German  colony,  save  one,  exceeds  the  annual  revenue: 

German  Colonial  Estimates  for  1902. 

East  Africa  . 
Cameroons..  . 
S.  W.  Africa  , 
Togoland  . .  . 
New  Guinea 
Carolines,  etc.. 
Samoa  .... 
Kiao  Chou  . . 



















Total  Ex- 









And  Venezuela  is  just  such  a  promising  but  un- 
occupied country  as  the  Kaiser  wants: 

"  To  show  the  extraordinarj'  fertility  of  many  Vene- 
zuelan territories,  our  Consul  points  out  that  a  plot 
in  the  vicinity  of  his  own  house  has  produced  six 
crops  of  maize  in  one  year!  t'ruit-f arming  would  prove 
enormously  productive,  and  coffee  and  cocoa,  especially 
the  latter,  are  largely  grown;  in  fact,  the  latter  is  now 
the  principal  product  of  the  country,  which  could  grow 
anything.  Cotton,  indigo,  rice,  barley,  and  india-rubber 
have  been  produced  with  success.  The  water  supply  is 
ample,  the  climate  is  not  unhealthy,  and  in  most  parts 
fit  for  Europeans.  The  mineral  wealth  is  almost  un- 
touched, *  iron,  gold,  coal,  petroleum,  silver,  copper, 
lead  are  found  in  every  direction.'  Eye-witnesses  have 
related  to  the  writer  the  shipping  of  huge  ingots  of 
gold  on  the  Orinoco  steamers  in  the  best  days  of  the 
great  mine  of  El  Callao,  but  now  mining,  like  every 
other  industry  in  this  unhappy  land,  is  almost  impos- 
sible owing  to  insecurity  of  tenure.  Under  a  rapid 
succession  of  Governments,  the  leader  in  to-day's  for- 
tunate revolution  refuses  to  recognise  the  title  given  by 
his  predecessor,  or  constant  pillage  and  oppression  for- 

bid Europeans  to  embark  capital  at  such  risks.  We  are 
told  by  our  Consuls  Uiat  there  is  nothing  that  can 
strictly  be  called  an  industry  in  Venezuela,  yet  she  could 
*  grow  her  own  grain,  make  her  own  flour,  grow  her 
own  tobacco  and  cotton,  make  her  own  cloth  and  her 
own  wine,  burn  her  own  kerosene,  make  her  own 
leather,  and  have,  besides  all  this,  a  surplus  for  ex- 
port.' " 

The  First  Cradle  of  Greek  Civilisation. 

It  is  a  striking  sidelight  on  the  near  Eastern  Ques- 
tion, now  at  the  acute  phase  once  more,  that  the  libera- 
tion of  Crete  from  Ottoman  misrule  led  directly  to  the 
discovery  of  an  early  and  hitherto  undreamed-of  civi- 
lisation. This  fact  appears  in  a  paper  by  Mr.  D.  G. 
Hogarth,  in  "  Cornhill "  on  the  Cretan  Exhibition, 
at  Burlington  House.  Minoan  Knossos  was  the  cen- 
tre of  the  most  significant  of  the  Hellenic  myths  and 
traditions  of  power,  and  Schliemann  had  endeavoured 
to  institute  explorations  there;  but  the  Ottoman  Gov- 
ernors and  the  Moslem  owners  of  the  site  interposed 
difficulties.  After  Prince  George  and  freedom  came, 
Mr.  Arthur  Evans,  keeper  of  the  Ashmolean  Museum 
at  Oxford,  had  no  difficulty  in  buying  out  the  Moslem 
owners,  and  in  March,  1900,  he  put  in  the  first  spade. 
The  result  of  three  seasons'  work  has  shown  this  hillock 
"  to  contain  by  far  the  most  varied  and  extraordinary 
evidence  of  a  dead  civilisation  that  perhaps  has  ever 
been  brought  to  light  at  one  spot  in  any  part  of  the 
world  ": 

"  Not  only  could  the  Knossian  builders  pile  storey 
upon  storey  of  massive  stonework,  connected  by  broad 
and  easy  internal  stairways,  rising  flight  over  flight, 
for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  architecture,  but 
they  could  drain  and  sanitate  their  constructions  bet- 
ter than  our  own  medieval  builders. 

"  There  are  many  indications  here  of  a  peaceful  pros- 
perity and  a  sumptuousness  of  civilisation  for  which 
one  was  little  prepared  in  wild  Crete  in  the  middle  of 
the  second  millennium  before  the  Christian  era.  It  is 
most  significant  that  this  great  Palace  building,  with  all 
its  wealth  in  kind  suggested  by  the  presence  of  hun- 
dreds of  oil  and  wine  jars  as  high  as  a  man,  and  with 
all  its  wealth  in  precious  material — gold,  silver,  ivory, 
crystal — whose  existence  actual  remains,  paintings,  and 
the  many  sunken  treasure  chests  abundantly  prove, 
should  have  been  wholly  unfortified.  Its  great  portals, 
north  and  south,  open  straight  on  to  the  surrounding 
country;  and  the  town,  clustering  round,  seems  to 
have  had  no  wall." 

The  Cretan  King,  it  is  inferred,  had  command  not 
only  of  his  own  island,  but  of  the  South  ^Egean. 
Hence  the  luxurious  peace  enjoyed  at  Knossos,  which 
neither  Memphis,  Thebes,  nor  Babylon  could  ever  en- 

"  Thanks  to  natural  advantages  of  isolated  position 
and  fertility,  Crete  seems  to  have  taken  the  lead  of 
all  its  neighbouring  lands  in  the  third  millennium  B.C., 
and  to  have  kept  it  till  the  cataclysm  which  every- 
where overwhelmed  Mge&n  civilisation  about  the  be- 
ginning of  the  first. 

"  The  acme  of  Knossian  culture  seems  to  fall  contem- 
poraneously with  the  Eighteenth  Pharaonic  Dynasty — 
that  is,  in  the  sixteenth  century,  just  before  that  epoch 
to  which  the  Mycenaean  treasure  seems  chiefly  to  be- 

"  To  the  art  of  this  Minoan  age  proper,  stimulated  by 
political  greatness,  and  encouraged  by  profound  peace, 
belongs  the  great  bulK  of  the  wall  paintings,  the  ceil- 



April  20,  i^Q^. 

kif  designs,  the  friezes,  tke  sculpture  in  stone  and 
irory,  the  gem  designs,  and  the  ceramic  handiwork 
illustrated  in  the  exhibition  room." 

An  enormous  number  of  clay  tablets  have  been  found 
at  Elnossos,  inscribed  in  yet  undeciphered  characters. 
The  glory  of  this  ^gean  chapter  in  the  history  of  civi- 
lisation extended  from  2,000  to  1,000  B.C.,  when  it  was 
stamped  out  by  the  invader: 

"  A  movement  of  semi-barbarous  peoples  from  East 
Europe  and  West  Asia,  which  has  left  its  mark  on 
Greek  tradition  as  the  *  Dorian  Invasion,'  evidently 
swept  over  the  civilised  lands,  invigorating  the  stock, 
but  eclipsing  awhile  the  culture.  But  the  old  artistic 
race  lived  on,  amalgamating  itself  with  the  newcomers, 
and  modifying  its  conquerors;  and  after  general  peace 
was  established  once  more,  idealism  revived  in  the 
joint  issue  of  the  older  and  newer  peoples.  The 
sudden  appearance  of  high  art  in  Hellas  in  the  seventh 
century  was,  therefore  a  Renascence  rather  than  a 
miracle  of  spontaneous  generation;  and  something  of 
the  spirit  and  tradition  of  Knossian  culture  inspired 
the  Ionian  art  of  the  sixth  century  and  the  Attic  of 
the  fifth,  and  contributed  to  make  that  Hellenism  to 
which  we  of  Western  Europe  are  the  actual  heirs." 

Gambling  at  Monte  Carlo* 

How  to  Lose  Honestly — and  Certainly. 

There  is  an  admirable  article  by  Sir  Kiram  Maxim  in 
the  "National  Review"  under  the  heading  of  "Play 
and  Players  at  Monte  Carlo."  Sir  Hiram  is  one  of 
those  rare  individuals  who  have  been  at  Monte  Carlo 
and  watched  the  play  without  ever  staking  a  franc; 
and  he  now  sets  forth  the  fruit  of  his  accumulated 
observations  for  the  benefit  of  persons  who  are  not  as 
wise  as  himself.  The  gist  of  his  paper  is  that  you 
must  lose  at  Monte  Carlo,  provided  you  play  long 
enough;  that  no  system  whatever  will  prevent  you 
losing;  that  if  you  play  rightly  you  lose  only  a  small 
percentage  of  your  stakes. 

What  Monte  Carlo  Means. 

Firstly,  Monte  Carlo  means  a  certain  imvaryingly 
annual  profit  for  itself.  The  winnings  of  the  bank,  in 
fact,  amount  to  £1,250,000  a  year,  or  £4  15s.  a  minute 
per  day  of  twelve  hours.  As  the  bank's  average  com- 
mission for  raking  in  A.'s  money  and  handing  it  over 
to  B.  is  about  one-sixtieth  of  all  the  money  trans- 
ferred, it  might  seem  that  £75,000,000  was  staked  at 
Monte  Carlo  in  a  year.  But  this  a  fallacy.  The  ac- 
tual amount  staked  every  year  is  not  more  than 
£1,400,000.  The  bank  though  taking  only  1.66  per 
cent,  each  time,  in  the  end  takes  90  per  cent., 
which  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  average  player 
stakes  his  money  fifty-four  times.  This,  says  Sir 
Hiram,  he  can  easily  do  in  an  hour  and  a  quarter. 
The  amount  of  money  brought  to  Monte  Carlo  and 
spent  in  residence,  etc.,  is  much  greater,  being  about 

Tke  Results  for  Monaco. 

The  Casino  alone  employs  1,000  people,  and  building 
operations,  which  have  been  going  on  for  the  last 
twelve  years,  employ  thousands  more.  There  are  no 
rates  and  taxes  in  the  principality,  and  for  a  hundred 
nailes  the  coast  line  has  been  enriched.  In  Monaco  land 
worth  £5  an  acre  thirty  years  ago  now  sells  for  £2,000 
an  acre. 

Honest  Gambling. 

Gambling  at  Monte  Carlo  is  the  honestcst  gambling 
in  the  world.    You  are  sure  to  be  swindled  in  betting 

transactions,  and  risk  being  sharped  at  cards.  B«t  at 
Monte  Carlo  all  you  have  against  you  is  a  small  and 
recognised  percentage  in  favour  of  the  bank;  the  fair- 
ness of  the  play  is  above  suspicion,  and  in  cases  of 
disputes  between  two  players  the  bank  has  been  leen 
to  pay  twice  over  rather  than  have  any  unpleasantness. 
It  has  even  been  estimated  that,  considering  the  num- 
ber of  visitors,  suicides  at  Monte  Carlo  are  fewer  than 
in  most  other  countries.  Sir  Hiram  comments  upon 
the  fact  that  both  in  England  and  in  France  honest 
gantbling,  such  as  roulette  and  trente-et-quarante,  have 
been  suppressed,  while  dishonest  gambling  is  allowed. 
Roulette  is  played  at  Monte  Carlo  with  one  zero  on 
numbers  and  half  a  zero  on  the  even  chances;  while  in 
England  gambling  on  horse  races  is  as  unfavourable  as 
roulette  would  be  with  from  nine  to  twenty-three  zeros, 
all  of  which  lose. 

How  to  Play  and  Jiose. 
There  are  two  kinds  of  games  played  at  Monte  Carlo 
-—roulette  and  trente-et-quarante.  The  latter  is  the 
rich  man's  game,  the  minimum  stake  being  20  francs, 
and  the  maximum  12,000  francs.  The  percentage  in 
favour  of  the  bank  has  been  estimated  at  about  1.28 
per  cent.  Roulette  is  the  more  popular  game,  the 
minimum  stake  being  5  francs.  The  outer  edge  of  the 
roulette  wheel  is  divided  into  37  sections— 18  red,  18 
black,  and  one  zero  or  neutral  in  colour.  The  game  is 
perfectly  honest.  Playing  wisely,  the  chances  are 
almost  equal,  the  player  having  494  chances  out  of 
1,000,  and  the  bank  496  chances.  There  is  nothing,  says 
Sir  Hiram,  in  the  world  that  better  demonstrates  the 
truth  of  the  law  of  probabilities  than  the  small  per- 
centage which  the  bank  relies  upon.  Compared  with 
other  forms  of  gambling,  including  horse-racing,  gam- 
bling at  Monte  Carlo  is  practically  an  even  chance  for 
both  parties.  If  100  francs  are  staked  at  trente-et- 
quarante,  insured,  their  value  is  99  francs.  The  com- 
parative value  of  100  francs  staked  in  other  gambles  is 
shown  by  the  following  table: 

Table  of  Values  and  Percentages  on  Various  Gambling 
Chances  on  the  Basis  of  Staking  a  Plaque  (100 

Francs).  3^^^,^ 

Value  Per- 

when  Staked  centage. 
Francs.         Francs. 

Even  chance — zero  suppressed  100.  ..      9. 

Trente-et-quarante — insured    99.  . .      1. 

Trente-et-quarante — not  insured  98.72  ..      1.28 

Roulette — six  even  chances 98.65  1.35 

En  plein  (on  one  number)  97.30  . .      2.70 

On  groups  of  numbers  97.30  . .      2.70 

Columns  and  dozens  97.30  ..      2.70 

American  roulette — all  chances  94.59  . .      5.41 

Chinese  roulette — all  chances  89.19  ..     10.81 

Petits  Chevaux  88.88  . .    11.12 

Horse-racing  as  advised  by  experts     ...     68.00  . .    32.00 

Horse-racing — straight  tips  33.33  . .    66.66 

The  100  francs  of  the  man  who  bets  on  "straight 
tips"  is  therefore  worth  only  one-third  of  the  100  francs 
of  the  man  who  plays  trente-et-quarante. 

A  Game  of  Certainty. 

Nevertheless,  you  cannot  hope  to  win  in  a  long 
campaign  against  the  bank.  The  percentage  against 
you,  though  small,  works  itself  out;  and  "if  we  examine 
the  play  from  the  bank's  standpoint,  we  shall  find  that 
it  is  never  a  game  of  chance,  but  one  of  absolute  cer- 
tainty from  first  to  last": 

"  There  are  altogether  fourteen  double  tables  at 
Monte   Carlo   and   thousands   of   places   where   money 

Itet>leu)  of  Reviews,  20 /^/OS. 



maf  be  staked.  The  number  of  players  is  indeed  so 
great  that  the  fluctuation  due  to  occasional  wins  on  the 
part  of  a  few  players  does  not  in  any  material  degree 
affect  the  steady  flow  of  gold  into  the  coffers  of  the 

"  Systems." 

Everyone  has  heard  of  the  player  with  a  system. 
All  systems,  says  Sir  Hiram,  are  modified  forms  of 
what  is  known  in  France  as  the  "  martingale,"  and  in 
l^ngland  as  "doubles  or  quits": 

"  There  are  many  modifications  of  the  '  martingale,' 
They  all  consist  of  some  mode  of  diminishing  the  rapid- 
ity of  the  progression,  and  so  spin  out  the  game  and 
make  it  last  longer,  in  order  to  give  the  player  more 
play  for  his  money.  He  generally  gets  the  play,  but 
not  the  money.  All  of  these  modifications,  however, 
only  increase  the  number  of  coups  and  the  average 
magnitude  of  the  stakes,  and  consequently  the  bank's 
percentage  in  a  corresponding  degree,  for  we  must  not 
lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  the  bank's  percentage  is 
always  multiplied  by  the  total  number  of  coups." 

Sir  Hiram  denies  that  people  go  to  Monte  Carlo  to 
win  money;  they  go  there  to  play.  He  adds  that  most 
books  on  the  subject  are  absurd,  and  exposes  the 
ridiculous  delusion  that  because  a  certain  number  has 
turned  up  consecutively  several  times,  the  other  num- 
ber is  likely  to  turn  up  next  time.  The  truth,  as  ex- 
pressed by  Professor  Richard  Proctor,  is:  "  If  a  penny 
is  pitched  into  the  air  twenty  times,  and  comes  down 
twenty  times  '  head  up,'  it  stands  just  an  even  chance 
of  coming  down  '  head  up '  on  the  twenty-first  time." 

How  Professional  Gamblers  Live. 
Sir  Hiram  admits  that  a  small  class  of  professional 
gamblers  do  live  at  the  expense  of  the  bank  with  a 
very  small  capital.  But  they  do  not  live  by  staking 
their  own  money,  but  by  dexterously  moving  the  stakes 
of  bona-fide  players  on  to  another  chance,  and  covering 
it  with  their  own  five-franc  pieces.  There  is  really  no 
chance  in  favour  of  winningr  at  Monte  Carlo,  whether 
with  or  without  a  system: 

"  Suppose  that  1,024  players,  each  with  a  capital  of 
512  louis,  accepted  the  invitation  and  visited  his  tables 
and  played  the  '  martingale.'  Suppose  they  only  seek 
to  win  one  louis  per  day.  According  to  the  law  of 
probabilities,  there  would  be  an  even  chance  that  two 
of  them  would  lose  their  capital,  the  first  day.  I  give 
in  the  table  below  the  state  of  affairs  as  the  game  pro- 
gressed, showing  the  probable  number  of  survivors: 

Ist    day  1,024  players. 

2nd    „     1,022 

512th     „ 512 

1,024th     „     256 

1,536th     „     128 

2,048th     „     64 

2,560th     „     32 

3,072nd    „ 16       „ 

3,584th    „     8        „ 

4,096th     „ 4 

4,608th     „     2       „ 

5,120th     „     1  player. 


An  Enormous  Canal. 

A  writer  in  the  "  Magazine  of  Commerce "  tells  of 
the  proposed  great  canal  traversing  Russia  and  con- 
necting the  Baltic  with  the  Black  Sea.  This  canal 
would  start  from  Riga  and  end  at  Cherson,  near  the 
Crimea— a    length    of   1,607    kilometres.       The    average 

depth  would  be  twenty-six  feet.  "  By  keeping  to  tkis 
line  some  of  the  most  important  towns  of  Central 
Russia,  such  as  Riga,  Dunabcrg,  Kief,  Ekaterinoslav 
and  Cherson,  would  be  served  directly,  whilst  tho»e 
on  the  tributaries  of  the  Dnieper  and  Duna  would  come 
within  easy  reach  by  the  deepening  of  these  tribu- 

The  canal  would  enable  Russian  men-of-war  and 
large  steamers  to  pass  through  the  heart  of  Russia, 
thus  strengthening  enormously  the  naval  position  in  the 
Black  Sea.  As  to  the  coat  of  this  great  undertaking, 
the  writer  says  that  "  an  American  syndicate  has 
declared  itself  ready  to  undertake  the  work  and  finish 
it  in  five  years,  and  at  a  cost  of  £32,500,000.  The 
construction  of  such  a  network  of  canals  would  con- 
stitute Russia  the  country  best  served  with  inland 
waterways  in  Europe.  They  would  bring  its  most 
distant  districts  '  near  to  the  sea,'  and  the  enterprise 
obviously  means  an  important  development  of  the 
'  world  traffic '  as  well  as  of  the  natural  riches  of  the 
land  itself." 

Motor  Triumphans. 

Mr.  Henry  Norman,  M.P.,  in  the  "World's  Work" 
for  March,  indites  a  paean  on  "  the  coming  of  the 
motor.'  As  the  age  of  the  stage-coach  has  given 
place  to  the  age  of  the  railway,  so  we  are  now  at  the 
beginning  of  the  age  of  the  motor.  The  motor  is  no 
longer  a  noisy,  costly,  and  unreliable  machine.  It  is 
silent,  it  is  odourless,  it  is  within  the  reach  of  all 
purses,  and  is  little  likely  to  break  down.  A  first-rate 
two-seated  car  by  one  of  the  best  makers  can  be  bought 
for  £200,  or  even  a  little  less.  It  can  be  worked  by 
any  intelligent  man  or  woman.  The  upkeep  of  a  big 
car  is  £116  a  year;  for  a  smaller  one  about  £10.  The 
visiting  radius  of  a  family  with  a  car  of  ten  or  twelve 
horse-power  is  comfortably  thirty  miles,  as  opposed  to  a 
horse  radius  of  twelve — that  is,  an  area  of  2,827  square 
miles  as  opposed  to  the  452  square  miles.  Mr.  Norman 
confidently  predicts  as  a  result  of  the  motor  the  re- 
vival of  our  country  districts,  of  our  country  housts, 
and  of  agriculture  and  the  revolution  of  the  passenger 
traffic  in  cities.  He  also  hazards  the  opinion  that  tb' 
motor  will  kill  the  tramway.  The  railways  will  suff  r 
and  will  probably  take  refuge  in  State  ownership.  At 
last,  though  late,  England  now  makes  some  of  the  r.est 

Roger  Pocock  contributes  to  "Pearson's  IV  igazine  " 
an  entertaining  article  on  the  Grand  Cannon  of  the 
Colorado — 600  miles  long,  twelve  miles  wif?-,,  and  over 
a  mile  deep.      He  thus  describes  its  appf  irance: 

"  I  sat  on  the  edge  at  dawn,  staring  ^^wn  into  blue 
mist  which  had  no  bottom.  I  coukl  see  the  other 
side,  though,  when  presently  the  rose  flush  caught  the 
further  wall.  It  looked  quite  near,  two  miles  perhaps, 
yet  I  knew  that  the  other  wall  was  really  twelve 
miles  away,  as  far  as  the  Alexandra  from  the  Crystal 
Palace.  All  London  and  her  hundred  suburbs  might 
lie  between,  peopled  by  five  million  citizens.  The 
greatest  metropolis  might  get  lost  down  in  that  space 
between  the  Canyon  walls.  And  then  through  the 
mist  I  saw  dim  shapes  of  mountains  far  beneath.  They 
looked  like  little  mounds,  but  they  were  bigger  than 
any  mountains  in  Great  Britain.  Ben  Nevis  and 
Snowdon  might  lie  in  the  shadow  of  these  walls.  The 
greatest  building  ever  raised  by  man  would  make  a 
little  speck  upon  that  rock  tower,  mighty  Niagara 
might  lurk  in  yonder  crack;  but  even  then  I  could  not 
see  to  the  bottom." 



April  20,  1903. 


The  National  Review. 

The  "  National  Review"  for  March — apart  from  its 
politics,  which  seem  to  get  more  hopeless  every  month — 
is  an  excellent  number,  and  contains  three  or  four 
article  of  first-rate  interest.  We  have  noticed  elsewhere 
the  paper  on  "  The  Kaisers,"  the  paper  on  Macedonian 
Reform,  Sir  Hiram  Maxim's  "  Play  and  Players  at 
Monte  Carlo,"  and  the  anonjrmous  paper  entitled  "A 
Final  Irish  Land  Measure."  There  is  therefore  very 
little  left  to  be  dealt  with  in  this  section. 

Against  the  Sugar  Convention. 

One  of  the  best  of  the  other  papers  is  Mr.  R.  J. 
Boyd's  scathing  exposure  of  the  Sugar  Convention. 
Mr.  Boyd  is  managing  director  of  the  great  firm  of 
James  Keiller  &  Co.,  but  he  writes  from  the  general 
public  point  of  view.  He  lays  stress  upon  the  fact 
that  the  West  Indian  sugar  industry  has  failed  quite 
apart  from  the  damage  inflicted  upon  it  by  the  Con- 
tinental bounties: 

"  Sugar  still  comes  to  this  country  from  the  West 
Indies  in  small  quantities,  it  is  true,  largely  because 
it  is  in  such  a  very  different  state  to  the  Continental 
product.  No  two  West  Indian  parcels  are  alike. 
There  is  no  standard  whatever,  and  every  parcel  has 
to  be  landed  and  sold  by  auction.  In  addition  to  this, 
it  loses  a  large  amount  of  weight  through  drainage,  and 
reaches  its  ultimate  end  in  a  very  different  condition 
to  that  produced  by  the  enterprising  German.  Small 
wonder,  then,  that  the  West  Indian  has  been  unable 
to  compete  in  this  market.  It  must  also  be  remem- 
bered that  in  importing  raw  sugar  to  this  country 
from  the  West  Indies,  freight  and  charges  have  to  be 
paid  on  a  large  proportion  of  waste  material,  which 
must  be  eliminated  in  the  process  of  refining,  and, 
with  freight  at  25s.  per  ton,  as  against  5s.  from  Ger- 
many and  France,  it  is  little  wonder  that  the  business 
is  unprofitable." 

If  the  beet  sugar  industry  of  Europe  were  curtailed, 
its  place  would  be  taken,  not  by  sugar  from  the  West 
Indies,  but  from  the  Cuban  producer  and  the  American 
sugar-refiner.  Another  point  raised  by  Mr.  Boyd  is 
that  it  will  be  quite  impossible  to  ascertain  whether  im- 
ported confectionery  and  other  goods  are  made  from 
the  bounty-fed  article  or  not. 

Radical  Oxford. 

"  The  Lament  of  an  Oxford  Tory,"  the  Hon.  Edwarc! 
Cadogan  to  wit,  is  caused  by  the  successful  onslaught 
which  Radicalism  and  allied  movements  have  made 
upon  that  old  centre  of  reaction.  Mr.  Cadogan  is 
simply  horrified  by  the  decline  of  Toryism  indicated 
by  the  following  revolutionary  changes: 

"  In  Oxford  the  Opposition  leaders  are  indeed  work- 
ing with  a  will.  The  walls  of  the  University  common 
rooms  and  public  meeting  places  are  continually  echo- 
ing to  the  forcible  and  vociferous  denunciations  of  Mr. 
Lloyd-George,  the  graceful  epigram  and  seductive  per- 
suasion of  Lord  Rosebery,  the  overpowering  eloquence 
of  Mr.  John  Morley  and  the  volubility  of  Sir  Henry 
Campbell-Bannerman.  At  one  time  some  of  our  col- 
leges even  fostered  the  opinions  of  the  so-called  Pro- 

Boers  until  the  ubiquitous  generals  asked  these  in- 
dividuals for  something  more  substantial  than  their 
sjrmpathy.  Certain  of  our  College  Fellows  rushed  into 
print  in  a  manner  which  startled  the  stagnant  feelings 
of  their  more  reserved  and  more  pedantic  brethren. 
One  of  the  first  indignation  meetings  against  the  Gov- 
ernment Education  Bill  took  place  in  Oxford,  and  there 
are  perhaps  few  places  in  England  where  this  measure 
has  met  with  so  much  hysterical  animosity.  The 
*  Imperial  idea,'  so  far  from  being  a  term  to  conjure 
with,  is  in  Oxford  dismissed  with  the  sneer  of  con- 
tempt. Even  the  question  of  Home  Rule  is  counten- 
anced as  a  question  thoroughly  worthy  of  considera- 
tion, if  not  of  approval.  In  fact,  when  it  is  said  that 
all  sections  of  the  Opposition  find  their  admirers  and 
followers  in  the  University,  even  the  Irish  Nationalist 
party  must  not  be  excluded  from   the   category." 

There  is  not  a  single  Conservative  Club  in  Oxford 
which  is  supported  either  by  great  numbers  or  by  any 
enthusiasm;  and  the  Union  Society  discusses  prob- 
lems which  savour  of  Hyde  Park   Socialism. 

The  Nineteenth  Century. 

The  "  Nineteenth  Century "  for  March  is  a  good 
number.  We  quote  from  the  article  by  Sir  John 
Gorst  elsewhere. 

Professor  Vambery  to  the  Rescue. 

Professor  Vambery,  of  Buda  Pesth,  is  one  of  the 
most  interesting  men  in  Europe.  Learned,  travelled, 
articulate  in  a  score  of  languages,  he  writes  and  speaks 
Elnglish  like  a  native.  But  the  note  is  always  that  of 
a  Magyar  whose  Russophobia  colours  and  distorts 
everything.  A  sincere  lover  of  England,  he  has  al- 
ways, in  season  and  out  of  season,  endeavoured—"  be- 
ing moved  thereto  by  the  devil  "—to  fill  the  English 
mind  with  hatred,  malice,  and  all  uncharitableness  to- 
wards Russia.  Mr.  Knowles  has  given  him  ample 
space  and  verge  enough  in  the  March  number  to  dis- 
course in  thirty-five  pages  upon  the  agitation  against 
England's  power.  It  all  resolves  itself  into  the  old 
cry  of  "  'Ware  the  Russian  Bear!"  But  towards 
the  end  of  his  article  Professor  Vambery  betakes  him- 
self to  the  less  objectionable  task  of  urging  the  Eng- 
lish, whom  he  loves  so  well,  to  bestir  themselves.  He 
tells  us  plainly  the  English  manufacturers  **  take  things 
far  too  easily,  and,  trusting  too  much  to  their  own 
supremacy,  many  an  advantage  has  been  lost;  the  pupils 
have  outstripped  their  master,  and  anger  and  envy  are 
of  little  avail  now.  Nothing  but  an  energetic  pulling 
of  oneself  together,  a  thorough  clearance  of  all  the  old 
system   of   education,    can  render   assistance   here." 

The  Average  Hindu  in  a  New  Light. 
In  an  article  bearing  the  altogether  misleading  title 
of  "  Reincarnation,"  a  Brahmin,  Marayan  Harischan- 
dra,  describes  the  Hindu  from  an  altogether  new  point 
of  view.  The  ways  of  a  Hindu,  he  says,  are  as  clear 
as  a  crystal  book.  His  motives  of  conduct  can  al- 
ways be  known  to  a  certainty,  and  his  rules  of  conduct 
are  as  clearly  defined  as  the  laws  of  gravitation.  His 
entire  conduct  depends  on  his  belief  in   the   reincar- 

Revieu)  of  Reviews,  SO/J^/OS. 



nation  and  his  doctrine  of  Karma,  which  is  equivalent 
to  the  Christian  doctrine  "As  thou  hast  sown  so  shalt 
thou  reap."  There  is  very  little  basic  difference  be- 
tween the  principles  of  Brahminism  and  Christianity: 

"  But  what  is  the  average  Hindu  in  his  dealings  with 
his  neighbour?  Even  this:  an  ideal  '  Christian/  save 
in  one  thing — where  the  interests  of  his  loved  ones  are 
at  stake.  Then  the  saintliest  Hindu  becomes  a  sinner. 
He  would  see  the  whole  world  go  to  ruin,  if  thereby  he 
could  bring  happiness  to  his  loved  one — be  it  parent 
or  child,  wife  or  mistress.  From  his  earliest  child- 
hood the  Hindu  is  taught  one  practical  virtue:  to  love 
his  own  people.  Reverence  for  parents,  love  for  bro- 
thers and  sisters,  constitute  his  chief  moral  training  in 
bis  youth;  from  that,  the  love  for  -svife  and  child  fol- 
lows in  the  course  of  nature.  It  becomes  the  key- 
note of  his  external  conduct." 

Other  Articles. 

Sir  Robert  Anderson  pleads  more  passionately  than 
"before  for  the  imprisonment  for  life  of  all  professional 
criminals;  Mr.  W.  F.  Lord  dissertates  upon  the  Bronte 
novels;  Mr.  L.  Douglas  discourses  on  the  Real  Cimabue; 
Mr.  I.  C.  Medd  gives  us  a  well-informed  fact-and-figure- 
crammed  paper  upon  Agricultural  Education  in  Holland. 
The  Dutch  spend  twice  as  much  per  head  on  this 
as  the  English.  The  paper  should  be  noted  by  all 
interested  in  English  agriculture. 

The  New  Liberal  Review^ 

The  first  article  in  order  and  importance  in  the 
^'  New  Liberal  Review  "  is  one  by  Mr.  T.  W.  Russell, 
M.P.,  on  Ireland  to-day.  He  remarks  on  the  peace 
that  is  now  prevalent  in  consequence  of  the  Conference 
between  landlord  and  tenant,  but  expresses  the  very 
strongest  apprehension  that  the  Government  will  spoil 
the  unexampled  opportunity  by  refusing  to  grant  the 
terms  agreed  upon.  Ministers,  he  thinks,  are  in  dan- 
ger of  spoiling  the  ship  for  a  ha'porth  of  tar.  He 
reminds  them  that  the  moment  the  State  grant  dis- 
appears the  Conference  report  ceases  to  have  binding 
force  upon  anyone,  and  the  prospect  of  a  settlement 

The  Hague  Tribunal. 

Mr.  Charles  Fox  laments  the  foolish  and  supercilious 
way  in  which  the  British  Government  has  endeavoured 
to  ignore  the  Hague  Tribunal.  There  has  been  a  gen- 
eral and  sullen  conspiracy  among  the  monarchs  of 
Europe  and  the  Chanceries  to  allow  the  functions  of 
the  Hague  Tribunal  to  lapse  by  neglect.  In  the  case 
of  Venezuela,  England  ought,  in  accordance  with  the 
Hague  agreement,  to  have  invoked  the  offices  of  a 
friendly  Power,  obviously  the  United  States.  In- 
stead, she  delivered  herself  over,  tied  and  bound,  to 
that  worst  foe  of  arbitration,  Germany.  The  writer 
remarks  on  the  firm  and  consistent  advocacy  of  the 
Hague  Tribunal  by  America  and  France. 

The  Cockneyisation  of  England. 
This  is  the  title  of  a  very  able  paper  by  Mr.  H.  A. 
Spurr.  It  is  full  of  smart  epigrams.  "  It  seems 
to  be  a  law  of  nature  that  when  two  or  three  are 
gathered  together,  one,  at  least,  begins  to  show  off." 
The  Cockney  "is  filled  with  the  belief  that  to  hurry 
is  God's  chief  mandate  to  the  good  citizen."  Next  to 
kurry,  the  Cockney  loves  noise.      There  is  more  than 

smartness  in  this  saying:  "  Civilisation  may  be  defined 
as  the  practice  of  acquiring  luxuries  and  dispensing 
with  necessities."  He  laments  that  provincialism 
dwindles,  and  the  town  is  more  and  more.  He  insists 
on  the  need  of  children  spending  a  year  or  two  in  the 
country,  to  be  spared  "the  cityfying  process,"  which 
sharpens  the  wit,  but  hardens  the  heart. 

Other  Articles. 
It  is  significant  of  much  that  a  political  review  feels 
it  necessary  to  give  the  second  place  to  a  conservative 
criticism  of  Professor  Van  Manen's  theory  of  the  Paul- 
ine Epistles.  The  writer,  the  Rev.  J.  O.  F.  Murray, 
welcomes  the  theory  as  the  reductio  ad  impossibile  of 
naturalism.  Mr.  R.  P.  C,  Johnson  laments  the  waste 
of  time  at  the  Law  Courts.  In  the  King's  Bench  Divi- 
sion last  October,  there  were  arrears  amounting  to 
873  cases.  He  suggests  additional  judges  for  the  Court 
of  Appeal  and  the  amendment  of  the  circuit  system. 
Mr.  W.  M.  G.  Williams  calls  attention  to  the  alarming 
increase  in  our  expenditure,  and  urges  the  appointment 
of  a  Committee  on  Estimates,  which  could  overhaul  ac- 
counts in  a  way  impossible  to  the  House  of  Commons 
as  a  whole.  Mr.  F.  C.  Benfield,  late  American  Con- 
sul, gives  a  lively  account  of  Venezuelan  vicissitudes. 

The  Fortnij^htly  Review. 

The  "  Fortnightly  "  for  March  is  a  good  average  num- 
ber. We  have  noticed  elsewhere  Dr.  Alfred  Russel 
Wallace's  interesting  speculations  on  "Man's  Place_  in 
the  Universe,"  Mr.  Wells'  instalment  of  "Mankind 
in  the  Making,"  Mr.  J.  G.  Alger's  "  Thirty  Years  in 
Paris,"  and  Mr.  Eltzbacher's  latest  contribution  to  the 
anti-German  campaign. 

A  New  Trans-Canadian  Railway. 

Colonel  G.  E.  Church  has  an  important  paper  on 
"  Canada  and  Its  Trade  Routes,"  in  which  he  pleads  for 
a  new  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  to  run  at  a  distance 
of  from  200  to  400  miles  of  the  present  line.  Colonel 
Church  lays  great  stress  on  Canada's  agriculturarl  fu- 
ture, and  upon  the  inadequacy  of  the  present  trans- 
port system.  The  production  of  wheat  per  acre  is 
already  in  Canada  double  that  of  the  United  States; 
and  in  the  North-West  Territories  there  are  205,000,000 
acres  of  arable  land  of  which  not  more  than  900,000 
are  at  present  under  cultivation.  But  geographical 
conditions  have  forced  all  Canada's  railways  to  run 
south  of  Lake  Winnipeg;  and,  strategically,  her  rail- 
ways are  in  close  touch  with  the  United  States  fron- 
tier. It  is  therefore  proposed  to  build  a  new  trans- 
continental railway,  which  would  cross  the  country  to 
the  north  of  Lake  Winnipeg.  The  line  would  take  an 
almost  direct  course  from  Quebec  to  the  northern  end 
of  Lake  Winnipeg,  reaching  the  Pacific  coast  at  Port 
Simpson.  It  would  be  2,839  miles  long,  or  from  250 
miles  to  550  miles  shorter  than  any  existing  Pacific 
railway.  The  line  would  also  have  the  advantage 
of  crossing  the  mountains  at  an  elevation  above  sea- 
level  one-half  that  of  any  other  Pacific  railway  north 
of  Mexico. 

The  Truth  About  Chinese  Labour. 

Sir  Hiram  Maxim,  in  his  paper  on  "  The  Chinese  and 
the  South  African  Labour  Question,"  appears  in  a 
new  role  as  humourist: 

"The  American  working-men  of  the  imported  va- 
riety are  fair-minded  and  noble  feUows,  and  believe  m 



April  20,  ip03. 

ffiving  everyone  a  fair  chance,  not  even  excepting  the 
keatken  Chinee.  They  sought  out  these  misguided 
Chinamen  and  attempted  to  reason  -vrith  them.  They 
pointed  out  the  error  of  their  ways,  and  did  all  they 
could  to  reform  and  civilise  the  poor  heathen,  and  to 
impress  upon  him  the  principles  and  practices  of  the 
white  workers,  but  all  to  no  purpose;  the  misguided 
heathen  still  worked  on  liKe  a  machine;  he  would  not 
eren  slow  up.  Then,  again,  the  Chinese  were  not 
satisfied  -with  doing  twice  as  much  as  they  should  on 
week  days.  Many  of  them,  who  were  profitably  em- 
ployed six  days  in  the  week,  acquired  small  plots  ot 
land,  which  they  cultivated  on  nights  and  on  Sundays, 
and  no  matter  how  poor  the  land  might  be,  they  made 
it  produce  amazing  crops.  It  was  like  magic;  they  got 
about  ten  times  as  much  out  of  the  land  as  ever  had 
been  done  before.  This  magic  system  of  market  gar- 
dening did  not  appear  a  square  deal  to  the  white 
workers— -it  gave  the  Chinese  a  great  advantage  over 
the  local  gardener,  which  was  very  exasperating.  Mobs 
were  organised,  and  many  of  the  little  heathen  farms 
were  destroyed.  But  there  seemed  to  be  no  end  to 
the  iniquity  of  these  degraded  heathens,  for  no  sooner 
did  they  find  their  plants  destroyed,  than  they  went 
fishing  on  Sundays,  and  managed  to  catch  as  many 
fish  in  one  day  as  the  local  fishermen  could  catch  in  a 
week.  It  sometimes  occurred  that  a  white  man  had 
trouble  with  his  imported  white  servants,  and  cases 
are  known  where  four  have  been  discharged  from  a 
single  household,  and  one  Chinaman  hired  in  their 
place,  who  at  once  became  cook,  chambermaid,  butler, 
and  gardener,  besides  doing  the  family  washing,  and 
even  then  he  complained  of  ennui,  as  he  had  not  suffi- 
cient work  to  keep  him  going— poor  fellow!  As  San 
Francisco  increased  in  wealth  and  population,  there 
arose  a  demand  for  'biled  shirts';  then  it  was  found 
that  the  Chinaman  was  the  best  '  washerwoman '  in 
the  world;  another  nail  in  his  coffin.  The  fact  is, 
there  appeared  to  be  no  end  or  limit  to  the  '  cussed- 
ness  '  of  this  benighted  heathen.  He  could  work  at 
any  trade,  do  anjrthing,  and  do  it  well.  The  profes- 
sional labour  agitator  and  the  walking  delegate  em- 
ployed interpreters,  and  did  all  they  could  to  make 
the  heathen  see  the  error  of  his  ways,  but  still  to  no 
purpose;  he  persisted  in  his  evil  ways,  and  refused  to 
reform.  Then  the  eight-hour  movement  came,  and  the 
white  men  attempted  to  get  the  heathen  to  join  them 
in  an  effort  to  get  an  eight-hour  day.  The  reply  they 
go^  was:  'We  already  got  him;  we  got  him  two  times, 
top  side  now.  We  workee,  workee  eight  hours,  two 
times  one  day;  bery  good  pigeon,  much  money,  top  side 
now.'  The  poor,  misguided  heathen  was  satisfied 
with  an  eight-hour  day  that  called  for  eight  hours  in 
the  forenoon  and  eight  hours  in  the  afternoon." 

His  article  is  written  in  this  strain  right  through.  If 
Chinese  are  imported  into  South  Africa,  he  says,  it  is 
absurd  to  suppose  they  can  be  kept  in  a  state  of 
slavery.  One  result  would  probably  be  that  the  out- 
put of  the  rich  mines  would  be  enormously  increased, 
and  that  the  Chinaman  would  begin  to  work  the  poor 
mines  at  a  profit,  increasing  the  output  of  gold  until 
the  metal  became  so  abundant  that  we  should  be  glad 
to  accept  Mr.  Bryan's  16  to  1  standard. 

The  Rand  Bewarplaatsen. 
Mr.  A.  Cooper  Key  attempts  to  estimate  the  value 
of  these  interests.  They  have  been  variously  estimated 
at  values  of  £44,000,000  and  £75,000,000.  '  Mr.  Key 
goes  into  details,  and  finds  the  value  a  paltry 
£2,320,180,  and  this  he  regards  as  the  outside  value. 
Estimates  of  £40,000,000  and  so  forth  were  presumably 

arrived  at  by  multiplying  the  total  number  of  claimi? 
in  question  by  some  assumed  average  of  a  Rand  mining 

"  Ai  equitably  might  one  value  London  from  Wool- 
wich to  Richmond  on  the  basis  of  Oxford  Street,  the 
leading  thoroughfares  of  the  City,  and  the  squares  of 

Other  Articles. 

Mr.  R.  S.  Rait  writes  on  "  The  Tercentenary  of  the 
Annexation  of  England,"  the  "  annexation  "  being  the 
coming  of  James  VI.  of  Scotland  and  I.  of  England. 
There \  is  a  literary  supplement  of  fifty  pages,  devoted 
to  a  play  by  Mr.  W.  Somerset  Maugham. 

The  Contemporary  Review. 

With  the  exception  of  Dr.  E.  J.  Dillon's  paper  on 
"  The  Reign  of  Terror  in  Macedonia,"  there  is  nothing 
in  the  March  "  Contemporary  Review "  calling  for 
special  note.  We  have  quoted  briefly  elsewhere  from 
Mr.  H.  W.  Nevinson's  article,  "  The  Chance  in  Ire- 
land," and  Mr.  W.  R.  Lawson's  article  on  the  waking 
up  of  British  railways  deserves  more  than  passing  no- 

The  Effect  of  Science  on  Religion. 

Archdeacon  Wilson  contributes  a  paper  on  "  The  In- 
fluence of  Scientific  Training  on  the  Reception  of 
Religious  Truth,"  from  which  we  quote  the  following 

"  Now,  the  most  permanent,  and  perhaps  the  most 
important,  effect  of  scientific  training  is  to  compel 
the  ultimate  a,doption  in  theology  of  some  scientific 
method  of  investigation,  and  to  force  us  to  find  some 
firm  ground  in  experience,  and  in  the  nature  of  things, 
for  those  beliefs  which  have  been  common  to  the  whole 
human  race,  and  form  the  foundation  of  religion.  The 
effect  is,  in  a  word,  to  compel  the  treatment  of  theology 
as  a  science;  and,  so  far  as  the  method  is  applicable, 
as  an  inductive  science.  None  of  us  can  as  yet  see  all 
that  is  implied  in  this.  But  this  at  any  rate  can  be' 
seen:  that  the  effect  is  to  compel  us  to  assume  the 
reality  of  the  phenomena  with  which  religious  experi- 
ence is  concerned,  and  to  make  them  the  foundation 
of  faith.  The  prevalence  of  scientific  method  demands 
serious  attention  to  the  science  of  theology,  as  one 
dealing  with  facts  of  the  highest  importance;  and  sub- 
mits to  verification  every  stage  of  the  inductions  of 
that  science.  The  ultimate  result  is  to  include  re- 
ligion in  the  realm  of  universal  law." 

Labour  and  Trades-Unionism. 

Mr.  Haldane,  M.P.,  reprints  an  address  on  "The 
Labourer  and  the  Law,"  which  he  read  some  weeks 
ago  to  a  working-class  audience.  In  discussing  the 
question  of  the  monetary  liability  of  trades  unions 
for  the  acts  of  their  agents,  he  says  that  the  only 
way  to  keep  the  benefit  funds  free  from  liability  would 
be  to  separate  the  benefit  organisation  from  the  union 
organisation.  Mr.  Haldane  recommends  that  the  ob- 
scurity of  the  present  law  should  be  cleared  up  in 
the  following  manner: 

"  The  appointment  of  a  small  commission  of  experts 
to  report  upon  the  state  of  the  law,  and  to  say  what 
it  is,  how  it  can  be  expressed,  and  what  it  ought  to  be. 
Such  a  commission  should  be  small,  and,  above  all, 
should  not  be  representative  of  special  points  of  view. 
It  ought  to  be  of  a  judicial  or  scientific  character.  A 
distinguished  judge  who  has  not  manifested  any  par- 

Review  of  Reviews,  SO/4/03. 



ticular  tendencies  in  regard  to  labour  questions  in  the 
eourse  of  his  judgments,  might  easily  be  found  to  pre- 
side oyer  it.  He  might  be  assisted  by  another  lawyer 
of  eminence,  selected  in  the  same  fashion.  For  the 
third  member  of  the  commission,  and  I  think  three 
would  be  the  best  number  to  constitute  it,  I  should 
like  to  see  chosen  some  distinguished  man — and  there 
are  several  alive — who  has  had  experience,  in  high  ad- 
ministrative office,  of  the  working  out  of  Trade  Union 
questions.  Such  a  commission  would  frame  a  report, 
which,  of  course,  would  not  be  conclusive,  as  to  the 
remedy.  But  the  conclusions  to  that  report  should  be 
embodied  in  a  Bill  and  submitted  for  the  consideration 
9i  Parliament  by  the  Goremment  of  the  day." 

Russian  Liberalism  and  the  Government. 
Mr,  Felix  Volkhovsky,  in  a  paper  entitled  "  The  Re- 
riral  of  Russian  Liberalism,"  gives  a  very  interesting 
account  of  the  open  revolt  caused  among  the  members 
of  the  local  governments  owing  to  the  policy  adopted 
by  the  Government  in  regard  to  the  committees  re- 
cently appointed  to  inquire  into  the  needs  of  Russian 
Agriculture.  The  zemstros  which  were  excluded  from 
the  deliberations  of  these  committees  protested,  and 
in  one  case  held  a  counter-meeting  in  Moscow,  where- 
upon several  of  the  members  were  summoned  to  St. 
Petersburg  to  receive  a  reprimand  from  the  Tsar. 
Others  lost  their  posts,  were  threatened  with  exile, 
or  sent  to  live  on  their  estates.  Little  petitions 
of  rights  were  drawn  up  in  several  provinces,  the  par- 
ties responsible  refusing  to  withdraw  them.  The 
Karkoff  Zemstvo  succeeded  in  passing  a  resolution  that 
a  complaint  should  be  lodged  in  the  Senate  against 
the  unjust  strictures  of  the  local  governor  and  they 
defeated  the  governor  when  he  threatened  to  close 
their  session  if  they  did  not  revoke  the  resolution.  In 
general  the  Liberals  seem  to  have  scored  heavily. 

Other  Articles. 
There  is  another  paper  by  "  Voces  Catholicse,"  this 
time  entitled  "  The  Abbe  Loisy  and  the  Catholic  Re- 
form Movement."  Madame  Duclaux  contributes  one 
of  her  charming  French  sketches.  The  Countess  Mar- 
tinengo-Cesaresco  contributes  a  paper  entitled  "  The 
Modern  Pastoral  in  Italy." 

The  Westminster  Review. 

The  March  number  opens  with  one  of  those  interest- 
ing reminiscent  articles  in  the  vmting  of  which  Karl 
Blind  excels.  Karl  Blind,  although  a  cosmopolitan,  is 
a  German  in  bone  and  sinew,  and  he  is  "  toujours  en 
redette  "  when  the  question  of  Alsace  is  touched  upon. 
Mr.  Franklin  Thomassen,  in  a  solid  but  vigorous  paper 
on  the  Housing  Question  in  1903,  maintains  against 
all  comers  his  favourite  thesis  that  nothing  can  be  done 
to  free  us  from  slum  piggeries  for  human  beings  until 
the  Land  Question  is  radically  dealt  with.  It  is  curi- 
ous to  note  the  genesis  of  a  fixed  idea.  Mr.  Thomas- 
sen  tells  us: 

"When  first  I  went  to  Kindergarten  school  at  the 
age  of  four.  "What  is  the  first  requisite  for  build- 
ing a  house?"  Up  went  my  hand  at  once.  *  Well, 
what?'  asked  the  teacher.  'Bricks,'  said  I.  'No,' 
was  the  reply,  '  land.'      I  had  not  thought  of  that." 

He  has  thought  of  little  else  ever  since.  There  is 
an  interesting  paper  on  the  improvement  of  the 
physique  of  the  English  schoolboy  in  the  last  twenty 

"  A  boy  of  thirteen  at  Marlborough  College  to-da/ 
weighs,  on  an  average,  5 J  lb.  more  than  a  boy  of  the 
same  age  weighed  there  in  1874,  and  he  is  also  two 
inches  taller.  Boys  of  thirteen,  fourteen,  fifteen,  and 
sixteen  at  Rugby  School  to-day  are,  as  at  Marlborough,  ' 
both  taller  and  heavier  than  they  were  twenty-two 
years  ago,  while  boys  of  seventeen  average  nine-tenths 
of  an  inch  taller,  but  are  1  lb.  less  in  weight.  A  Rugby 
boy  of  sixteen  who  goes  in  for  gymnastics  at  the  pre- 
sent day  is  5  ft.  7  in.  tall,  and  weighs  8  st.  13.7  lb., 
while  a  Marlborough  boy  of  the  same  age  is  5  ft.  6.2 
in.  tall,  and  weighs  9  st.  3.7  lb.  Thus  the  Marlborough 
boy  of  sixteen  is  four-fifths  of  an  inch  shorter,  but 
weighs  4  lb.  more  than  his  confrere  at  Rugby." 

There  is  a  useful  paper  on  the  Metropolitan  police. 
In  1900  the  police  had  957,000  more  people  to  look 
after  than  they  had  in  1890,  and  only  122  more  men 
have  been  added  to  the  force.  "  Since  1890,  no  less 
than  202,127  new  houses  have  been  built;  2,643  new 
streets  and  seven  new  squares  have  been  formed,  and 
the  length  of  these  new  streets  and  squares  is  531 
miles."  But  for  the  policing  of  this  vast  new  city  only 
122  constables  have  been  added  to  the  resources  of 
Scotland  Yard.  The  most  startling  paper  in  this 
number  is  that  of  Dr.  McDermott,  who  maintains  that 
late  marriages  are  the  chief  causes  of  the  increase  of 
insanity  which  is  so  much  to  be  deplored  in  Ireland. 
He  says: 

"  Put  in  the  simplest  terms,  the  mass  of  predisposi- 
tion to  insanity  is  due  to  the  fact  that  85  per  cent,  of 
those  under  thirty  are  childless,  while  under  no  pro- 
vision for  fitness  in  marriage  all  restraint  disappears.'^ 

He  denies  that  late  marriages  in  Ireland  result  in 
vice.  The  men  are  chaste  till  they  marry,  and  then 
beget  lunatics: 

"  In  Ireland  (1891),  in  every  hundred  males  between 
twenty  and  twenty-five  there  were  ninety  unmarried; 
between  twenty-five  and  thirty  the  number  was  sev- 

This  is  diametrically  opposed  to  the  ordinary  English 
notion  of  Irish  customs  in  the  matter  of  matrimony. 

The  World's  Work. 

The  "  World's  Work "  for  March  is  full  of  inters 
esting  matter.  Mr.  Norman's  prophecies  concerning 
the  motor  are  noticed  elsewhere.  Major  Evans-Gordon, 
M.P.,  gives  photographic  sketches  of  our  aliens  at  home 
in  their  native  districts  of  Western  Russia.  Major 
Hume  writes  optimistically  concerning  the  resurrection 
of  Spanish  trade.  The  dealings  of  Spain  with  Great 
Britain  are  increasing,  while  those  with  France  are 
dwindling.  The  cotton  and  paper  trades  are  especi- 
ally prosperous.  He  urges  that  "  out  of  Spain's  dis- 
asters has  arisen  an  unanticipated  good;  and  that  the 
country  is  entering  once  more  into  a  life  of  enterprise, 
activity,  and  industrial  prosperity."  Mr.  M.  D.  Chal- 
mers deals  with  the  state  of  the  Statute  Book,  which 
now  fills  22,000  pages;  1,800  judicial  decisions  form  the 
judge-made  law  in  connection  with  the  Licensing  Acts. 
He  contrasts  the  happy  condition  of  the  Frenchman^ 
whose  law  is  in  three  tiny  volumes.  Germany  has  a 
Civil  Code  which  goes  into  a  single  handy  volimae. 
Mr.  H.  A.  Humphrey  describes  a  new  fuel  gas  for 
manufacture  and  agriculture,  which  he  thinks  may  solve 
the  smoke  problem  in  cities,  and  supply  cheaper  heat 
and  cleanly  streets.  Glasgow  is  the  city  chosen  for 
description.  Mr.  A.  Maurice  Low  contributes  a  eulogy 
of  Senator  Hanna,  who  he  thinks  may  be  President. 



April  20 y  190^. 

Track  athletics  are  illustrated  with  strange  and  gro- 
tesque instantaneous  photographs  of  athletes  in  ac- 

The  Monthly  Review. 

The  "  Monthly  Review  "  for  March  is  a  good  number. 
We  have  noticed  among  the  leading  articles  Mr,  W.  B. 
Duffield's  paper  on  "  German  Policy  in  South  America." 
The  series  of  articles  by  Austro-Hungarians  on  the 
future  of  their  empire  is  continued  this  month. 

Count  Banffy's  Views. 
Count  BanflFy  agrees  with  last  month's  contributors 
that  there  is  not  the  slightest  foundation  for  the  belief 
that  the  dismemberment  of  the  Empire  is  probable. 
Both  Austria  and  Hungary  are  aware  that,  failing  the 
common  bond  which  ensures  them  twofold  indepen- 
dence, neither  could  survive  except  through  the  hard- 
est of  struggles.  He  refuses  to  take  the  Pan-German 
party  seriously,  and  cannot  imagine  the  realisation  of 
its  ideas  at  any  distance  of  time.  Dr.  Ritter  von 
Starzynski,  leader  of  the  Polish  Conservative  Party, 
urges  that  what  is  required  is  the  reconstruction  of  the 
State  on  its  natural  basis,  that  is,  provincial  autonomy 
and  equality  of  national  rights;  and  the  restriction  of 
business  transacted  in  the  Reichsrath  to  the  legis- 
lative labours  common  to  all  provinces. 

"  The  Restoration  of  Oxford." 

The  Rev.  James  H.  F.  Peile  has  an  elaborate  article 
under  this  heading,  in  which  he  makes  some  sugges- 
tions which  will  probably  be  regarded  as  revolutionary 
in  University  quarters.  He  points  out  that  the  age  at 
which  boys  go  to  college  has  risen  steadily;  with  the 
result  that  the  modern  undergraduate  is  too  old  for  the 
rules  and  restrictions  of  a  school;  while  on  the  other 
hand  duty  and  responsibility  are  not  yet  presented  to 
him  in  ^ae  convincing  form  they  wear  in  actual  life. 
He  proposes  that: 

"  (1)  Boys  should  go  to  the  public  schools  at  eleven 
or  twelve  at  the  latest,  and  proceed  to  the  University 
at  about  sixteen.  The  age  limit  for  open  scholarships 
should  be  fixed  at  sixteen  instead  of  nineteen. 

"  (2)  There  should  be  a  three  years'  course  with 
residence  (Honour  and  Pass  as  at  present)  for  the 
Bachelor  of  Arts  degree.  The  curriculum  would  have 
to  be  modified  somewhat  to  suit  the  young  students, 
but  not,  I  think,  as  much  as  might  be  supposed.  Able 
boys  are  quite  fit  at  sixteen  to  read  Classics  and  His- 
tory, and  certainly  Science,  on  an  intelligent  and  com- 
prehensive system;  and  any  attempt  to  lower  the  pass 
standard  would  land  the  explorer  at  once  on  the  bed- 

"  (3)  There  should  be  a  further  three  years'  course 
for  the  Degrees  of  Master  of  Arts  and  Bachelor  of 
Divinity,  Law,  Medicine,  Science,  and  Letters.  This 
course  would  be  confined  to  those  who  in  the  earlier 
course  had  shown  themselves  capable  of  serious  study, 
not  all  those  or  only  those  who  had  been  placed  in  the 
first  class  in  any  examination.  The  second  Degree 
would  be  given  (not  necessarily  by  examination)  on 
work  done  by  the  student,  and  selected  within  wide 
limits  by  himself,  especial  importance  being  attached  to 
original   work  in  any  branch." 

The  majority  of  men  would  pass  out  of  the  Univer- 
sity into  active  life  at  nineteen  instead  of  at  twenty- 
two  or  twenty-three. 

Mr.  Bull  and  Mr.  Balfour. 

This  month's  stock  of  satirical  verse  is  devoted  to  a 
dialogue  entitled  "  The  Stock  Exchange,"  between 
John  Bull  and  his  Prime  Minister.  Mr.  Bull  protests 
against  the  indolent  gambling  spirit  of  the  age;  and 
Mr.  Balfour  retorts  that  it  is  not  the  business  of 
the  legislator  to  guard  public  morals. 

Other  Articles. 

General  Brabant  replies  to  that  part  of  De  Wet's 
book  which  deals  with  the  siege  of  Wepener.  Mr. 
Andrew  Lang  reviews  Mr.  Myers'  "Human  Personal- 
ity." Mr.  Sidney  Colvin  writes  an  article  on  Keats' 
"  Ode  to  a  Nightingale,"  and  reproduces  in  facsimile 
for  the  first  time  the  manuscript  of  the  famous  poem, 
which,  it  appears,  recently  passed  into  the  hands  of 
the  Earl  of  Crewe.  The  changes .  subsequently  made 
by  Keats  in  the  original  draft  are  few,  but  all  are  dis- 
tinct  improvements. 

Blackwood's  Magazine. 

"  Blackwood's  Magazine"  opens  with  a  retrospect  of 
the  Delhi  Durbar,  the  writer  of  which  tries  to  explain 
the  remarkable  fact  that,  from  first  to  last,  there  was 
an  entire  absence  of  enthusiasm.  There  is  a  very 
touching  war  story,  apparently  written  by  "  Lines- 
man," entitled  "  Cedric."  Charles  Hanbury  Williams 
writes  a  delightful  travel  paper  describing  Vancouver 
and  Victoria.  He  concludes  his  sketch  by  declaring 
"there  may  be  lovelier  cities  than  Victoria  in  the 
world,  but  it  has  never  been  my  luck  to  see  them." 
Mr.  Wyon's  Montenegrin  Sketches  is  another  capital 
description  of  unfamiliar  ground  and  primitive  people. 
The  article  on  "  The  Needs  of  Oxford  "  is  also  worth 

Page's  Magazine. 

The  March  number  contains  several  interesting 

Slow  versus  Rapid  Vessels. 

Dr.  B.  W.  Ginsburg  writes  upon  the  present  position 
of  British  shipping.  Commenting  upon  the  supremacy 
of  Germany  as  regards  speed,  he  says: 

"  It  is  not  altogether  difficult  to  see  why  shipowners 
prefer  the  slower  vessels.  In  the  first  place  they  cost 
much  less  to  build.  The  '  Ivernia,'  for  example, 
would  not  cost  half  as  much  as  the  '  Kaiser  Wilhelm 
der  Zweite.'  She  has  accommodation  for  a  good  number 
of  passengers  of  all  classes,  but  owing  to  the  more 
popular  rates  which  she  can  charge,  and  to  the  large 
numbers  she  can  take,  she  will  all  the  year  round  get 
a  remunerative  list. 

"  The  *  Deutschland's'  experience  has  shown  that  from 
November  to  April  it  is  not  worth  while  to  put  to  sea. 
The  *  Ivernia'  again  carries  a  great  cargo — probably 
some  10,000  tons— besides  her  passengers,  whilst  a  fast 
mail  boat  can  only  find  room  for  her  coal,  her  mails, 
and  a  few  hundred  tons  of  measurement  goods." 

The  article  points  out  how  much  foreign  Govern- 
ments do  for  their  shipowners,  and  how  little  the 
British  Government  does. 

The  Future  Express. 
Mr.  H.  C.  Fyfe  contributes  an  article  upon  express 
passenger  travelling  in  the  future.      He  says  that  very 

Review  of  Reviews,  20/^/03. 



iiigh  speeds  on  present  day  railways  appear  to  be  un- 
attainable for  two  reasons.  One  is  the  unsuitability 
of  the  two-rail  track  for  great  speeds,  and  the  other  is 
the  "  mixture  of  speeds."  Mr.  Fyfe  then  describes 
the  mono-rail  (Behr)  system  and  the  suspended  rail- 
way system.  The  former  has  been  used  for  some 
twelve  years  between  Listowel  and  Ballybunion  in  Ire- 
land, and  the  Manchester  and  Liverpool  mono-rail  line 
will  shortly  be  opened.  The  speed  is  to  be  110  miles 
-an  hour,  and  the  journey  will  be  performed  in  twenty 
instead  of  forty  minutes.  If  this  railway  proves  a  suc- 
cess many  more  may  be  built;  and  certainly  the  pros- 
pect is  alluring,  for  Londoners  would  reach  Brighton  in 
twenty-five  minutes,  Birmingham  in  an  hour,  Edinburgh 
in  3^  hours,  and  Holyhead  in  2^  hours!  The  sus- 
pended system  is  used  between  Barmen  and  Elberfeld 
in  Germany.  No  great  speeds  have  been  attained,  but 
there  appears  no  reason  to  doubt  that  they  could  be 
reached.  The  chief  advantage  of  the  system,  how- 
ever, is  that  the  track  can  be  slung  up  over  streets, 
rivers,  canals  and  railway  lines  well  out  of  the  way  ot 
all  ground  traffic. 


The  modern  torpedo  is  dealt  with  by  Mr.  Gustave 
Hubert.  The  article  is  illustrated  by  a  series  of  very 
fine  photographs.  There  is  always  a  fascination  abou. 
these  uncanny  death-dealing  instruments,  and  Mi. 
Hubert's  minute  description  of  how  they  are  made  an(i 
how  fired  makes  interesting  reading.  It  will,  howevei, 
surprise  most  people  to  hear  that  a  torpedo  is  depend- 
able and  likely  to  hit  the  object  aimed  at: 

"  Thanks  to  the  hydrostatic  valve,  the  pendulum,  and 
the  gyroscope,  the  Whitehead  torpedo  is  almost  certain 
to  hit  the  object  at  which  it  is  aimed.  In  peace  man- 
oeuvres the  Whitehead  has  often  been  run  absolutely 
dead  straight,  with  no  divergence  either  up  or  down, 
or  from  right  to  left,  to  a  distance  of  2,000  yards.  In 
1898  the  range  of  the  Whitehead  was  officially  placed 
at  800  yards,  so  the  value  of  the  gyroscope  is  quite 
evident.  By  means  of  the  gyroscope  the  torpedo 
can  be  made  to  turn  to  any  given  angle  from  the  direc- 
tion of  discharge,  and  then  run  in  a  straight  line." 

The  Engincermg  Magazine. 

The  March  number  contains  several  interesting  ar- 
ticles. Mr.  Emerson's  article  dealing  with  the  Ameri- 
can overland  transport  to  the  Orient  is  noticed  at  some 
length  elsewhere. 

Modern  Dredges. 

Mr.  Robinson  contributes  an  informing  article  upon 
excavating  and  dredging  machinery.  The  paper  is  illus- 
trated with  fine  photographs  of  different  dredges  at 

"In  ten  years  the  paying  load  carried  by  a  represen- 
tative ocean  cargo  steamer,  and  by  a  representative 
freight  train,  has  about  doubled,  and  a  similar  rate  of 
increase  is  observed  in  the  capacity  of  dredges  and 
steam  shovels.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  this  growth  will 
continue,  limited  only  by  the  conditions  of  each  case. 
The  limiting  condition  in  the  size  of  steamships  is  only 
in  the  capacity  of  harbours  and  channels  and  the  means 
of  supplying  and  trans-shipping  cargo.  The  limits  to 
the  size  of  a  dredge  are  only  in  the  magnitude  of  the 
work  it  may  have  to  do  to  ensure  that  it  shall  be  pro 
fitably  employed  for  a  sufficient  length  of  time,  and  alfio 
in  the  facilities  for  disposing  conveniently  of  the  ma- 
terial dredged." 

Almost  Human. 

After  describing  many  dredges  for  various  purpose>, 
Mr.  Robinson  gives  the  following  account  of  the  dipper 

"  The  home  of  the  dipper  dredge  is  on  the  Grea ' 
Lakes.  There  it  flourished,  and  in  the  smaller  sizes  and 
in  non-tidal  fresh  water  at  20  ft.  depth  was  marvellously 
efficient.  A  good  wooden  dredge  of  ten  years  ago  which 
cost,  say,  $30,000,  would  do  1,500  or  2,000  cubic  yard- 
per  ten  hours  with  a  crew  of  six  men  on  three  tons  of 
coal.  It  could  lift  its  spuds,  move  up,  and  reset  again 
in  ninety  seconds.  It  stands  alone  like  a  table  on  iti 
legs,  with  no  moorings  to  obstruct  navigation.  By 
means  of  its  dipper  on  the  bottom  it  can  move  itself 
about  crab-fashion  in  any  direction,  and  by  the  same 
means  can  push  the  barges  about  which  it  is  loading. 
It  can  manoeuvre  itself  in  any  direction,  load  scows,  di^- 
foundations,  pull  piles,  lay  concrete  blocks,  deposit  laac-v 
filling,  lift  boulders,  raise  wrecks,  dredge  hard  or  soft 
material,  and  do  nearly  everything  but  vote.  Its  great 
simplicity  made  it  light  in  repairs.  With  tools  like 
these,  and  suitable  for  their  work,  the  marvel  is  not 
that  American  contractors  do  not  use  the  big  and  costly 
European  ladder  dredges,  but  that  these  useful  Ameri- 
can tools  do  not  find  a  wider  recognition  in  Europe  and 

The  British  Naval  Engineer. 

The  vexed  question  of  the  position  and  rank  of  the 
engineer  officers  in  the  navy  has  been  the  cause  of  Lord 
Selborne's  new  scheme.  Discussion  has  been  raging 
over  it  ever  since  it  appeared,  and  Mr.  Charles  M.  John- 
son adds  a  further  contribution  to  the  literature  on  the 
subject.  This  article  is,  however,  more  a  review  of  the 
controversy  to  date  than  an  expression  of  his  own 
opinion.  The  engineer  officer  of  the  future  will  have 
executive  rank  and  authority,  so  that  he  will  be  able  to 
give  an  order  to  any  man  in  the  ship  without  the  pos- 
sibility of  its  being  disobeyed  or  even  questioned. 
Whether  the  engineer  officer  of  the  future  will  be  as 
good  an  engineer  as  his  predecessor  is  a  question  time 
and  experience  alone  can  solve. 

Other  Articles. 

The  remaining  articles  are  more  technical.  Mr. 
Buchanan  continues  his  papers  upon  Foundry  Manage- 
ment. Mr.  A.  Williams,  jun.,  gives  another  paper  upon 
the  Management  of  Metalliferous  Mines,  and  Mr.  Wm. 
Magrutor  writes  upon  cost-finding  methods  for  moder- 
ate-sized shops. 

The  Pall  Mall  Magazine. 

The  "  Pall  Mall  Magazine"  contains  an  article  by 
Mr.  Robert  Machray  entitled  "  The  Prime  Minister  a*. 
Whittingehame,"  which  is  noticed  at  length  elsewhere. 
There  are  a  number  of  other  articles  of  interest.  Lady 
Randolph  Churchill  writes  on  "  The  American  Woman 
in  Europe."  She  says  that  their  success  is  greatly  due 
to  the  wonderful  adaptability  which  they  display  with- 
out at  the  same  time  losing  their  individuality.  Ameri- 
can girls  are  much  better  read  than  English  girls,  while 
on  the  whole  the  American  woman  is  perhaps  the  best 
dressed  in  the  world.  Mr.  Frederick  Moore  wTites  on 
"  President  Roosevelt,  the  Man  of  Duty."  His 
article  is  admirably  illustrated  with  photographs  of 
the  President  on  his  tours.  Mr.  Moore  mentions  that 
President  Roosevelt  and  his  wife  do  not  attend  the 
same  church,  the  President  attending  a  little  Dutch 
Reformed    Church    in    an    alley    off    Fifteenth    Street. 



April  20,  ipos- 

wkile  his  wife  is  a  member  of  what  is  kno\rn  in  Wash- 
ioffton  as  "  tke  English  Church."  Mr.  Frederic  Lew 
contributes  an  illustrated  paper  on  "  Paul  Cesar  Helleu, 
Etcher  and  Pastellist."  The  chapter  of  Literary  Geog- 
ntphj  deals  with  George  Eliot's  country,  and  is  con- 
tributed by  Mr.  William  Sharp. 

The  North  American  Review. 

The  "  North  American  Review"  is  by  no  means  keep- 
ing up  to  the  level  it  maintained  during  the  last  two 
years.  The  February  number  contains  no  single  article 
of  first-rate  interest,  unless  it  be  Mark  Twain's  con- 
tinued strictures  on  Christian  Science.  We  notice 
elsewhere  Mr.  Sydney  Brooks*  paper  on  "  The  King  of 
Italy,"  and  Mr.  Charles  Johnston's  article  on  "  Mace- 
donia's Struggle  for  Liberty."  There  is  hardly  anything 
else  in  the  number  which  needs  quotation.  Justice  W. 
J.  Gaynor  continues  his  attack  on  Police  Lawlessness, 
and  Mr.  Howard  Gans  replies  to  Mr.  Gaynor's  former 

The  Origin  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine. 

Mr.  W.  L.  Scruggs  writes  on  this  subject.  He  deals 
with  the  origin  of  the  Doctrine,  chiefly  from  the  point 
of  view  of  showing  how  little  Canning  had  to  do  with 
it.  Canning  opposed  the  particular  schemes  of  the  Holy 
Alliance,  but  there  and  then  his  Monroeism  ended: 

"  Thus  disappears  the  historical  fiction  that  Mr.  Can- 
ning *  inspired,'  if  he  did  not  originate,  the  Monroe 
Doctrine.  So  far  from  that,  he  distinctly  disapproved 
of  it,  except  in  so  far  as  it  related  specifically  to  the 
designs  of  the  Holy  Alliance.  He  was  ready  to  take 
steps  to  prevent  the  Allied  Powers  from  interfering  on 
behalf  of  Spain  in  her  contest  with  her  revolted  Ameri- 
can colonies,  and  he  was  equally  anxious  to  prevent  the 
partitioning  of  those  colonies  among  those  Powers. 
But  he  was  not  willing  to  go  the  length  of  recognising 
the  independence  of  the  new  republics;  nor  was  he  will- 
ing to  concede  the  main  point  in  Mr.  Adams'  note — 
r.amely,  that  the  American  continents  were  thence- 
fortn  :o  be  considered  closed  to  European  colonisation. 
On  the  concrav'-.  he  held  distinctly,  as  his  biographer 
tells  us,  that  '  the  United  States  had  no  right  to  take 
umbrage  at  the  establish  n^ent  of  new  colonies  from 
Hurope  on  any  unoccupied  parts  oi  the  American  con- 
tinent.' " 

The  Industrial  Crisis  in  the  Philippines. 

Mr.  Brewster  Cameron  writes  on  this  subject.  His 
suggestions  are:  First,  a  stable  currency;  secondly,  a 
further  reduction  of  the  Dingley  tariff;  thirdly,  the 
amendment  of  the  Philippine  Act  of  Congress  in  certain 
particulars.  He  says  that  the  Philippine  Government 
has  already  lost  over  $1 ,000,000  directly  from  fluctuations 
ia  the  Mexican  dollar.  One  of  the  laws  which  Mr. 
Cameron  protests  against  is  that  limiting  the  ownership 
of  land  by  corporations  to  2,500  acres.  A  2,500  acre 
plantation,  he  says,  Avill  not  furnish  enough  cane  to 
operate  economically  a  modern  sugar-milling  plant,  and 
this  provision  has  prevented  the  legitimate  development 
of  the  islands. 

Other  Articles. 

Dr.  Washington  Gladden  writes  on  the  late  Phillips 
Brooks.  Mr.  T.  F.  Ryan,  writing  on  "  The  Political 
Opportunity  of  the  South,"  protests  against  Federal  in- 
terference with  State  rights.  Professor  Brander  Mat- 
thews writes  on  "  The  Art  of  the  Dramatist." 

The   Atlantic  Monthly. 

In  the  March  "Atlantic,"  President  Arthur  T.  Hadley 
continues  his  discussion,  begun  last  month,  of  "Aca- 
demic Fi'eedom  in  Theory  and  in  Practice."  So  far 
from  accepting  the  view  that  higher  education  must  be 
controlled  by  the  State  in  order  to  secure  freedom  of 
teaching.  President  Hadley  holds  that  "the  tendency 
to  jeopardise  the  freedom  of  the  teacher  is  probably 
more  conspicuous  among  State  Universities  than 
among  endowed  ones."  It  is  conceded  that  the  placing 
of  the  administration  of  the  University  in  the  hands  of 
an  independent  board,  as  is  done  in  many  States,  is  a 
far  better  method  than  more  direct  control  by  Governor 
or  Legislature ;  but,  says  President  Hadley,  "  if  the 
board  is  really  independent,  you  have  put  the  possi- 
bility of  control  as  fully  out  of  your  hands  as  if  it  were 
a  private  corporation;  and  if  you  have  not  made  it  thus 
independent,  you  have  the  pretenct)  of  freedom  without 
the  reality." 

A  World-Legislature. 

The  occasions  for  international  conferences  on  various 
matters  have  been  so  frequent  of  late  that  Mr.  Ray- 
mond L.  Bridgman  is  able  to  make  an  argument  of  no 
little  force  and  plausibility  in  favour  of  a  world-legis- 
lature. He  maintains  that,  as  a  matter  of  self-interest, 
the  nations  must  soon  have  a  permanent  legislative 
body  as  a  means  of  establishing  regulations  for  the 
benefit  of  all.  Woi'ld-legislation  has  already  occarred 
repeatedly,  although  no  world-legislature  has  been  or- 
ganised. Special  meetings  have  been  held  for  special 
purposes.  The  only  instance  of  absolute  world-legisla- 
tion thus  far  is  that  of  the  International  Postal  Union. 
The  establishment  of  the  Hague  Court  of  Arbitration 
may  also  be  regarded  as  an  act  of  world-legislation,  so 
far  as  the  signatory  nations  were  concerned.  Mr. 
Bridgman's  proposition  involves  the  organisation  of  a 
permanent  system  for  dealing  with  all  such  international 
problems  as  now  require  the  convening  of  separate 
bodies  of  delegates. 

Other  Articles. 
Captain  Mahan  contributes  a  broadly  philosophical 
paper  on  "  The  Writing  of  History,"  and  an  excellent 
resume  of  recent  nature  books  is  given  by  Mr.  John 
Burroughs,  under  the  title,  "  Real  and  Sham  Natural 
History."  The  story  of  "  Santa  Teresa  "  is  charmingly 
retold  by  Annie  Fields. 

Lippincott^s  Magazine. 

Eben  E.  Rexford  contributes  to  "  Lippincott's"  for 
March,  which  is  largely  a  fiction  number,  a  brief, 
practical  article  on  "  Rural  and  Village  Improvement 
Societies,"  his  object  being  to  show  some  of  the  bene- 
fits brought  about  by  local-improvement  societies  and 
the  means  by  which  they  can  be  realised.  "  Individual 
effort,"  he  says,  "  is  the  great  factor  of  success  in  an 
undertaking  of  this  kind.  Improvement,  like  charity, 
should  begin  at  home  before  it  undertakes  the  broader 
work  of  the  community."  He  advocates  the  planting  of 
American  trees  and  shrubs  on  the  village  lots,  gives 
the  preference  to  hardy  plants  for  decorating  the  home 
grounds,  and  lays  especial  stress  on  the  lawn. 

A  pleasant  peep  into  the  Idler  Club,  as  conducted  by 
Jerome  K.  Jerome,  is  given  by  his  assistant  editor,  Mr. 
G.  B.  Burgin,  in  the  March  number  of  the  *'  Younft 

Revieuf  of  Revietoe,  29/^/03. 



The  Century. 

Tke  subject  of  European  immigration  to  the  United 
Stat^  is  discussed  in  a  group  of  three  articles.  The 
picturesque  phases  of  the  matter  are  treated  in  a  char- 
acteristic sketch  by  Jacob  A.  Riis,  entitled  "  In  the 
Gateway  of  Nations."  Mr.  Riis  graphically  describes 
the  experiences  of  the  immigrant  as  he  lands  at  Ellis 
Island  and  is  put  through  the  various  formalities  pre- 
liminary to  admission  as  a  prospective  citizen  of  the 
great  republic. 

M.  Gustav  Michaud  analyses  the  complex  question  of 
races  with  a  view  to  determining  some  of  the  features 
of  the  coming  American  type.  Professor  Franklin  Gid- 
dings,  commenting  on  the  statistics  brought  out  by  Mr. 
Michaud,  reminds  us  that  the  English  people,  at  the 
time  when  the  early  settlements  were  made  in  America, 
was  itself  the  product  of  a  racial  admixture  quite  as 
startling  as  that  which  is  foretold  with  regard  to  the 
United  States,  and  which,  in  fact,  we  are  now  witness- 

Why  Capital  Should  "Organise." 

Apropos  of  recent  issues  between  labour  and  capital, 
Mr.  Herman  Justi  raises  the  question  whether  there  is 
not  at  the  present  time,  after  all,  greater  need  of  an 
organisation  on  capital's  side  than  on  labour's.  He 
makes  a  sharp  distinction  between  organised  labour  and 
consolidated  capital.  This  distinction  clearly  appears 
whenever  there  is  a  conflict  between  unorganised  capital 
and  organised  labour;  that  is  to  say,  capital  may  have 
been  consolidated  without  any  system  having  been 
created  which  ensures  the  united  action  of  the  capital- 
ists in  a  time  of  conflict  with  their  labourers.  The 
recent  anthracite  strike,  for  example,  showed  the  own- 
ers of  the  mines  to  be  really  at  war  with  one  another 
on  various  points,  while  the  miners'  union  presented  a 
united  front. 

Other  Articles. 

Professor  William  H.  Pickering  states  what  has  been 
done  during  the  past  fifteen  years  by  way  of  securing 
sites  for  American  observatories  in  localities  where  the 
atmosphere  is  "steady."  By  steadiness  of  the  atmo- 
sphere Professor  Pickering  means  the  absence  of  waver- 
ing, such  as  is  indicated  by  the  shimmer  in  the  air  seen 
in  looking  at  an  object  across  a  hot  stove,  or  along  a 
railroad  track  on  a  hot  summer  day.  Sites  of  this 
character  have  been  secured  in  Jamaica,  Peru,  and  in 
a  few  localities  in  the  United  States,  such  as  the  top 
of  Pike's  Peak,  and  Flagstaff,  Arizona. 

Mr.  George  Buchanan  Fife  tells  the  wonderful  story 
of  the  American  Tobacco  Trust. 

Professor  Justin  H.  Smith,  in  his  series  of  articles  on 
"  The  Prologue  of  the  American  Revolution,"  gives  a 
detailed  account  of  Montgomery's  struggle  for  Quebec, 
with  numerous  illustrations. 

Mr.  Will  Paine  contributes  an  interesting  description 
of  the  Chicago  Board  of  Trade,  which  he  insists  is  really 
a  national  institution  as  a  "clearing-house  of  opinion." 

Harper^s  Magazine. 

and  New  Hampshire  mountain  regions  and  their  homely 
types.  The  number  opens  with  Mr.  Edwin  A.  Ab- 
bey's illustrations  for  "  Richard  II.,"  printed  in  a 
"Critical  Comment"  by  no  less  than  Algernon  Charles 
Swinburne.  The  poet  dares  to  say  just  what  is  good 
and  bad  in  this  first  historic  play  of  the  young  Shakes- 
peare, and  considers  the  play's  greatest  interest  to  be  in 
"the  obvious  evidence  which  it  gives  of  the  struggle 
between  the  worse  and  better  genius  of  its  author." 
Mr.  Swinburne  thinks  that  this  first  essay  of  Shakes- 
peare's into  historical  drama  shows  even  more  imper- 
fections than  "  Romeo  and  Juliet,"  the  first  tragedy. 

This  number  of  "  Harper's "  is  rich  in  fiction  and 
imaginative  illustration.  Besides  the  chapter  in  Mrs. 
Ward's  novel,  "  Lady  Rose's  Daughter,"  there  is  the 
second  part  of  Maurice  Hewlett's  new  tale,  "  Buondel- 
monte,"  and  capital  short  stories  by  Norman  Duncan, 
Margaret  Sutton  Briscoe,  Herman  Whitaker,  and 

In  the  "Editor's  Study,"  Mr.  H.  M.  Alden,  the 
veteran  editor  of  "  Harper's,"  discusses  the  touchiness 
of  magazine  contributors  concerning  suggestions  of 
changes  in  their  manuscripts,  and  agrees  with  Mr. 
Howells  that  it  is  chiefly  the  second-rate  young  author 
somewhat  spoiled  by  a  little  quickly  earned  popularity 
that  shows  the  greatest  horror  at  any  tampering  with 
his  most  trivial  sentences.  Mr.  Alden  says,  and  no  one 
is  a  better  authority,  that  the  best  literary  workmen 
welcome  suggestions  of  changes  in  their  works,  and  tells 
of  one  author  who  contributed  to  "  Harper's  "  for  forty 
years  without  ever  furnishing  a  short  story  that  was  not 
susceptible  to  easy  improvement. 

The  March  "  Harper's "  is  almost  entirely  devoted 
to  fiction  and  other  contributions  of  an  eesthetic  nature. 
Exceptions  are  the  second  instalment  of  Mr.  Thomas 
A.  Janvier's  "  Dutch  Founding  of  New  York,"  "  Recent 
Discoveries  in  the  Forum,"  by  G.  Boni,  and  "  Our 
American  Tyrol,"  a  pleasant  description  of  the  Vermont 

McCIure^s  Magazine. 

Following  up  the  article  which  appeared  in 
"McClure's"  for  October  last,  under  the  title  "Tweed 
Days  in  St.  Louis,"  Mr.  Lincoln  Steffens  contributes  a 
paper  to  the  March  number  on  "  The  Shamelessness  of 
St.  Louis."  He  relates  all  the  recent  movements  of 
the  boodlers  in  that  city,  and  concludes  with  some 
pessimistic  paragraphs  on  the  supineness  of  the  people. 
In  April  the  city  votes  for  municipal  legislators,  and 
since  the  municipal  assembly  has  been  the  scene  of 
most  of  the  corruption,  it  would  seem  that  boodling 
would  surely  be  an  issue  at  that  election.  But  Mr. 
Steffens  hazards  no  prediction.  He  was  in  the  city  in 
January,  and  states  that  at  that  time  the  politicians 
were  planning  to  keep  this  issue  out  of  the  election, 
their  scheme  being  to  combine  on  one  ticket — that  is  to 
say,  each  group  of  leaders  was  to  nominate  half  the 
nominees,  who  were  to  be  on  the  same  ticket,  making  no 
contest  at  all,  and  "to  avoid  suspicion,  these  nomina- 
tions were  to  be  exceptionally— yes,  remarkably— -good." 

Another  Chapter  of  the  Standard  Oil. 

Miss  Ida  M.  Tarbell  continues  her  narrative  of  the 
successive  steps  by  which  the  Standard  Oil  Trust  was 
built  up  on  the  ruins  of  its  competitors.  In  the  main, 
it  is  a  story  of  quiet  absorption  of  the  independent  re- 
fineries by  the  Standard,  with  occasional  episodes  like 
that  of  the  Pennsylvanias  fight.  The  period  covered  in 
this  instalment  includes  the  years  1874-78.  So  strong 
had  the  monopoly  become  at  this  time  that  there  was 
an  almost  superstitious  fear  of  resistance  to  any  pro- 
posals to  lease  or  sell  that  might  come  from  it.  A 
proposal  from  Mr.  Rockefeller  was  regarded  popularly 
as  little  better  than  a  command  to  "stand  and  deliver." 



April  20,  ipo^. 

Scribncr's  Magazine. 

Justice  David  J.  Brewer  writes  in  the  March  "  Scrib- 
ner's"  of  "  The  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States," 
and  of  the  great  importance  the  work  of  that  body  has 
for  our  present  and  future  national  life.  The  questions 
of  most  vital  import  that  the  complexities  of  modern 
life  have  brought  before  this  supreme  tribunal  are 
divided  by  Justice  Brewer  into  four  main  groups:  first, 
those  growing  out  of  the  controversies  between  labour 
and  capital;  second,  those  affecting  the  relative  powers 
of  the  nation  and  the  States;  third,  those  arising  out 
of  America's  new  possessions;  and,  fourth,  those  which 
Avill  come  because  the  relations  of  the  United  States  to 
all  other  nations  "  have  grown  to  be  so  close  and  will 
Hurely  increase  in  intimacy." 

There  is  a  charming  account  of  the  coronation  of  the 
Czar  Alexander  III.  in  the  letters  of  Mary  King  Wad- 
dington,  the  French  ambassadress,  concluded  in  this 
number.  A  picturesque  contribution  by  E.  C.  Peixotto 
describes  the  "  Marionettes  and  Puppet  Shows"  of  the 
past  and  present,  and  there  are  several  excellent  stories. 

The  Cosmopolitan, 

Tu  the  March  "  Cosmopolitan,"  Colonel  Avery  D. 
Andrews,  formerly  one  of  the  New  York  City  Police 
Commissioners,  writes  an  account  of  his  recent  obser- 
rations  on  the  police  systems  of  Europe.  Comparing 
the  cities  of  London,  Paris,  and  New  York,  Colonel 
Andrews  finds  that  the  proportion  of  police  to  popula- 
tion is  1  to  every  307  in  Paris,  1  to  every  408  in  London, 
aifcd  1  to  every  458  in  New  York.  Comparing  pro- 
portions of  police  to  areas,  he  finds  that  in  Paris  there 
are  266  policemen  to  each  square  mile,  in  London  23  to 
each  square  mile,  and  New  York  25.  The  great  area  of 
the  metropolitan  police  district  of  London  contains 
many  rural  communities,  as  does  the  present  metro- 
politan district  of  New  York,  and  perhaps  a  comparison 
with  Paris  is  hardly  fair. 

Other  Articles. 
Mr.  Hjalmar  Hjorth  Boyesen  (2nd)  writes  on  "Beauty 
in  the  Modern  Chorus,"  Mrs.  Wilson  Woodrow  on  "The 
Woman  of  Fifty,"  and  President  Charles  F.  Thwing  on 
the  profession  of  insurance.  The  second  of  Lord  Wolse- 
ley's  studies  of  the  j^oung  Napoleon,  and  a  chapter  of 
Herbert  C  Wells'  on  "  Mankind  in  the  Making,"  de- 
voted to  the  subject  of  schooling,  are  other  features  of 
this  number. 

Frank  Leslie's  Monthly. 

Mr.  Earl  Mayo's  article  on  "  The  Tobacco  War,"  in 
the  March  "  Frank  Leslie's,"  is  quoted  from  in  another 
department.  The  number  opens  with  an  account  of 
the  discoveries  made  by  the  Government  scientific  ex- 
peditions aboard  the  "U.S.S.  "Albatross"  by  W.  E. 
Meehan.  A  dramatic  incident  was  the  deep-sea  sound- 
ings about  100  miles  from  Guam,  where  the  tough  wire 
rope  went  down  28,878  feet  before  touching  bottom. 
This  is  just  about  the  height  of  Mount  Everett— about 
live  and  a  half  miles.  Mr.  Meehan  tells  of  extraordinary 
finds  of  manganeie  on  the  red-clay  bottom  of  the  Pacific. 
This  valuable  mineral  occurs  in  a  pure  state,  in  the 
form  of  nodules  and  discs,  some  of  them  as  large  as 
cannon  balls. 

Mr.  Frederick  Street  gives  a  description  of  the  "  Dis- 
Bial  Swamp/*  the  vast  waste  of  spongy,  thickly  over- 

grown black  soil  that  begins  within  twenty  miles  of 
Norfolk,  Virginia,  and  extends  twenty-five  miles  into- 
North  Carolina.  This  interesting  wilderness  was  the- 
favourite  refuge  of  runaway  slaves  during  and  before 
the  war,  and  it  is  still  the  best  chance  for  escaped 
criminals.  Its  800  square  miles  of  area  is  as  inaccessible- 
and  little  known  as  in  the  days  of  Washington,  who 
laid  out  a  route  through  it.  In  the  centre  of  the  wilder- 
ness is  Lake  Drummond,  three  miles  long  and  two  miles 
wide.  The  waterways  flowing  from  this  pond  offer  the 
only  means  of  access  to  the  heart  of  the  swamp.  A 
company  has  been  formed  to  reclaim  a  large  portion  of 
this  waste  area. 

Gunton's  Magazine. 

In  Mr.  Julius  Moritzen's  article  on  the  new  mint  at 
Philadelphia  the  safeguards  of  the  great  money  vaults^ 
are  described.  In  the  old  mint,  occasional  visitors 
were  granted  admission  to  these  vaults,  but  now  not 
even  the  mint  officials,  except  those  directly  connected 
with  this  department,  are  permitted  to  enter.  The 
vaults  are  said  to  be  the  largest  and  most  perfect  of 
their  kind  in  the  world.  "  Each  is  protected  by  a  set 
of  three  doors.  Of  these,  the  outer  door  is  of  a  ball- 
bearing construction  in  use  nowhere  else.  The  four 
combination  locks,  and  the  immensely  thick  armour 
plate  of  which  the  doors  are  made,  are  proof  against 
whatever  attack.    The  vaults,  in  fact,  are  invulnerable. 

"  Further  safety  in  the  mint  is  guaranteed  through 
the  complete  electric-clock  system.  There  are  thirty 
of  these  time-pieces  scattered  throughout  the  building, 
besides  forty  others  connecting  with  a  master-clock. 
Fifty-one  telephones,  an  ink-writing  telegraph  register, 
which  indicates  an  alarm  from  any  or  all  of  the  thirty- 
five  alarm  boxes,  and  the  wonderful  switchboard  on 
which  are  mounted  the  fuse  block,  fire-alarm  recorder, 
American  District  and  Western  Union  call-boxes,  the 
police  telegraph  and  city  fire-alarm  boxes,  are  features 
of  protection  and  convenience  no  other  mint  can  boast." 

Foreign  Reviews. 

La  Rcvac. 

The  numbers  of  "  La  Revue"  for  February  are  not 
quite  as  English  or  American  as  usual.  The  most  im- 
portant article  in  the  number  for  February  1  is  Dr. 
Kaethe  Schirmacher's  on  "  The  Regulation  of  Female 
Labour  and  Feminism,"  in  which  the  writer  considers 
the  question  how  far  Feminism  in  the  various  European 
countries  is  in  favour  of  special  restrictions  upon  female 
labour.  In  general,  women  workers  themselves  are  in 
favour  of  State  regulation;  but  the  Feminists  are  di- 
vided. In  England,  France,  and  Scandmavia  the  ma- 
jority of  Feminists  oppose  restriction;  while  in  Germany 
and  in  Austria  Feminists  favour  restriction.  Feminist 
opposition  is  based  chiefly  upon  the  principle  of  indi- 
vidual liberty  and  of  the  equality  of  the  sexes. 

"  Resurrection." 
In  the  same  number  Dr.  R.  Romme,  writing  under 
the  title  "  Resurrection  and  Longevity,"  deals  with  M. 
Kuliako's  claim  to  have  reanimated  the  heart  of  a  dead 
child  twenty  hours  after  death.  Dr.  Romme's  paper  is 
devoted  to  skowing  that  there  is  nothing  new  in  this  at 
all.    The  repulsation  of  the  heart  of  dead  animals  by 

Review  of  Reviews^  S0/4/0S. 



various  means  has  often  been  achieved,  and  it  has  been 
accomplished  also  in  the  case  of  human  beings,  the 
chief  difference  being  that  the  revival,  in  the  case  of 
human  beings,  was  generally  for  a  much  shorter  time. 
The  heart  is  by  no  means  the  delicate  and  fragile  organ 
that  is  generally  supposed,  and  with  a  current  of  ar- 
terial blood,  or  a  solution  of  salt  saturated  with  oxygen, 
it  has  always  been  possible  to  set  it  beating  after  death. 
Another  means  which  has  been  adopted  is  massage, 
the  exposed  heart  being  taken  in  the  right  hand  and 
rubbed  rhythmically.  Professor  Prus,  of  Lemburg,  has 
succeeded  in  fifty-five  cases  out  of  one  hundred  in  re- 
animating the  heart  by  this  method.  M.  Batelli,  of 
Geneva,  by  combining  massage  with  electrisation,  has 
levived  dead  dogs,  and  kept  them  alive  for  as  much  as 
twenty-four  hours.  This  method  has  been  adopted  in 
the  case  of  human  beings,  but  it  is  found  impossible  to 
keep  the  revived  person  alive  for  any  time. 

French  Authorities  on  Alcohol. 

The  number  for  February  15  opens  with  a  symposium 
contributed  to  by  eminent  French  doctors  and  others 
on  the  question  whether  alcohol  is  a  food  or  not.  Dr. 
Roux  says  that  while  it  may  be  admitted  that  alcohol 
iiiay  be  a  food  under  certain  conditions,  that  does  not 
limit  the  need  for  fighting  against  it,  as  those  who 
drink  alcohol  will  never  consent  to  drink  it  in  small 
quantities.  There  is  no  doubt  whatever  that  alcohol 
is  harmful  in  the  way  it  is  taken.  Professor  Metch- 
iiikoff  says  flatly  that  alcohol  is  merely  a  poison.  Dr. 
IJrouardel  denounces  alcohol  as  an  element  of  physical 
decadence  and  moral  ruin  for  the  greater  part  of  the 
European  nations.  Dr.  Richet  says  that  alcohol  is  a 
food;  when  taken  very  pure,  in  small  doses,  it  is  prac- 
tically inoffensive.  But  from  the  economic  point  of 
view,  it  is  a  food  without  any  advantages.  Professor 
Lancereaux  says  that  alcohol  is  dangerous,  but  that  he- 
thinks  as  much  wine  as  three  litres  a  day  may  be 
drunk  without  harm.  Dr.  J.  Hericourt  replies  by 
considering  the  cases  of  three  men — an  abstainer,  an 
ordinary  drinker,  and  an  alcoholic — attacked  by  the 
same  disease.  The  abstainer  will  recover  easiest,  the 
ordinary  drinker  will  have  the  next  best  chance,  while 
the  alcoholic  will  have  no  chance  at  all.  Dr.  Faisans 
says  that  alcohol  is  one  of  the  most  potent  factors  in 
the  propagation  of  consumption;  he  mentions  that  out 
of  twenty-four  alcoholics  under  his  care  fourteen  are 
tuberculous.  Professor  Joffroy  is  of  the  opinion  that 
a  certain  quantity  of  alcohol  may  be  taken  with  im- 
punity, but  he  nevertheless  declares  that  it  is  a  poison. 
]>r.  Legrain  says  that  alcohol  may  be  a  chemical  food, 
but  it  is  not  a  physiological  or  hygienic  food.  The  con- 
clusion seems  to  be  that  alcohol  may  be  a  food,  that 
depending  on  the  definition  of  the  word  food;  but  that 
practically  all  the  leading  authorities  in  France  regard 
its  consumption  as  at  best  useless  and  at  worst  ruinous. 

The  True  Gospel  of  the  Doukhobors. 

M.  P.  Birukov  contributes  a  very  interesting  paper  on 
the  Doukhobor,  P.  V.  Veriguine,  whom  he  met  in  Lon- 
don. The  replies  which  Veriguine  gave  to  some  of  the 
N  questions  put  to  him  are  enough  to  explain  why  it  is 
the  Doukhobors  find  it  as  hard  to  live  under  the  free 
government  of  Canada  as  under  the  rule  of  the  Tsar. 
The  following  are  some  of  the  questions  and  replies: 

"  Do  you  think  that  to  serve  God  is  compatible  with 
submission  to  government?" 

"  In  no  way.  I  recall  the  words  of  Christ :  One  can- 
not serve  two  masters.    .    .    ." 

"Can  Society  exist  without  government?" 

"  I  think  that  a  troop  of  horned  cattle  has  need  of 
a  strong  bull  which  will  maintain  order  with  its  horns;, 
but  human  beings,  gifted  with  reason,  must  live  freely."' 

"Do  you  consider  Christ  the  Son  of  God?" 

"  I  consider  all  creatures  as  children  of  God." 

"  What  do  you  desire  from  the  Canadian  Govern- 

"  We  wish  to  be  allowed  to  live  freely,  without  harm- 
ing our  neighbours.  We  want  land  so  that  each  man 
may  have  as  much  as  he  can  work,  and  we  want  this 
land  in  common.  We  wish  that  no  one  may  violate  our 

In  regard  to  the  qaiestion  of  vegetarianism,  the  reply 
is  simply  amazing:  "  I  think  that  it  is  right  to  eat  meat,, 
but  to  kill  is  wrong."  According  to  this  theory,  it 
would  be  a  right  thing  to  gnaw  one's  dinner  from  the- 
hide  of  a  living  animal. 

M.  Georges  Caye  contributes  a  very  interesting  paper 
on  the  use  of  water  poM'^er  in  France,  for  which  he  sees 
a  great  future.  Count  Wodzinski  describes  the  works 
of  the  Polish  poetess,  Madame  Konopnicka.  M.  Georges 
Pellissier  writes  appreciatively  of  "Verite,"  in  which  he 
sees  Zola's  fecundity,  his  amplitude,  his  power,  and  all. 
the  fervour  of  his  rhetoric. 

The  Nouvelle  Revue* 

The  "  Nouvelle  Revue"  contains  one  very  remarkable- 
article,   noticed   elsewhere — viz.,   a  lengthy   account   of 
the  life,  the  theories,  and  the  political  ideas  of  Cardinal 
Rampolla,  who,  it  is  widely  believed  on  the  Continent,, 
will  be  the  next  Pope. 

Historical  Articles. 

As  usual,  there  are  a  considerable  number  of  historical 
articles,  of  which  the  most  interesting  concerns  the 
curious  Gallic  inscriptions  which  have  been  found  all ' 
over  France,  and  of  which  are  given  many  reproductions. 
Those  concerned  in  the  fascinating  study  of  the  origin 
of  languages  will  find  it  worth  while  to  glance  over  this 
article.  M.  Toudouze  continues  his  reminiscences  of  the 
Commune,  and  as  these  are  based  on  a  diary  kept  by 
him  during  those  eventful  days,  they  have  a  consider- 
able historic  value.  To  a  different  order  of  historical 
student  will  appeal  a  paper  describing  Madame  de 
Stael's  social  successes  during  the  Consulate. 

Other  Articles. 

Other  articles  consist  of  a  long  review  of  Mr.  Henry 
Norman's  "All  the  Russias,"  of  a  pitiful  account  of  the 
island  off  the  coast  of  Brittany,  where  the  sardine  fish- 
ermen are  now  slowly  starving;  of  an  analysis  of  St. 
Simon's  political  and  social  theories;  and  of  a  short 
paper  on  Satanism,  a  subject  which  seems  to  be  attract- 
ing more  and  more  attention  every  day. 

The  Revue  de  Paris. 

The  "  Revue  de  Paris"  for  February  contains  a 
great  number  of  interesting  articles,  of  which  we  have 
noticed  elsewhere  two  dealing  with  Morocco,  the 
French  lunatic  question,  and  an  account  of  Juliette 
Drouet,  Victor  Hugo's  lifelong  friend.  Mr.  Morton 
Fullerton,  the  new  Paris  correspondent  of  the  Times, 
contributes  two  very  charming  papers,  the  result  of  a 
tour  made  by  him  in  Burgundy. 



April  20y  igo^- 

The  Business  Value  of  the  Rhine. 

Yet  another  series  of  articles,  which  may  be  said  to 
be  more  or  less  geographical  in  character,  commence* 
in  these  same  numbers.  This  is  entitled  "  The  Ger- 
man Rhine,"  and  has  for  object  that  of  showing  to 
what  excellent  practical  use  modem  Germany  hat 
known  how  to  put  her  famous  river.  Twenty-three 
years  ago  the  Rhine  was  still  regarded  simply  from  the 
picturesque  tourist  point  of  view,  and  she  only  bore  on 
her  broad  waters  something  like  a  couple  of  hundred 
thousand  pounds'  worth  of  merchandise;  but  in  twenty 
years — that  is  to  say,  by  the  commencement  of  the 
new  century— the  busines  done  had  increased  to  six 
times  as  much,  and  at  the  present  moment  the  Rhine 
is,  from  a  productive  and  economic  point  of  view,  more 
valuable  to  Germany  than  all  the  rivers  and  canals  of 
PYance  put  together!  This  happy  state  of  things  baa 
been  of  extraordinary  value  to  commercial  Germany, 
and  has  brought  increased  prosperity  to  every  town 
And  hamlet  situated  on  the  mighty  stream. 

Other  Articles. 

Other  articles  concern  the  role  played  by  education 
in  tbe  French  Revolution.  For  those  who  regard  that 
period  as  having  been  wholly  composed  of  disturbing 
and  destructive  elements  are,  of  course,  far  from  realis- 
ing that  the  French  Assembly  made  a  desperate  effort 
to  reform  and  create  as  well  as  to  destroy,  and  M. 
Barthou  certainly  proves  that  Free  Education  in  a 
modern  sense  was  first  thought  of  and  put  into  prac- 
tice by  the  leaders  of  the  Convention.  M.  Breal  at- 
tacks the  oft  discussed  problem  of  who  was  Homer,  and 
at  what  period  of  the  worldjs  history  the  Iliad  was 
composed;  and  M.  Chavanne  attempts  to  analyse  the 
philosophy  of  Confucius,  whom  he  considers  to  have 
been  the  first  of  the  great  Socialists,  though  in  no 
sense  a    revolutionary. 

The  Revue  61^  Deux  Mondes^ 

Both  the  numbers  of  the  "  Revue  des  Deux  Mondes" 
for  February  are  excellent.  Of  tirst-rate  importance 
are  i.i.  D'Avenel's  paper  on  cabs  and  omnibuses;  M. 
Thoulet's  on  submarine  volcanoes;  M.  Dastre  on  old 
age  and  death;  M.  Dastre  again  on  the  question 
whether  alcohol  is  a  food  or  a  poison;  and  M.  Loti's 
visit  to  the  Theosophists  of  Madras. 

Village  Industries  in  Russia. 

Madame  Bentzon  has  an  excellent  article  on  village 
industries  in  Russia.  The  communistic  organisation 
of  the  "  Mir"  naturally  exercises  a  profound  influence 
upon  these  industries.  She  shows  the  difficulties 
which  beset  the  workers,  and  the  way  in  which  they 
are  oppressed  by  the  middleman  who  buys  their  pro- 
ducts. It  is  the  opinion  of  the  economists  that  the  in- 
tellectual faculties  of  the  people  must  first  be  raised  in 
order  to  enable  them  to  realise  the  benefits  of  co- 
operation. She  draws  a  terrible  picture  of  the  ex- 
aggerated scientific  idealism  of  the  Intellectuals  in 
Russia,  side  by  side  with  the  deplorable  obscurantism 
of  the  Conservatives;  and  over  all  a  Government  which 
makes  for  every  step  in  advance  two  steps  in  the  rear. 
Happily  there  exists  an  elect  body  of  patient  and 
strong  Liberals,  who  work  in  the  cause  of  elementary 
education,  and  strive  to  organise  rural  credit  on  solid 
foundations,  to  encourage  and  stimulate  the  spirit  of 
initiative,  and  to  teach  the  peasants  to  count  on  them- 

The  Tripolitain. 
M.  Pinon,  in  an  article  on  the  Tripolitain  in  the  firtt 
February  number,  expresses  the  opinion  that  France, 
since  the  value  of  the  African  vilayets  is  small,  could 
without  injuring  herself  cease  to  be  interested  in  them 
if  the  Tripolitain  problem  led  to  no  complications  as 
far  as  the  Soudan,  if  it  did  not  imply  a  change  in  the 
balance  of  power  in  the  Mediterranean,  and,  finally,  if 
it  did  not  involve  the  risk  of  reopening  the  burning 
question  of  the  integrity  of  the  Ottoman  Empire.  He 
notes  certain  action  on  the  part  of  the  Sublime  Porte, 
by  the  way  of  encroachment  upon  French  spheres, 
committed  at  the  moment  when  France  was  occupied 
in  the  direction  of  Lake  Chad  with  the  Senoussi,  as  a 
revelation  of  common  action  between  the  Sultan  and 
the  most  powerful  Mussulman  organisations  of  North- 
em  Africa.  He  sees  in  all  this  a  remarkable  proof  of 
the  solidarity  of  Islam  in  the  face  of  a  divided  Europe. 

The  Dutch  Magfazincs* 

Passing  the  novel  of  G.  van  Hulzen,  "In  Lofty 
Regions,"  with  which  "De  Gids"  opens,  we  come  to  a 
remarkably  readable  critique  of  another  novel;  this  is 
"Jorn  Uhl,"  by  Gustav  Franssen,  which  has  lately  ap- 
peared in  Germany.  Franssen  was  a  pastor,  but,  like 
some  other  ministers,  he  appears  to  have  seen  a  greater 
field  of  usefulness  in  literature,  and  has  produced  this 
book.  It  is  not  a  book  of  sensational  mysteries,  or  a 
sex  novel,  or,  in  fact,  a  book  of  up-to-date  theories  or 
passions;  its  good  qualities  consist  in  its  being  devoid 
of  all  that,  and  in  being  an  entrancing  study  of  life 
of  the  ordinary  kind.  The  book  has  had  a  tremendous 
success,  and  many  writers  have  coupled  the  name  of 
Franssen  with  that  of  Dickens.  A  book  to  be  turned 
into  English  this,  surely! 

"  Onze  Eeuw  "  goes  literally  from  grave  to  gay.  1  he 
first  article  in  the  current  issue  is  an  essay  on  Statis- 
tical Physics,  dealing  with  deep  facts,  experiments  and 
theories;  further  on  is  an  equally  learned  essay  of 
quite  an  opposite  character,  "  Humour  and  Literature." 
Humour  is  not  intended  merely  to  amuse;  it  has  the 
other,  and  probably  higher,  task  of  instructing.  It 
serves  to  increase  the  importance  of  the  serious  obser- 
vations of  writers  as  well  as  to  force  home  a  truth  more 
effectively  than  grave  exhortations  can  do.  Humour 
is  to  be  found  in  the  tragedies  of  Shakespeare,  in  the 
Psalms  (where  the  most  serious  matters  are  touched 
on),  in  the  sermons  of  Luther.  Most  great  writers, 
however  deep  their  subjects  may  be  generally,  go  in  for 
the  humorous  also.  A  political  article  on  the  new 
Cabinet  and  a  good  story  are  among  the  other  con- 

"  Vragen  des  Tijds  "  contains  four  articles,  which  is 
one  above  the  usual  number.  The  two  which  most 
interest  foreigners  are  those  on  Agricultural  Boards 
(written  with  the  usual  thoroughness  of  Dr.  Bruinsma. 
an  expert  on  agricultural  matters),  and  on  the  Law 
Relating  to  Accidents.  The  new  law  on  the  subject  of 
accidents  to  workpeople  contains  certain  provisions  that 
require  careful  study  on  the  part  of  those  who  have  to 
carry  it  into  effect,  and  the  writer  takes  the  opportu- 
nity to  point  them  out. 

"  Elsevier "  describes  the  kingdom  of  Djambi,  with 
M'hich  the  Dutch  Government  has  had  some  trouble — 
it  forms  a  part  of  Holland's  colonial  empire.  In  "  The 
Wisdom  of  Old  Spain"  the  writer  gives  some  interesting 
details  of  medieval  literature  and  its  authors. 

Aerleip  of  Rwiews,  to/k/os. 






There  has  again  been  considerable  improvement  in 
the  position  of  Australia,  good  rains  having  fallen 
throughout  the  month  over  the  best  part  of  the  eastern 
half  of  the  Commonwealth,  The  result  is  that  pros- 
pects for  the  new  agricultural  and  pastoral  year  have 
considerably  improved,  and  if  the  early  promise  of  the 
season  be  borne  out  by  winter  and  spring  weather,  there 
is  every  probability  of  large  yields  of  all  products. 
In  the  meantime,  owing  to  the  unfortunate  decline 
in  production  last  year,  trade  everywhere  is  quiet, 
though,  considering  all  things,  fairly  sound.  Con- 
ditions of  trade  of  late  have  been  improved,  for  credit 
has  been  curtailed,  and  the  disposition  to  carry  on 
weak  firms  and  traders  by  financial  institutions,  or 
wholesale  houses,  has  almost  entirely  disappeared.  In 
fact,  the  opportunity  for  a  general  "  clearing  up  "  in 
commercial  circles  is  being  availed  of.  The  position, 
as  far  as  we  are  able  to  gauge  at  the  moment,  gives 

Eromise  of  considerable  improvement  in  trade  in  1904, 
ut  for  the  balance  of  this  year  we  must  be  satisfied 
with  quietness,  small  turnover,  and  probably  compara- 
tively trifling  profits. 

A§fi*icultufal  Production. 

The  complete  returns  of  the  agricultural  production 
of  New  South  Wales  have  been  issued  by  Mr.  Coghlan, 
and  show  results  no  better  than  expected  in  our  early 
writings.      The  figures  are  as  follow: 
Grain : 

Wheat   (bushels) 14,808,705 

Maize  (bushels) 

Barley  (bushels)     ,.   .. 

Oats  (bushels) 

Rye   (bushels) 

Hay  (tons) 

Potatoes   (tons) 

Onions  (tons) 



4,808,705      . 


3,844,993      . 


103,361      . 


687,179      . 


37,610      . 


490,348      . 


39,146      . 


1,330      . 


lue  figTires  relating  to  the  production  of  Victoria 
are  certainly  not  nearly  so  unsatisfactory  as  those  of 
New  South  Wales,  but  they  are  bad  enough  in  all 
conscience.       ]Vir.  Fenton's  figures  are  appended: 




Wheat   (bushels) 17,847,321 

..  12.127,382     .. 


Oats   (bushels) 9,582.332 

..    6,724,900     .. 


Barley  (bushels) 1,215,478 

694,851     . . 


Maize   (bushels) 604,180 

615,472     . . 


Rye  (bushels) 11.989 

14,418     . . 


Peas  and  beans  (bushels)       146.357 

..        169,971     .. 


Onions   (tons) 12,766 

20,859     .. 


Potatoes  (tons)     123,126 

125,474     . . 


Hay  (tons) 677,757 

..       884,369     .. 



The  remaining  States  have  so 

far  not  issued 

full  re- 

turns,  except  for  the  wheat  crop.      The  enormous  de- 

cline in  the  production  may  be 

seen  from  the 


ing  comparison: 







Victoria 17,847,321 

.    12,127,382    .. 


New  South  Wales..    ..    16,173.771 

.    14,808,705    .. 


South  Australia 11.253,148 

..      8,012,762     .. 


Queensland 1,194,088 

.      1,692.222     . . 


Western  Australia..    ..        774,176 

933,101     . . 


Tasmania 1,110,421 

963,662     .. 
..    38.537,834     .. 




1900-01.  To  those  who  have  had  anything  to  sell, 
of  course,  high  prices  have  greatly  reduced  the  loss; 
but  this  applies  almost  solely  to  producers  in  parts  of 
South  Australia,  Western  Australia  and  Tasmania.  In 
Victoria,  New  South  Wales,  Queensland,  and  the  north 
of  South  Australia,  the  crops,  as  a  whole,  did  not  re- 
turn seed.  Not  only  was  the  expenditure  on  plough- 
ing, harrowing,  rolling,  seeding,  etc.,  lost,  but  in  many 
cases  absolutely  not  a  grain  of  wheat  was  obtained 
back.  It  is  estimated,  on  the  official  records,  that 
1,750,000  acres  of  wheat  in  South  Australia,  Victoria, 
and  New  South  Wales  failed  to  produce  anything  at 
all,  and  that  a  very  large  additional  area  gave  yields 
varying  from  only  10  Z&s.  to  60  168.  per  acre! 

As  a  result  of  the  wheat  deficiency,  large  importa- 
tions of  breadstuff s  are  being  made.  Approximately, 
equal  to  10,000,000  bushels  of  wheat  have  been  ordered, 
of  which  3,500,000  bushels  have  arrived.  The  total 
cost  of  importations  will  run  into  about  £2,750,000. 
The  duty  of  10. 8d,  per  bushel  on  wheat  is  being  rather 
keenly  felt,  especially  as,  with  wharfage  added,  ex- 
penses increase  the  cost  by  nearly  Is.  Id.  per  bushel. 

The  hay  production  of  Australia  also  suffered  a  very 
serious  decline,  the  official  figures  admitting  of  the  fol- 
lowing comparison: 


Victoria    677,757 

New  South  Wales 526,260 

Queensland 78,758 

South  Australia 353,662 

Western   Australia    ..    ..      103,440 
Tasmania 94,198 









1.834,075      ..   2,002,865 








The  decline  is  26,303,790  bushels,  compared  with  1901- 
02,  and  no  less  than  36,118,881  bushels  compared  with 

tSTtkia^ttb  1732 



Fire  Losses  Paid  Exceed  £23,000,000. 
Premium  Income  Exceeds  £1,100,000. 


ROBERT  W,   MARTIN,   ManatrT 




April  20,  Tpo^. 




ACCIDENT    .        , 






MELBOURNB— «0  Market  Street. 

SYDNEY— 78  Pitt  Street. 

ADELAIDE— 71  King  WlUlwii  Strecl. 

BRISBANE— Greek  Street. 

PERTH— Barrftok  Street. 

HOBART— Oottini  Street. 

LONDON-^-St.  MiekMl'i  AUey,  OomkUl,  l.a 

WM.  L.  JACK, 






For  Life  Assunmce  on    th«   flutual  Principle. 
Annuities  and  Endowments  for  Children. 

with  Offlcee  In  all  th«  Aueiralian  State* 
and  in  New  Zealand. 

VICTORIA:  459  ColUns-st.,  Mell  n„rne. 

NEW  ZEALAND:  Custom  Hon      Quay.  Wellington. 

QUEENSLAND:    Queen-st.,  Brisbane. 

SOUTH  AUSTRALIA:  23  King  WilUam-st^  Adelaide. 

TASMANIA:  Elizabeth  and  Collins  Sts..  Hobart. 

WESTERN  AUSTRALIA:  St.  George's  Terrace.  Perth. 

Accumulated  Funds 
Annual   Inconne  - 


The  OldeS'.  Mutual  Life  Offlcn  in  Australasia,  and  the  largest 
and  most  liberal  in  the  British  Empire. 


Amount  of  '^a^h  surplus  divided  among  the  Members  for  the 
fcingle  year,  1901,  was  £538,725 ;  yielding  EeTersionary  Bonuses  of 
about  £1,000,000. 

GsNBBAi.  Manager  and  Aotuabt:  E.  TEECE,  F.I. A.,  P.P.A.,  F.S.B. 
KOBEET  B.  CAMERON,  Secrktary. 

Head  OfHce:  87   PITT  STREET,  SYDNEY. 

The  drop,  compared  with  1901-02,  was  654.164  tons,  and, 
compared  with  1900-01,  485,374  tons.  The  very  high 
prices  now  ruling  to  some  producers  mean  enormous 
profits,  even  on  the  short  yield;  but  those  profits  are 
merely  being  taken  out  of  the  pockets  of  their  less  for- 
tunate brethren  in  the  droughty  areas,  and  therefore, 
for  the  industry  as  a  whole,  tnere  is  no  gain  from  them. 

When  the  final  figures  come  to  be  made  up  it  will 
probably  be  found  that  the  agricultural  production  of 
these  States  fell  by  something  like  3i  millions  last 
year,  or  at  least  the  industry  suffered  a  loss  of  that  ex- 
tent. When  the  huge  losses  of  stock  throughout  the 
"  droughty  east "  are  added  it  will  probably  be  found 
that  the  agricultural  and  pastoral  losses  last  season 
exceed  £10,000,000.  It  is  not  to  be  wondered,  in  the 
face  of  these  figures,  that  trade  throughout  the  eastern 
half  of  the  Commonwealth  is  quiet,  and  still  declining. 

Decliningf  Wool  Exports^ 

In  dealing  with  the  wool  exports  in  our  March  issue 
we  gave  the  opinion  that  there  was  every  probability 
of  the  returns  showing  a  decline  for  the  whole  season 
of  anything  between  300,000  and  350,000  bales.  The 
figures  compiled  by  Dalgety  &  Co.  Ltd.  for  that  portion 
of  the  season  ending  on  March  31  bear  out  this  state- 
ment.     The  returns  show  the  following  movement: 

New  Aus- 

Australian.  Zealand.        tralasian. 

•  Decrease.  Increase.       Decrease. 

Bales.  Bales.  Bales. 

July       5,368        ..  1,835        ..  3,533 

July-August 9,772        ..  5,504        ..  4,218 

July-September  ....         25,998        ..  9,886       ..         16,112 

July-October 62,900        ..         10,860        ..         52,040 

July-November  ....       100,559       ..         16,664       ..         83,895 
July-December   ..    ..       201,529       ..         39,294       ..       162,185 

July-January 206,800       ..         12,003       ..       194,797 

July-February     ..    ..       282,643       ..         34,476       ..       248,167 
July-March     301,115       ..         49,874       ..       251,241 

The  Australasian  wool  exports  from  July,  1902,  to 
March,  1903,  inclusive,  are  appended: 

1902.  1901.       Increase.  Decrease. 

Victoria     311,421  ..    379.748  ..       —       ..      68,327 

New  South  Wales  ..    398,226  ..    587,489  ..       —       ..    189.263 
South  Australia  ....      93,323  ..    106,057  ..       —       ..      12.734 

Queensland 43,900  ..      70.640  ..       —       ..      26.740 

Western  Australia  ..      31.671  ..      30,981  ..        690    ..        — 

Tasmania 8,045  ..      12.786  ..       —       ..       4.741 

New  Zealand 336.623  ..    286,749  ..    49,874    ..        — 

1,223.209  ..1.474,450  ..  50.564  ..  301,805 
The  New  Zealand  increase  is  a  healthy  one,  but  the 
Commonwealth  is  fast  losing  her  proud  position  as  a 
wool  producer,  and,  allowing  for  the  large  percentage 
of  "  dead  "  wool  which  has  been  shipped  this  season, 
we  must  expect  a  still  further  considerable  drop  in 
1903-04.  The  position  of  the  merino  and  fine  wools 
market  must  continue  very  strong,  in  the  face  of  this 
enormous  decline  in  exports,  and  we  can  only  reiterate 
the  opinion  given  previously  that,  high  as  are  present 
prices  for  G.^e  wools,  tney  must  be  still  further  ex- 
ceeded in  the  next  season,  owing  to  the  shortage  in 

Incfcasingf  Gold  Yields* 

One  very  satisfactory  leature  in  the  present  position 
is  the  rapidly  increasing  gold  yield  of  these  States. 
Western  Australia  takes  pride  of  place,  and  the  in- 
dustry in  that  State  is  gradually  getting  on  to  a  very 
sound  basis.  The  days  of  the  wfld  cat,  for  the  time 
being,  have  gone,  and  the  industry  is  being  carried 
on  with  considerable  profit  to  those  immediately  in-  • 
terested.  In  South  Australia  the  prospects  favour 
the  establishment  of  good  permanent  fields.  We  are 
by  no  means  carried  away  with  the  rumours  of  rich 
finds  at  Arltunga,  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  can  the 
careful  observer  be  depressed  by  the  official  report  on 
the  field,  which  gives  evidence  of  calm  investigation. 
But  what  is  plain  is  that,  so  far  as  surface  indications 
go,  the  new  field  is  decidedly  worth  prospecting  pro- 

Review  of  RevieioB,  tO/k/OS. 



perly,  for  few  fields,  except  the  old  alluvial  areas  of 
Victoria  and  New  South  Wales,  gave  so  much  early 
promise.  Whether  the  gold  "  goes  down  "  has  yet  to 
be  settled.  If  the  reefs  are  found  to  be  permanent, 
and  improve  in  size  with  depth,  the  distance  of  Arl- 
tunga  from  the  seaboard  will  not  prevent  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  big  inland  mining  field. 

In  Victoria  gold-mining  is  progressing  but  slowly, 
partly  due  to  the  lack  of  confidence  displayed  by  in- 
vestors in  Victorian  mines.  This  lack  of  confidence  is 
the  direct  outcome  of  a  faulty  system  of  working  and 
bad  management.  Half  the  mines  floated  annually 
are  little  better  than  frauds,  and  about  75  per  cent, 
of  those  being  carried  on  have  little  show,  as  at  present 
managed,  of  getting  gold  in  payable  quantities.  Whether 
the  gold  industry  can  be  considered  an  asset  in  that 
State  is  questionable,  for,  to  the  people  as  a  whole,  the 
cost  of  raising  gold  far  exceeds  the  value  of  the  output. 
There  are  many  good  mines,  it  is  true,  and  many  more 
are  likely  to  be  discovered  and  worked,  but  many  im- 
provements are  necessary  before  the  general  public  will 
come  forward  with  its  capital;  and,  particularly,  these 
improvements  should  commence  at  the  Stock  Ex- 
ciiange  end. 

The  Queensland  gold  yield  is  rapidly  advancing,  partly 
due  to  the  passing  of  the  drought,  and  partly  to  the 
good  results  obtained  on  the  established  fields  at  Char- 
ters Towers  (which  we  regard  as  one  of  the  soundest 
fields  in  the  colonies),  Croydon,  and  Gympie,  stimu- 
lating fresh  enterprise. 

In  New  South  Wales  there  has  been  a  retrogression; 
but  it  is  likely  to  prove  temporary.  The  figures,  mostly 
official,  are  appended  for  the  yield  for  the  first  three 
months  of  the  year: 

1902.  1903. 

Oz.  Oz. 

Western  Australia 498.356       ..       597,570 

Queensland 174,207        ..        203,136 

Victoria 179,014        ..        196,124 

Other  States 90,000       ..         68,000 

Commonwealth 941,577       ..     1,064,830 

New  Zealand 98,727       ..       118,107 

Australasia     1.040,304       ..     1,182.937 

The  increase  for  the  three  months  is  142,633  ounces 
over  1902.  This  rate  of  increase  appears  to  indicate 
that  Australasia  will  produce  considerably  more  than 
4,750,000  ounces  of  crude  gold  for  the  current  year.  If 
this  is  obtained  we  will  probably  again  hold  the  proud 
position  of  chief  gold-producer  of  the  world,  and,  m  ad- 
dition, exceed  all  the  best  previous  records. 

Government  Loans« 

Since  our  last,  the  Queensland  Government  has  an- 
nounced the  result  of  the  local  Treasury  Bill  issue. 
£600,000  was  required,  at  4  per  cent.,  at  a  fixed  price 
of  £102  accrued  interest,  reducing  the  cost  to  the 
investor  to  £100  ISs.  The  entire  emission  was  taken 
up  at  the  fixed  price  of  issue,  but  the  loan  has  not 
passed  off  without  trouble,  inasmuch  as  it  is  asserted 
in  Sydney  that  special  terms  or  special  commissions 
were  allowed  to  the  Queensland  National  Bank.  We 
regard  these  statements  as  not  likely  to  be  productive 
of  good.  The  Queensland  National  Bank  is  a  Gov- 
ernment institution,  and  probably  an  arrangement  was 
come  to  prior  to  the  issue  of  the  prospectus  for  com- 
mission to  be  allowed  to  them.  In  any  case,  we 
see  no  reason  why  a  private  arrangement  between  the 
Treasurer  and  the  Government  Bank  needs  to  be  dis- 
closed in  the  prospectus.  The  actual  net  proceeds  of 
the  loan,  allo^ving  for  accrued  interest  and  expenses, 
were  equal  to  about  £99  15s.  per  cent. 

The  West  Australian  Government  has  announced  two 
small  4  per  cent,  issues,  one  for  May  and  the  other  for 
June.  The  issues  will  be  made  throughout  the  States, 
and  interest  will  be  payable,  and  prmcipal  repayable 
(free  of  exchange)  in  any  capital.  The  loans  will  carry 
4  per  cent,  interest^  and  will  be  issued  with  a  tenure 
of  ten  years,  at  a  ftxed  price  of  par,  and  each  will  be 
for  £260,000. 

The  Queensland  Government  has  been  forced  by  the 
comparative  stringency  in  London  to  withdraw  from 
that  market  for  the  present.  The  Treasurer  hopes  to 
successfully  float  a  3i  per  cent,  long-dated  loan  in  Lon- 
don later  in  the  year. 

The  New  South  Wales  Government  is  grubbing  along 
with  an  emp^  Treasury,  and  finds  great  difficulty  in 
borrowing.  It  has  £2^400,000  of  4  per  cent.  Treasury 
Bills  yet  unissued,  available  for  the  London  market; 
but  it  is  undertood  that  an  attempt  will  be  made  to 
float  a  small  sum — say,  half  a  million — locally,  at  an 
early  date.  We  have  no  faith  in  the  financial  ability 
of  the  present  administrators  of  New  South  Wales, 
and  it  seems  to  be  impossible  to  expect  that  a  Minis- 
try which  thought  it  correct  to  land  the  State  in  such 
a  muddle  as  it  is  at  present,  could  possibly  carry 
out  a  policy  of  reform  and  retrenchment  sucn  as  is 

South  Australia  is  not  advertising  its  34  per  cent. 
Treasury  Bills  (they  are  reaUy  equal  to  3|  per  cent. 
Bills),  and  from  this  we  infer  that,  for  the  present  at 
least,  no  more  money  is  required.  But  the  Treasurer 
has  an  eye  to  London,  and  hopes  to  float  a  fairly  big 
issue  there  later  in  the  year. 

Victoria  has  sufficient  money  in  hand  to  meet  cur- 
rent wants,  but  the  5J  million  conversion  is  gradually 
wearing  the  Treasurer  to  a  shadow.  The  work  of  suc- 
cessfully converting  this  amount  is  a  big  one,  and  it 
is  regrettable  that  it  did  not  fall  to  stronger  hands  than 
those  of  Mr.  Shiels.  It  is  to  be  hoped,  however,  that 
the  best  advice  will  be  obtained  and  followed,  for  on 
the  successful  conversion  of  this  loan  much  depends. 
The  London  semi-financial  critics,  such  as  they  are, 
have  apparently  tired  of  their  game  with  Australian 
credit  for  a  bit,  and  stocks  are  all  quoted  better  than 
the  lowest  rates  touched.  But  anything  less  than  a 
3J  per  cent,  issue  in  London  will  be  impossible  for 
some  time.  From  private  information  we  glean  that 
the  Victorian  Treasurer  anticipates  making  an  issue 
of  a  3i  per  cent,  loan  in  August  next,  special  terms  to  be 
offered  to  holders  of  the  old  stock  to  convert.    Whether 






NEW  SOUTH  WALES:  CitucM'  Boildinff,  U»on  9mA 

Castlereagh  Streets,  Sydney. 

VICTORIA:  atizena'  Building*,  OoUins  St.,  MelboiinM. 

QUEENSLAND:    atizena'    Buildings,    Queen    Street, 

SOUTH  AUSTRALIA:  atizena'  Buildinii,  KJBg  Wil- 
liam Street,  Adelaide. 

NEW  ZEALAND:  Citireas'  Chambers,  Cwtom  Hooae 
Quay,  Wellington. 

WESTERN  AUSTRALIA;  Hay  &  Barrack  Sta.,  Perth. 

TASMANIA:  Liverpool  and  Murray  Streets,  Hobart 

UNITED  KINGDOM:  Qtizens'  House,  24  and  25  King 
William  Street,  Loadon,  B.C. 

HAS  MONEY  TO  LEND  on«KHat*yi 

Freehold  City  or  Suburban  Properties,  Good  Dairy  Farms,  A^- 
oultural  and  Grazing:  Lands  (Freehold  or  G.P.  and  G.L.)  or  GoTem- 
ment  Stock  of  any  of  the  Auatralian  States  or  New  Zealand, 

At  tho  Lowest  Current  Rates  of  interest. 

Loans  may  be  arranged  for  a  fixed  term  or  r«payal><«  toy 
Instalment*,  without  notice  or  payment  of  aay  flna. 



April  20,  IQOS. 

any  opportunity  will  be  given  to  local  investors  to  sub- 
scribe, is  not  stated. 

New  Zealand  is  still  a  borrower,  and  is  willing  to 
sell  4  per  cent.  5-year  debentures  in  this  or  other 
inter-State  markets  at  par.  Fair  sales  are  said  to 
be  making. 

The  Royal  Bank  of  Australia* 

This  comparatively  small  Melbourne  institution  is 
making  very  satisfactory  headway.  The  last  accounts 
are  most  favourable,  and  show  that  under  every  heading 
the  bank's  business  has  expanded.  We  compare  the 
figures  of  the  last  balance-sheet  and  profit  and  loss 
account  with  those  of  five  years  ago,  in  the  following: 

March,  March, 

1898.  1903. 

Capital  paid £150,000       . .    £150,000 

Reserve  Fund    —  ••         30,000 

Net  profits  (5-year)     3,865       . .  7.380 

Deposits 242,438        ..        690,303 

Liquid  assets 102.847        ..        253,061 

Advances  and  discounts 281,435       ..       607,428 

The  record  is  one  the  management  may  well  be  proud 
of.    The  bank  now  conducts  its  business  in  the  lately- 

f)urchased  premises  at  the  corner  of  Elizabeth  and  Col- 
ins  Streets,  the  building  being  very  imposing.  The 
dividend  to  shareholders  for  the  last  half-year  ab- 
sorbs £3,-o0,  being  at  the  i-ate  of  5  per  cent,  per  an- 
num; a  sum  of  £7,500  is  added  to  reserve,  and  the 
balance  of   £2,095  carried  forward. 

A  Rise  in  Deposit  Rates. 

The  Queensland  National  Bank  is  attemi)ting  to  raise 
Australian  deposit  rates.  From  May  1  it  will  allow 
4  and  4J  per  cent,  respectively  on  twelve  months'  and 
two-year  deposits.  There  is  certainly  a  tendency  to- 
wards dearer  money  in  Australia,  but  the  Queensland 
National  appears  to  us  to  have  acted  prematurely. 
So  long  as  the  other  banks  continue  to  lend  at  present 
rates,  it  will  be  impossible  for  the  Queensland  National 
Bank  to  profitably  raise  its  deposit  quotations.  The 
Australasia,  Union,  and  Wales  can  all  borrow  cheaply 
in  the  other  States,  and  are  not  likely,  therefore,  to 
increase  either  their  deposit  or  lending  rates  in  the 
same  manner  as  the  Queensland  National.  Active 
trade  and  Government  borrowing  combined  would  ad- 
vance the  rates  ruling  for  money  here. 

Trustee  Companies  v.  Solicitors* 

The  old  feud  between  these  two  parties  was  raked 
up  a  short  time  back  by  a  prominent  member  of  the  lat- 
ter profession,  who  really  siiould  know  a  great  deal 
better.  The  remarks  made  publicly  on  the  question 
of  trustee  companies  displayed  considerable  ignorance; 
but  as  the  companies  have  to  some  extent  interfered 
with  a  portion  of  the  business  of  the  legal  fraternity— 
especially  that  of  a  particular  section — some  allow- 
ance must  be  made.  It  was  asserted,  among  other 
things,  in  the  discussion  which  raged  round  the  innocent 
Trustees  Companies  Amending  Bill  in  the  Legislative 

Council  of  Victoria,  that  these  companies  paid  little 
heed  to  the  estates  entrusted  to  their  care,  so  long  as 
they  got  their  commission,  and,  in  fact,  existed  almost 
entirely  for  the  benefits  of  their  shareholders.  These 
assertions  are  entirely  incorrect.  The  trustee  com- 
panies supply  a  long-felt  want.  The  losses  which  have 
been  made  by  beneficiaries  through  the  frauds  of  pri- 
vate trustees,  laymen  and  lawyers  alike  (in  many  pro- 
minent cases  particularly  the  latter)  really  created  the 
want  for  public  trustee  companies,  and  they  have 
grown  up  and  are  prospering  greatly.  By  prospering 
we  do  not  mean  that  they  are  growing  fat  on  the  in- 
come they  derive  in  commissions  from  estates — far 
from  it.  We  find,  on  looking  through  the  last  ac- 
counts, that  the  average  dividend  per  annum  on  their 
paid-up  capitals  is  only  five  and  one-third  per  cent., 
and  that  the  total  dividends  had  in  1902  reached  the 
comparatively  trifling  sum  of  £15,400  per  annum.  If 
they  do  not  jjay  away  their  much-exaggerated  incomes 
in  dividends  it  must  go  into  expenses.  Yet  we  find, 
on  examining  the  position,  that  no  financial  institution 
can  conduct  its  business  as  cheaply  as  our  trustee  com- 
panies. The  following  comr^arison  shows  the  cost  of 
managing  the  funds  of  various  institutions: 

Ratio  of 

Per  cent. 

(a)  Bank  with  £7,250,463  of  funds £15    1 

(b)  Bank  with  £8,915,S^i  of  funds 137 

(c)  Bank  with  £6.968.952  of  funds 108 

(d)  Pastoral  company  with  £3,845,351  of  funds..  ..       1  12  11 

(e)  Assurance  society  with  £16.074,740  of  funds  . .       0  14    2 

(f )  Trustee  company 0    3    9 

(g)  Trustee  company 032 

Note.— Funds  of  trustee  companies  excluded  for  obvious 


The  trustee  companies  are  the  lowest  on  the  list,  the 
management   expenses  being  a   mere   trifle. 

A  company  is  entitled  to  commission  on  corpus  and 
income.  The  corpus  commission  is  chargeable  legally 
on  the  net  value  of  the  estate  as  sworn  for  probate, 
and  is  due  immediately,  but  in  the  case  of  well-managed 
companies  the  commission  on  the  corpus  is  spread  over 
a  series  of  years.  On  any  fund  up  to  £50,000  two  and 
a  half  per  cent,  is  charged  on  corpus  and  income.  If 
the  fund  be  in  hand,  therefore,  for  ten  years,  this  is 
equivalent  to  only  7s.  per  cent,  per  annum  on  the  capi- 
tal fund,  and  if  for  twenty  years  only  4s.  6d.  per  cent. 

We  think  we  have  shown,  in  these  few  remarks,  that 
the  charges  made  against  trustee  companies  are  totally 
uncalled  for.  These  companies  present  many  advan- 
tages over  the  private  individual  or  lawyer.  First  and 
foremost,  their  expert  knowledge  limits  the  expenses 
incurred  legally  and  otherwise  in  the  conduct  of  an 
estate;  secondly,  their  charges  are  low,  and  do  not  add 
up  like  a  lawyer's  bill;  and,  thirdly,  when  they  make 
mistakes,  they  cannot  get  out  of  the  way  of  the  con- 
sequences, and  every  beneficiary  who  loses  thereby  may 
obtain  reparation.  How  different  from  the  private  in- 
dividual, who  packs  his  bag  simply  and  leaves  for  Fiji! 
It  is  to  be  trusted  that  legislation  furthering  the  inte- 
rests of  trustee  companies  will  ic  introduced. 




At  4}  per  cent., 

In  Sums  of   £500  to   £15,000  on  Town  Properties, 

And    £2,000  to    £25,000  on  Broad  Acres, 


With  option  of  paying  off  part  Half-yearly. 

Loans  from  £60  to  £2,000  at  4i  per  cent.,  for  31i  years. 

GEO.  E.  EMERY,  Inspector-General. 
29  Market  Street,  Melbourne. 

Insurance  News  and  Notes. 

"  Life  assurance  without  medical  examination "  has 
an  attractive  sound,  but  until  late  years  appeared  im- 
practicable. We  mentioned  in  these  cofunms  some 
time  back  that  the  Sun  Life  Assurance  Society  (Eng- 
land) had  put  forth  a  bold  scheme,  doing  away  with  the 
medical  examination.  Should  death  occur  in  the  first 
year,  half  the  policy  money  'was  paid,  if  in  the  second 
year  two-thirds,  after  that  the  full  sum  was  payable. 
The  scheme  was  an  experimental  one  at  the  outset, 
but  the  management  is  now  satisfied  that  the  experi- 
ment has  been  a  complete  success.  Naturally,  pre- 
cautions are  taken  to  select  the  lives  as  far  as  can  be 
gleaned  from  the  statements  of  friends,  the  proponentrs 

Review  of  Reviews,  W/^/03. 



medical  attendant,  and  the  agent,  and,  so  far,  the  mor- 
tality has  been  no  heavier  than  under  tables  where 
the  insured  has  undergone  medical  examination.  If 
the  new  departure  were  extended  and  taken  up  by 
other  companies,  a  great  increase  in  business  might 
be  expected. 

at        it        >t 

Sydney  has  been  visited,  during  the  past  month, 
with  another  serious  fire,  entailing  a  heavy  call  on 
the  funds  of  the  insurance  companies.  It  occurred 
on  the  20th  ult.,  in  Hentzch's  Bond,  situate  in  Kent 
and  Windmill  Streets,  Miller's  Point,  and  broke  out, 
about  7  p.m.,  on  the  fifth  floor.  The  bond  was  fully 
stocked  with  assorted  merchandise  at  the  time,  and 
contained  goods  to  the  value  of  over  £100,000.  The 
buildin  was  divided  into  two  sections  by  an  iron 
partition,  which  naturally  afforded  only  a  slight  hin- 
drance to  the  flames.  Soon  after  the  arrival  of  the 
brigade  the  building  was  well  alight  from  top  to 
bottom,  and  at  9.30  p.m.  the  northern  wall  fell  out 
with  a  crash,  followed,  half  an  hour  later,  by  the 
southern  wall.  Very  little  salvage  was  effected,  and 
the  loss  was  about  an  eighty  per  cent.  one.  The 
following  were  the  insurances:  Building  and  fixtures- 
Sun,  £2,360;  South  British,  £2,360;  New  Zealand, 
£2,360;  Mercantile  Mutual,  £2,360;  Royal,  £1,180; 
Standard,  £1,180.  Total,  £11,800.  Stock— Aachen 
and  Munich,  £2,200;  Alliance,  £4,900;  Australian  Al- 
liance, £9,500;  City  Mutual,  £1,030;  Colonial  Mutual, 
-.9.450;  Commercial  Union,  £1,600;  Derwent  and  Ta- 
mar,  £1,300;  Guardian,  £3,800;  Lancashire,  £1,310; 
Yorkshire,  £150;  London,  £2.650;  Magdeburg,  £1,760; 
Manchester,  £1,000;  Mercantile  Mutual,  £200;  Na- 
tional, £4,000;  New  Zealand,  £4,275;  North  British 
and  Mercantile,  £3,300;  North  Queensland,  £3,.500; 
Northern,  £4,000;  Norwich  Union,  £7,000;  Palatine, 
£2,000;  Patriotic,  £4,075;  Phoenix,  £9,650;  Royal, 
£2,300;  Royal  Exchange,  £1,540;  Scottish  Union, 
£2,350;  South  British,  £3,500;  State,  £300;  Sun, 
£7,780;  Union,  £5,000;  United,  £5,250;  Victoria, 
£1,000.  Total,  £111,670.  The  insurance  loss  was  ren- 
dered greater  owing  to  the  effect  of  fixed  Customs 
duties.  On  some  of  the  goods  the  fixed  duty  per  ton 
would  have  been  considerably  more  than  the  value  of 
the  damaged  goods.  These,  consequently,  were  carted 
out  to  sea  and  destroyed,  amounting  in  value  to  some- 
thing like    £10,000. 

9i        Hi        9i. 

Admiral  Sir  John  Ommaney  Hopkins,  of  the  Royal 
Navy,  is  advocating  a  scheme  by  which  the  Govern- 
ment should,  on  the  outbreak  of'  war,  gratuitously  in- 
sure all  vessels  and  their  cargoes  against  war  risk5. 
He  declares  that  the  late  Admiral  Sir  George  Tryon 
approved  of  the  proposal.  We  think  it  will  be  found 
that  such  a  proposition  will  meet  with  little  favour, 
for,  in  event  of  war,  the  cost  to  the  country  might 
be  enormous,  and  the  risk  is  better  left  with  com- 
mercial concerns  such  as  the  marine  insurance  com- 

H        It        »t 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Citizens'  Life  Assurance 
Company  was  held  at  the  head  offices,  Sydney,  on  the 
12th  ult.  The  report  and  balance-sheet  for  the  year 
ending  December  31  last  discloses  a  very  satisfactory 
position,  the  addition  to  the  funds  being  £171,900,  the 
largest  yet  recorded,  and  bringing  the  total  funds  up 
to  £962,348.  At  the  date  of  the  meeting  these  had 
increased  to  over  £1,000,000  sterling,  a  fine  achieve- 
ment for  a  life  company  sixteen  years  old.  The  new 
business  completed  for  the  year  amounted  to  £1,055,100, 
and  for  five  years  in  succession  the  new  business  has 
exceeded  the  million.  The  funds  were  well  invested, 
and  returned  £4  2s.  8d.  per  cent,  interest  for  the 
year.  The  ordinary  branch  business  was  valued  on  a 
3J  per  cent,  and  a  3  per  cent,  basis.  On  the  3^  per 
cent,  basis  there  was  a  surplus  of  £62,940,  and  on  the 
3  per  cent,  basis  the  surplus  was  £36,303.  The 
directors  therefore  decided  to  divide  the  sum  of  £31,996, 
which  returned  the  following  handsome  reversionary 
bonuses  to  policyholders: 

Keep  Cool  I 

It  is  a  difficult  thing  to 
do;  but  you  can  reduce 
the  temperature  of  your 
room,  and  create  a  strong 
and  pleasant  breeze,  by 
the  use  of  our 


but  buy  one  now.  It  consists  of  motor,  8-inch 
fan,  four  special  batteries,  wire  and  requisites. 
Will  run  forty  hours  at  a  cost  of  Is.  Runs 
noiselessly  at  a  high  speed.  One  dozen  extra  zinc 
battery-rods  given  to  the  first  fifty  purchasers.  Full 
directions  with  each  fan. 

Price  £3  3s., 

which  includes  freight  to  any  railway  station  in  Vic- 
toria; 58.  extra  if  sent  to  any  other  port  in  Australia 
or  N.Z. 

We  have  a  simpler  fan,  which  gives  just  as  stronc 
a  breeze,  but  is  less  ornamental;  price  £2  2s.  We 
specially  recommend  this  cheaper  style  as  being 
thoroughly  effective.     Freight  same  as  stated  above. 

The  Cycione  Electric  Fan  Co,, 

BOX    133,    G.P.O.,    MELBOURNE. 


"MESSRS.  HALE  AND  SON'S  FIRM  has  distinguMiied  xtself 
in  the  development  of  ELECTRICAL  SCIENCE  as  a  MEDICAL 
AQkNT.  By  an  entirely  NEW  METHOD  of  application  they 
have  succeeded  in  producing  an  ELECTRIC  BODY  BELT, 
which  for  COMFORT,  EFFICACY  and  GENUINENESS  is 
unq[ue&tionably  far  superior  to  any  previous  invention.  Yet  the 
whole  appliance  is  so  compact  that  it  only  weighs  a  few  ounces. 
In  this  age  of  shams  it  is  something  to  get  an  article  that  has 
some  power  apart  from  imagination." — •'  Medical  Monthly." 

HALE'S  IftlPROVED  ELECTRIC  BELTS  have  conquered 
the  most  OBSTINATE  cases  of  NERfOUS  and  other  DISEASES 
after  all  other  remedies  have  FAILED.  OUK  SPECIAL 
HAS  NO  EQUAL.  Catalogue  and  Price  Li=t  gratis.  CON- 

HALE  &  SON,  Medical  Galvanists, 





Model"  Paper  Patterns 

1,    are  «sed   by   500,000  American   woman.      You   may    "i* 
»J«    buy  them   now   in   Australasia.       Price,    Nlnepence    '' 

each,    post   if 
JL       Catalogue  of  200  designs  sent  post  free,  on  receipt    ^« 
4.    of    Id.    stamp,    by     T.     SHAW     FITCHBTT,     167-9 





April  20,    QO^. 

To  whole-life  policies  which  were  10,  or  more  than 
10,  complete  years  in  force  on  December  31,  1902,  £1 
158.  per  cent,  of  sum  assured. 

To  whole  of  life  policies  which  were  less  than  10 
years  in  force,    £1   lOs.  per  cent,  of  sum  assured. 

To  endowment  assurances  which  were  10  or  more 
than  10  complete  years  in  force,  £1  lOs.  per  cent,  of 
the  sum  assured. 

To  endowment  assurances  whicn  were  less  than  10 
years  in  force,    £1  5s.  per  cent,  of  sum  assured. 

The  management  of  the  Citizens'  has  to  be  congratu- 
lated on   the  excellent  result  of  the   year's  work. 

The  figures  of  eleven  British  marine  insurance  com- 
panies who  have  closed  their  accounts  for  the  last 
year  show  that  a  good  profit  was  realised.  The  net 
premium  income  amounted  to  £2,981,252,  and  interest 
received  to  £215,387.  After  paying  losses  and  expenses 
there  remained  a  surplus  of  £643,581.  This  must  be 
very  gratifying  to  the  companies  concerned,  inasmuch 
as  of  late  years  the  profits  of  marine  underwriting 
have  been  very  low  indeed. 

A  fire  insurance  case  was  brought  before  the  Vic- 
torian County  Court  on  the  20th  ult.,  when  Messrs. 
Brewer  Bros.,  of  Clifton  Hill,  sued  the  Colonial  Mutual 
Fire  Company  for  £150,  the  amount  of  a  policy  taken 
out  by  them  on  a  building  undergoing  alteration.  The 
Colonial  Mutual  Company  disputed  the  claim,  on  the 
ground  that  the  insured  had  effected  an  additional  in- 
surance of  a  like  amount  with  the  Standard  Insurance 
Company,  without  notifying  tlie  defendant  company, 
and,  in  addition,  contended  that  the  plaintiffs  were 
not  entitled  to  bring  the  action  until  the  matter 
had  been  submitted  to  arbitration  for  the  assessment 
of  damages.  After  hearing  the  evidence,  the  presid- 
ing  judge    entered    a   non-suit   with    costs. 

Amongst  British  Fire  Insurance  Companies  trans- 
acting business  in  America,  the  North  British  and 
Mercantile  secured  the  largest  premium  increase  in 
1902,  from  business  in  the  United  States,  viz.,  $4,040,000. 
The  Commercial  Union  stands  next,  with  $2,855,000  to 
its  credit:  then  the  Northern  Co.,  with  $2,124,000;  Lon- 
don and  Lancashire,  $1,916,000;  London  Assurance  Cor- 
poration, $1,477,000;  Manchester,  $1,387,000:  Palatine, 
$1,276,000;  and  Royal  Exchange,  $1,002,000. 

A  disastrous  fire  is  reported  from  the  Bluff,  New  Zea- 
land, on  the  20th  ult.  One  of  the  finest  blocks  in  the 
town  was  practically  destroyed,  including  Messrs.  Hud- 


£250  "^  ^^'z^s  FOR 



The  New  Idea,' 

the  New  Woman's  Home  Journal  for  Australasia,  ** 
offers  the  above  amount  in  prizes  during  1903.  II 
You  may  campete  if  you  are  willing  to  slip  ten  Y 
leaflets  In  your  letters!  A  card  marked  "  SNOW- 
BALL COMPETITION,"  sent  to  T.  BHAW  J 
will  bring  you  full  particulars  by  return  post. 


dart,  Parker  &  Co.'s  offices.  The  damage  amounted  to 
£7,000,  of  which  some  £5,000  was  covered  by  insur- 

^         9^         ^ 

A  novel  plan  has  been  adopted  by  an  American 
agency  to  advertise  its  accident  business.  A  bulle- 
tin is  placed  in  front  of  the  building,  where  the  ac- 
cidents of  the  day  are  chronicled  for  the  benefit  of 

»l         X         >( 

The  owners  of  the  steamer  "  Michigan "  have  been 
awarded  £4,125  for  towing  the  steamer  "  Waikato " 
into  Cape  Town,  in  July  last  year,  a  distance  of  453 
miles.  The  master  of  the  Michigan "  has  been 
awarded  £450,  and  the  crew,  £925.  It  will  be  remem- 
bered that  the  "Waikato"  left  London  in  June  last  for 
New  Zealand,  via  the  Cape,  broke  her  tailshaft,  and 
was  towed  into  Cape  Town  by  the  "  Michigan." 

The  Aberdeen  liner  "  Damascus  "  went  ashore  on  the 
South  African  coast  at  the  beginning  of  the  month,  be- 
tween Durban  and  Cape  Town,  and  was  compelled  to 
jettison  a  portion  of  her  cargo.  She  was  subsequently 

K         H         »t 

A  London  cablegram  states  that  the  Court  of  Appeal 
has  ordered  the  Mutual  Reserve  Fund  Life  Association 
of  America  to  rescind  a  policy  taken  out  in  England, 
and  to  refund  the  payments  made  by  the  holder,  to- 
gether with  interest.  The  ground  on  which  the  order 
was  made  was  that  tricky  and  misleading  statements 
were  made  by  the  company  with  regard  to  periodical 
mortuary  premiums.  The  Mutual  Reserve  Fund  Life 
association  is  a  large  company,  with  a  premium  income 
of  over    £1,000,000  stg. 

>l         II         It 

Mr.  Joseph  Abbott  has,  in  consequence  of  ill-health, 
resigned  his  position  as  a  director  of  the  Australian 
Mutual  Provident  Society.  His  resignation  has  been 
accepted,  and  the  directors,  in  terms  of  the  Society's 
by-laws,  have  appointed  Mr.  James  Bums,  of  Messrs. 
Burns,  Philp  &  Co.,  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

The  "Lady's  Realm"  for  March  gives  the  place  of 
honour  to  the  Duke  and  Duchess  of  Northumberland 
at  Sion  House,  as  sketched  by  Mrs.  S.  A.  Tooley.  The 
life  of  the  Crown  Princess  of  Saxony  is  sympathetically 
sketched  by  "  Intime."  Mrs.  Arthur  Witherby  gives  a 
pleasant  idea  of  her  experiences  camping  out  on  the 
desert  in  Egypt.  Some  interesting  specimens  of  the 
art  of  Miss  Lucie  Kemp- Welch  are  given. 

In  "  Everybody's  Magazine  "  Stephen  French  Whit- 
man contributes  a  picturesque  paper  on  the  elephant- 
catchers  of  India.  Elizabeth  Robbing  Pennell  writes 
entertainingly  on  English  culinary  art  in  the  seven- 
teenth and  eighteenth  centuries.  J.  W.  Ogden  de- 
scribes the  "  River  Gamblers  of  Old  Steamboat  Days." 
Lillian  Pettengill,  a  graduate  of  Mo«nt  Holyoake  Col- 
lege, has  the  first  of  four  articles,  "  Toilers  of  the 
Home,"  describing  her  experiences  as  a  domestic  ser- 
vant. Interested  in  social  questions,  she  undertook 
to  "  look  upon  the  ups  and  downs  of  this  particular 
dog-life  from  the  dog's  end  of  the  chain."  "  The  Auto- 
biography of  a  Life  Assurance  Man  "  is  the  personal 
narrative  of  the  vice-president  of  one  of  the  largest  life 
assurance  companies.  Booker  T.  Washington  has  the 
fifth  instalment  of  his  autobiographical  paper,  "  Work 
with  the  Hands,"  describing  the  manual  work  at  Tus- 

April  20, 1903. 




Our  Story  this 
month  is  about 



Did  it  ever  occur  to  you,  who  have  perhaps  listened  with  pleasure  to  a  Baad  Com- 
petition, what  a  contest  between  the  most  famous  Bands  of  the  whole  world  would 
mean?  For  instance,  suppose  we  take  such  numbers  as— *«The  Soldiers'  Chorus"  from 
"  Faust,"  or  the  Finale  of  the  Overture  from  ''William  Tell,"  *»  The  Tannhauser  March," 
or  •«  Light  Cavalry  Overture,"  by  Suppe,  and  wonder  how  «*La  Qarde  Republicaine," 
<<  Banda  riunicipale,"  of  flilan,  '*The  Kaiser  Franz  Qarde  Grenadier"  Regiment,  "The 
Qarde  Kurassier"  Regiment,  *<The  Russian  Imperial  Court  Band,"  **5ousa'8  American 
Band,"  *«H.n.  The  Grenadier  Guards,"  or  "  H.M.  Coldstream  Guards"  would  render 
these  pieces?  If  you  appreciate  all  the  technicalities  of  combined  orchestration,  would 
not  such  a  competition  afford  one  of  the  most  interesting  musical  studies  imaginable? 

To-morrow  — this  evening,  if  you  are  really  anxious— you  can  compare  the  most 
celebrated  Bands  of  the  world  in  your  own  home.  We  have  been  to  these  countries 
and  made  the  records;  you  have  only  to  order  them. 

The  Gramophone  brings  the  world's  music  to  your  home. 



style  No.  3      £  4    0  0 

„     No.  4      5    0  0 

„      No.  5       5  10  0 

Monarch  Junior     . .     . .  6  10  0 

Monarch 10  10  0 

Double  Spring  13    0  0 

,,          Triple  Spring  14    0  0 

On  receipt  of  a  post-card  we  will  send 
you  Catalogue  and  Price  Lists, 
together  with  name  and  address  of  the 
nearest  dealer  in  Qramopliones. 

Monarch  Junior. 


£6  10s. 

Writ*  for 
Oataloffue  A." 


VICTORIA:  The  Lainbert  Depot,  3  Block  Arcade,  MelbourDe. 

TASMANIA:   Messrs.  Werthelmer,  Benjamin  &  Anderson,  71  Collins  Street,  Hobart. 
WE8TRALIA:  Messrs.  Nicholson  &.  Co.,  Perth. 

QUEENSLAND:  Messrs.  HeindorfF  Bros.,  210  Queen  Street,  Brisbane. 
SOUTH  AUSTRALIA:   Messrs.  S.  B.  Hunt  &.  Co.,  GrenfeU  Street,  Adelaide. 
NEW   SOUTH  WALES:    The  Gramophone  and  Typewriter  Co.  Ltd.,  Head  Office 
for  Australasia,  163  Pitt  Street,  Sydney. 



April  20,  IQ03. 

The  Biggie  Farm  Library, 


A  Complete  Library  for  the  Farm,  edited  by  Jacob  Biggie,  one  of  the  greatest  American  authorities 
on  farming  in  all  its  branches.     Price  3/6  each,  post  free  any  address  in  Australasia. 

No.  1.— Biggie  Horse  Book. 

Telia  all  about  breeds,  about  feeding  and  watering,  about 
stable  and  road  management,  of  whims  and  vices,  of  har- 
ness, of  breeding,  of  colt  education,  of  shoeing.  The  chap- 
ters on  Ailments  and  Remedies  and  Doctoring  have  been 
prepared  with  special  care,  and  are  full  and  compre- 
hensive. Biggie  Horse  Book  covers  the  whole  subject  In 
a  concise,  practical,  and  interesting  manner.  The  book 
is  full  of  horse  sense.  It  contains  128  pages,  is  profusely 
and  beautifully  illustrated,  and  handsomely  bound  in  cloth. 

No.  2.— Biggie  Berry JBook. 

All  about  Berries.  A  whole  encyclopedia  of  boiled- 
down  berry  lore,  after  the  manner  of  "  Farm  Journal." 
Tells  about  varieties,  about  planting,  growing,  mulching, 
under-draining.  Irrigating,  cultivating,  picking,  and  mar- 
keting. It  gives  practical  pointers  from  the  pens  of  scores 
of  leading  berry  growers.  It  discusses  truthfully  the 
merits  and  demerits  of  all  the  leading  berries,  showing 
which  are  best  for  market  or  for  the  heme  garden.  Many 
of  the  leading  American  growers  of  the  country  tell  in  it 
what  to  do  and  what  not  to  do,  giving  infermatien  which 
has  cost  them  hundreds  of  dollars  in  praetical  experience. 
It  has  coloured  representations  of  berries,  true  to  size  and 
colour,  and  thirty-five  other  illustrations,  handsomely 
bound  In  cloth;  29  chapters,  128  pages. 

No.  3.— Biggie  Poultry  Book. 

This  is  the  most  comprehensive  and  helpful  poultry  book 
ever  gotten  out,  for  in  addition  to  the  vast  amount  of 
valuable  information  covered  in  its  seventeen  chapters, 
there  are  sixteen  beautiful  coloured  plates,  showing,  true 
to  colour  and  shape,  twenty-three  varieties  of  poultry. 
Chickens,  ducks,  turkeys,  and  geese  are  all  shown  in 
their  proper  plumage,  and  with  comb,  beak,  and  shanks 
as  true  to  nature  as  it  is  possible  to  produce.  Also 
forty-two  handsome  engravings  in  half-tone,  and  sixty- 
one  other  helpful  illustrations  of  houses,  nests,  drinking 
vessels,  etc.  The  chapters  on  the  use  of  incubators  and 
brooders,  on  the  care  of  young  chicks,  on  eggs  and  early 
brooders,  are  practical  and  instructive.  Pigeons  for  mar- 
ket are  also  treated  fully. 

No.  4.-  Biggie  Cow  Book. 

The  Biggie  Cow  Book  is  elaborately  and  beautifully 
illustrated  in  wood -engraving,  in  half-tone,  and  in  colour 

Eight  of  the  principal  breeds  are  shown  in  colours. 

No  expense  has  been  spared  on  these  portraits,  and  they 
must  certainly  gratify  and  please.  There  are  twenty-six 
chapters,  covering  the  whole  ground  of  the  dairy.  Those 
en  Ailments  and  Remedies  are  worth  the  whole  price  of 
the  boek  to  anyone  owning  even  a  sBall  dairy. 

The  villager  with  one  cow  will  find  the  work  a  great 

The  Creamery  chapter  is  up-to-date,  and  will  interest 

It  contains  144  pages  of  type  matter,  and  120  1»eautlful  il- 

No.  5.— Biggie  Swine  Book. 

A  practical,  concise  and  common-senM  b«ok,  without  any 
padding  or  humbug  about  it.  It  U  profuaely  illustrated 
with  photographs  direct  from  life  of  the  ditterent  breeds  of 
hogs,   etc. 

Much  attention  is  given  to  practices  In  the  diseases  of 
hogs,  especially  to  cholera,  to  feeding,  breeding,  butcher- 
ing, and  the  carving  of  meats  for  home  use  and  for 
market.  There  are  144  pages,  printed  on  the  best  paper, 
and  bound  in  cloth.  Some  breeders  have  thought  it  was 
not  possible  to  make  a  good  photograph  of  a  hog,  but  the 
score  or  more  of  handsome  engravings  made  directly  from 
photographs  will  go  far  to  dispel  this  illusion.  All  the 
leading  breeds  are  shown  and  briefly  discussed  in  the  text. 

No.  6.— Biggie  Health  Book. 

This  book  is  written  in  a  clear,  concise  style,  and  con- 
tains that  which  will  interest  and  instruct  in  health  mat- 
ters to  a  wonderful  degree.  It  is  not  intended  that  it 
shall  take  the  plaee  of  the  family  doctor,  but  to  enable  its 
readers  to  avoid  his  too  frequent  visits,  and  to  aid  him  in 
his  laudable  efforts  in  your  behalf.  Something  is  often 
needed  "  before  the  doctor  comes,"  and  this  little  book  will 
fill  the  place. 

There  is  not  a  bit  of  quackery  in  it;  neither  the  Judge 
nor  his  wife,  who  aided  in  the  work,  the  publishers,  nor 
anyone  else,  have  anything  in  the  medical  line  to  propa- 
gate or  sell;  they  have  no  fancies,  nor  fads,  nor  hobb^s. 
Here  is  Just  what  most  families  need;  a  plain,  common- 
sense  monitor  and  guide  to  good  health,  whose  teachings 
are  certain,  many  times,  to  do  great  good.  While  the 
Biggie  Health  Book  will  not  ensure  good  health  to  the 
family,  it  will  greatly  aid  each  member  to  know  what  the 
laws  of  health  are,  and  how  to  obey  them. 

No.  7.— Biggie  Pet  Book. 

This  book  has  been  prepared  especially  for  young  people, 
but  it  will  interest  every  lover  of  dumb  animals,  young 
or  old.  Nearly  all  the  leading  breeds  are  shown  by  en- 
gravings made  from  photographs  of  the  animals  them- 
selves, thus  showing  them  as  they  really  are.  The  list 
of  chapters  is  as  follows:  Dogs,  Varieties  of  Dogs;  Best 
Dog  for  the  Country  Home;  The  Collie  or  Sheep  Dog; 
Training  the  Collie;  Tricks  for  Dogs;  Cats;  Varieties  of 
Cats;  Diseases  of  Dogs  and  Cats;  Ponies,  Ooats,  Sheep, 
etc.;  Rabbits;  Rabbit  Hutches  and  Rabbit  Diseases; 
Guinea  Pigs;  Squirrels,  Rats,  and  Mice;  Other  Pets; 
Pigeons;  Bantams;  Canaries;  Other  Birds. 

Biggie  Pet  Book  will  make  a  delightful  holiday  gift,  one 
that  will  be  prized  by  every  recipient;  Biggie  Pet  Book 
contains  144  pages,  is  printed  on  coated  paper,  and  eon- 
tains  over  120  illustrations  prepared  expressly  for  the  text. 

No.  8.-  The  Biggie  Sheep  Book. 

The  Biggie  Sheep  Book  is  the  very  latest  volume  of 
the  Farm  Library  published.  The  first  supply  for  the 
Australasiam  market  Is  new  en  the  water,  with  a  large 
suyply  ef  the  etker  velmnes.  It  Is  undoubtedly  the 
most  coamon-s«ue,  cemieased,  aad  helpful  book  en  sheep 
yet  published.  It  Is  Wlled-dewm  praetlc*-not  Inflated 
theory.  Its  Illustrations— which  are  profuse— are  worth 
the  38.  6d.  asked  for  the  volume.  It  contalBS  144  pages, 
printed  ob  stout  white  paper,   booBd  la  cloth. 

3/6  per  Volume,  post  free  any  address  in  Australasia.    The  Complete  Set  of  8  posted  for  24/- 

Send  Monoy  Order,  Postal  Notes  or  Cheque,  with  exchange,  to 

T.  SHAW  FITCHETT,  Representative  in  Austraiasia  for  tiie  "Farm  Journal  of 

America,"  167a  Queen  Street,  l\/ieibourne. 

[A  SUOGMTION.— Bend  a  penny  stamp  for  a  copy  of  the  "  Farm  Journal  of  Aaerioa."    It  alreadv  has  2,0M,000 

Printed  by  T  Shaw  Fitchett,  167-9  Queen  Street,  Melbourne,  for  the  Review  Printing  Company  Proprietary  Limited,  and  Published  «>/ 
T.  Shaw  Fitchett  for  the  Review  of  Reviews  Proprietary  Limited,  at  167-9  Queen  Street,  Melbourne. 

Review  of  Reviewfi,  20/4/OS. 

f  « 

$  Womants  Home  Journal  For  Aushdasiai 

1f®rtirAE0  ©tMpT^® 

Mall0d  to  any  addromm  In  Aumtralamla  for  12  months  for  31- 


In  addition  to  some  dozens  of  regular  departments,  such  as  *'  Mothers'  Page,"  *'  Talks  to 
Girls,"  "  The  Amateur  Dressmaker,''  etc.,  the  following  appear : 

metic  Extraordinary ;  A   Pound  a  Week  for  Three   People ;   How  to  Dive. 

WORK  FOR  DAINTY  FINGERS  (illustrated),  conducted  by  the  Instructress  of  the  Work- 
ing Men's  College,  Victoria. 

PRETTY  FASHIONS  FOR  WOMEN.      (Illustrated.) 
NOTED    AUSTRALASIAN  WOMEN  AT  HOME.     V.— Ethel  Turner,  Authoress. 


It  In  doubt,  sond  Throe  Penny  Stamps  for  a  sample  copy  to 

T.  SHAW  FITCHETT,  Publisher,  167-9  Queen  Street,  Melbourne, 

Pmr  mutual  mtntmmtmm*  wh«n  y*u  writ* 

to  mm  mOvrUmmr  >f«»  m«ntl«n  tiM  R«vl«w  of  Rovlowtt^ 

Review  of  ReiHeieg,  tO/^/OS.        / 

•O3T30l\ti35  S3A»r 



James  Service  &  C° 


CuO^^    or  THt      'Ofy 

RoBUR  Teas 

aA7l0  i3L  April      /^Oj\ 

Dear    Madam, 

i*""  that  I   y  "'ore    /,,    ^  "^  ^"^^'•/•.         ''  •    «Ao    ^/,_f 

^'"'  'at.  «...  c    r>  ''  ''o,-e 



If  you  have  it  in 
your  mind  to  try  'Robur' 
Tea,  why  wasle  lime  ?  If 
il  is  worth  trying  at 
all  —  and  it  is — the  sooner 
you  do  so  the  better  for 
both  of  us. 

If  your  grocer 
does  not  keep  the  Grade 
you  require,  let  us  know 
and  we  will  induce  him 
to  stock  it,  or  make  such 
other  arrangements  as 
^111  ensure  your  being 
suppl led 

Yours  truly, 

The  •*Robur'*  Tea  Company, 

',  Manager. 


For  mutual  advanta««  wh«n  you  writ*  to  an  advertiser  please  mention  the  Revie<w  o'  Revl€V**!